Birds

Generic term that applies to all types of birds.

Birds

Birds (class Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines. Collision with wind turbine blades can kill birds, though the impact of individual deaths on the greater population varies greatly based on species. Reserach is exploring mitigation such as operation limitations, siting location, and lighting selection. Bird collisions with offshore wind turbines present the additional challenge of being unable to count bodies to determine the scale of mortality. Marine energy poses some threat to diving birds colliding with tidal turbines, or birds colliding with floating wave devices during adverse weather conditions. Birds are classified in the following categories:

Photo Credit: "Birds in sunset over water" by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Total Results: 1264
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Considerations for upscaling individual effects of wind energy development towards population-level impacts on wildlife May, R., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Effects of development of wind energy and associated changes in land use on bird densities in upland areas Fernández‐Bellon, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Collision and displacement vulnerability to offshore wind energy infrastructure among marine birds of the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf Kelsey, E., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Assessing space use by pre-breeding white-tailed eagles in the context of wind-energy development in Finland Balotari-Chiebao, F., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Automated monitoring for birds in flight: Proof of concept with eagles at a wind power facility McClure, C., Marinson, L., Allison, T. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Using network analysis to identify indicator species and reduce collision fatalities at wind farms Sebastian-Gonzalez, E., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Estimating Seabird Flight Height using LiDAR Cook, A., et al. August 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Behaviour related flight speeds of Sandwich Terns and their implications for wind farm collision rate modelling and impact assessment Fijn, R., Gyimesi, A. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Wind farms affect the occurrence, abundance and population trends of small passerine birds: The case of the Dupont's lark Gomez-Catasus, J., Garza, V., Traba, J. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Fixed Point Raptor Migration Survey at the National Wind Technology Center: April 2010 Ryon, T., Brenda, B. June 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Behavioral accommodation of nesting hawks to wind turbines Watson, J., Keren, I, Davies, R. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Quantifying avian avoidance of offshore wind turbines: Current evidence and key knowledge gaps Aonghais, S., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
How many observation days are needed to reliably describe bird migration? Tanskanen, A., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Impact of wind farms on soaring bird populations at a migratory bottleneck Martin, B., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Movement patterns of white‐tailed sea eagles near wind turbines Krone, O., Treu, G. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Flight Response to Spatial and Temporal Correlates Informs Risk from Wind Turbines to the California Condor Poessel, S., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
The utility of point count surveys to predict wildlife interactions with wind energy facilities: An example focused on golden eagles Sur, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Resolving environmental effects of wind energy Sinclair, K., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Estimating wind turbine fatalities using integrated detection trials Smallwood, K. Shawn, et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Ecological Impact of Airborne Wind Energy Technology: Current State of Knowledge and Future Research Agenda Bruinzeel, L., et al. April 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
ORJIP Bird Collision and Avoidance Study Skov, H., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Bird Collisions at Wind Turbines in a Mountainous Area Related to Bird Movement Intensities Measured by Radar Aschwanden, J., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Wind Turbine Sensor Array for Monitoring Avian and Bat Collisions Hu, C., Albertani, R., Suryan, R. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "St. Nikola" territory and the Kaliakra region in winter 2017/2018 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, P. April 2018 Report Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Raptor Interactions with Wind Energy: Case Studies from Around the World Watson, R., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Eagle Take Minimization System Petr, R., Knag, J., Laufer, E. March 2018 Report Wind Energy general Birds, Raptors
Black Guillemot Ecology in Relation to Tidal Stream Energy Generation: An Evaluation of Current Knowledge and Information Gaps Johnston, D., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Predicting the impacts of wind farms on seabirds: An individual-based model Warwick-Evans, V., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Collision sensitive niche profile of the worst affected bird-groups at wind turbine structures in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany Bose, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Appendix L-2 WEST Bird and Bat Annual Report 2018 Gordon, C., et al. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Combining radar and direct observation to estimate pelican collision risk at a proposed wind farm on the Cape west coast, South Africa Jenkins, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Waterfowl
Finding out the Fate of Displaced Birds Searle, K., et al. February 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Impacts of onshore wind energy production on birds and bats: recommendations for future life cycle impact assessment developments Laranjeiro, T., May, R., Verones, F. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Male Greater Prairie-Chickens Adjust their Vocalizations in the Presence of Wind Turbine Noise Whalen, C., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Dodging the blades: new insights into three-dimensional space use of offshore wind farms by lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus Thaxter, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Meteorological and Environmental Variables Affect Flight Behaviour and Decision-Making of an Obligate Soaring Bird, the California Condor Gymnogyps californianus Poessel, S., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Biodiversity and Wind Farms in Portugal: Current Knowledge and Insights for an Integrated Impact Assessment Process Mascarenhas, M., et al. January 2018 Book Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
U.S. Geological Survey - Energy and Wildlife Research Annual Report for 2017 Khalil, M. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
Bird collision with power lines: estimating carcass persistence and detection associated with ground search surveys Borner, L., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Bird Detection and Species Classification with Time-Lapse Images around a Wind Farm: Dataset Construction and Evaluation Yoshihashi, R., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds
Do birds in flight respond to (ultra)violet lighting? May, R., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Birds
The Effects of Wind Power on Birds and Bats: An Updated Synthesis Report Rydell, J., et al. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
2016-2017 Status Assessment and Update on the Wind Vision Roadmap DeMeo, E. November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors
Bird migration monitoring in the Saint Nikola Wind Farm, Kaliakra region, in autumn 2017, and an analysis of potential impact after eight years of operation Zehtindjiev, P. November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
East Anglia TWO Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Responses of Two Marine Top Predators to an Offshore Wind Farm Mclean, N., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Applying citizen-science data and mark–recapture models to estimate numbers of migrant Golden Eagles in an Important Bird Area in eastern North America Dennhardt, A., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Industrial Wind Turbine Post-Construction Bird and Bat Monitoring: A Policy Framework for Canada Parisé, J., Walker, T. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Evaluation of the Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Sourced Electric Production for the Province of Sinop/Turkey Alcan, Y. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Multisensor Acoustic Tracking of Fish and Seabird Behavior Around Tidal Turbine Structures in Scotland Williamson, B., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Fish
From Agricultural Benefits to Aviation Safety: Realizing the Potential of Continent-Wide Radar Networks Bauer, S., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Birds
Using GPS Transmitters to Explore Movement Ecology and to Assess Risk of the Wind Energy Industry for Swainson's Hawks Watson, K., et al. September 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Book of Abstracts of the Xth International Symposium on Wild Fauna (ISoWiF 2017) Monzón, A., et al. September 2017 Conference Paper Birds
An Overview on Methods to Assess Bird and Bat Collision Risk in Wind Farms Rodrigues, S., Rosa, L., Mascarenhas, M. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Wind Industry in Portugal and Its Impacts on Wildlife: Special Focus on Spatial and Temporal Distribution on Bird and Bat Fatalities Marqués, J., et al. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Estimating Bird and Bat Fatality at Wind Farms: From Formula-Based Methods to Models to Assess Impact Significance Marqués, J., et al. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
Impacts of On-shore Wind Farms in Wildlife Communities: Direct Fatalities and Indirect Impacts (Behavioural and Habitat Effects) Pereira, P., Salgueiro, N., Mesquita, S. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Golden Eagle Diets in the Western United States, with Implications for Conservation Planning Kochert, M., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
No Substitute for Survival: Perturbation Analyses Using a Golden Eagle Population Model Reveal Limits to Managing for Take Tack, J., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Greater Sage-Grouse: Overview and Effects of Wind Energy Development National Wind Coordinating Collaborative September 2017 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Golden Eagles in a Changing World Collopy, M., Woodbridge, B., Brown, J. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
A Review of Options for Mitigating Take of Golden Eagles at Wind Energy Facilities Allison, T., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagle Diet Breadth and Reproduction in Relation to Fluctuations in Primary Prey Abundance in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin Preston, C., Jones, R., Horton, N. September 2017 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Spatial Demographic Models to Inform Conservation Planning of Golden Eagles in Renewable Energy Landscapes Wiens, J., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
CEDREN Final Report Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy September 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Fish
Bird Impact Analysis of a Composite Wind Turbine Blade Tejas, K., Prashanth, A. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Performance Test and Verification of an Off the Shelf Automated Avian Radar Tracking System May, R., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds
Match Between Soaring Modes of Black Kites and the Fine-Scale Distribution of Updrafts Santos, C., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
The song of Skylarks Alauda arvensis indicates the deterioration of an acoustic environment resulting from wind farm start‐up Szymanski, P., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Seabird Ecology in High-Energy Environments: Approaches to Assessing Impacts of Marine Renewables Robbins, A. July 2017 Thesis Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Feasibility Study for Meta-Analysis of Red-Throated Diver Displacement Dirksen, S., et al. July 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Comparative Studies Reveal Variability in the use of Tidal Stream Environments by Seabirds Waggitt, J., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Wing Kinematics and Flexibility for Optimal Manoeuvring and Escape Wong, J. July 2017 Thesis Birds
Do Terrestrial Animals Avoid Areas Close to Turbines in Functioning Wind Farms in Agricultural Landscapes? Łopucki, R., Klich, D., Gielarek, S. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Windy Business: Exploring a Local Wind Power Project in Germany Dennis, K. June 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Possible Behavioural, Energetic and Demographic Effects of Displacement of Red-throated Divers Dierschke, V., et al. June 2017 Report Birds, Waterfowl
Long Search Intervals Underestimate Bird and Bat Fatalities Caused by Wind Turbines Smallwood, K. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Impact of Windmills and Power Lines on Birds: A Case Study at Porbandar Taluka, Gujarat-India Suthar, A., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
A Markov Model for Planning and Permitting Offshore Wind Energy: A Case Study of Radio-Tracked Terns in the Gulf of Maine, USA Cranmer, A., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Automated bird acoustic event detection and robust species classification Zhao, Z., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Birds
Differential Recovery of Habitat Use by Birds after Wind Farm Installation: A Multi-Year Comparison Farfan, M., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Wildlife and Wind Farms - Conflicts and Solutions, Volume 2 Onshore: Monitoring and Mitigation Perrow, M. April 2017 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Wildlife and Wind Farms - Conflicts and Solutions, Volume 1 Onshore: Potential Effects Perrow, M. April 2017 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ecosystem, Terrestrial Mammals
Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Selection, Survival, and Wind Energy Infrastructure LeBeau, C., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Visualising the Aspect-Dependent Radar Cross Section of Seabirds over a Tidal Energy Test Site Using a Commercial Marine Radar System McCann, D., Bell, P. April 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Golden Eagle Fatalities and the Continental-Scale Consequences of Local Wind-Energy Generation Katzner, T., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Towards a Framework for Quantifying the Population-Level Consequences of Anthropogenic Pressures on the Environment: The Case of Seabirds and Windfarms Cook, A., Robinson, R. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "St. Nikola" territory and the Kaliakra region in winter 2016/2017 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, P. April 2017 Report Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Impact on seabirds of new offshore wind energy test and demonstration projects in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP, N. Spain) Bald, J., et al. March 2017 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Climate Change, Wind Energy, and Conservation: A Survey of Conflicting Issues Bauman, D. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Distribution, Nesting Activities, and Age-Class of Territorial Pairs of Golden Eagles at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California, 2014-16 Kolar, P., Wiens, J. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Review of Methods and Techniques for Field Validation of Collision Rates and Avoidance Amongst Birds and Bats at Offshore Wind Turbines Dirksen, S. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Verreauxs' Eagle and Wind Farms: Guidelines for Impact Assessment, Monitoring, and Mitigation BirdLife South Africa March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Comparing Bird And Bat Data For New Wind Power Generation Smallwood, S., Neher, L. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Pentland Firth Meygen AR1500 Multi-beam Echosounder Data: SGDS Project February 2017 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Bird Mortality in Two Dutch Wind Farms: Effects of Location, Spatial Design and Interactions with Powerlines Brenninkmeijer, A., Klop, E. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
A Large-Scale, Multispecies Assessment of Avian Mortality Rates at Land-Based Wind Turbines in Northern Germany Grunkorn, T., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds in Germany - Examples of Current Knowledge, New Insights and Remaining Gaps Reichenbach, M. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Birds
Red Kites and Wind Farms - Telemetry Data from the Core Breeding Range Hötker, H., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Wind Farms in Areas of High Ornithological Value - Conflicts, Solutions, Challenges: The Case of Thrace, Greece Kafetzis, A., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors

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