Birds

Generic term that applies to all types of birds.

Birds

Birds (class Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines. Collision with wind turbine blades can kill birds, though the impact of individual deaths on the greater population varies greatly based on species. Reserach is exploring mitigation such as operation limitations, siting location, and lighting selection. Bird collisions with offshore wind turbines present the additional challenge of being unable to count bodies to determine the scale of mortality. Marine energy poses some threat to diving birds colliding with tidal turbines, or birds colliding with floating wave devices during adverse weather conditions. Birds are classified in the following categories:

Photo Credit: "Birds in sunset over water" by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Total Results: 1200
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Automated monitoring for birds in flight: Proof of concept with eagles at a wind power facility McClure, C., Marinson, L., Allison, T. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Behaviour related flight speeds of Sandwich Terns and their implications for wind farm collision rate modelling and impact assessment Fijn, R., Gyimesi, A. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Flight Response to Spatial and Temporal Correlates Informs Risk from Wind Turbines to the California Condor Poessel, S., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
The utility of point count surveys to predict wildlife interactions with wind energy facilities: An example focused on golden eagles Sur, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Resolving environmental effects of wind energy Sinclair, K., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Wind Turbine Sensor Array for Monitoring Avian and Bat Collisions Hu, C., Albertani, R., Suryan, R. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
ORJIP Bird Collision and Avoidance Study Skov, H., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Bird Collisions at Wind Turbines in a Mountainous Area Related to Bird Movement Intensities Measured by Radar Aschwanden, J., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Raptor Interactions with Wind Energy: Case Studies from Around the World Watson, R., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Black Guillemot Ecology in Relation to Tidal Stream Energy Generation: An Evaluation of Current Knowledge and Information Gaps Johnston, D., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Collision sensitive niche profile of the worst affected bird-groups at wind turbine structures in the Federal State of Brandenburg, Germany Bose, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Impacts of onshore wind energy production on birds and bats: recommendations for future life cycle impact assessment developments Laranjeiro, T., May, R., Verones, F. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Male Greater Prairie-Chickens Adjust their Vocalizations in the Presence of Wind Turbine Noise Whalen, C., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Dodging the blades: new insights into three-dimensional space use of offshore wind farms by lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus Thaxter, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Biodiversity and Wind Farms in Portugal: Current Knowledge and Insights for an Integrated Impact Assessment Process Mascarenhas, M., et al. January 2018 Book Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Meteorological and Environmental Variables Affect Flight Behaviour and Decision-Making of an Obligate Soaring Bird, the California Condor Gymnogyps californianus Poessel, S., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
U.S. Geological Survey - Energy and Wildlife Research Annual Report for 2017 Khalil, M. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Fish, Terrestrial Mammals
Bird collision with power lines: estimating carcass persistence and detection associated with ground search surveys Borner, L., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Do birds in flight respond to (ultra)violet lighting? May, R., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Birds
The Effects of Wind Power on Birds and Bats: An Updated Synthesis Report Rydell, J., et al. December 2017 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
2016-2017 Status Assessment and Update on the Wind Vision Roadmap DeMeo, E. November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors
Applying citizen-science data and mark–recapture models to estimate numbers of migrant Golden Eagles in an Important Bird Area in eastern North America Dennhardt, A., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
East Anglia TWO Offshore Windfarm Scoping Report ScottishPower Renewables UK Ltd November 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Responses of Two Marine Top Predators to an Offshore Wind Farm Mclean, N., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
A Bridge Between Oceans: Overland Migration of Marine Birds in a Wind Energy Corridor Lamb, J., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Seabirds
From Agricultural Benefits to Aviation Safety: Realizing the Potential of Continent-Wide Radar Networks Bauer, S., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Birds
Evaluation of the Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Sourced Electric Production for the Province of Sinop/Turkey Alcan, Y. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Industrial Wind Turbine Post-Construction Bird and Bat Monitoring: A Policy Framework for Canada Parisé, J., Walker, T. October 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Using GPS Transmitters to Explore Movement Ecology and to Assess Risk of the Wind Energy Industry for Swainson's Hawks Watson, K., et al. September 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Book of Abstracts of the Xth International Symposium on Wild Fauna (ISoWiF 2017) Monzón, A., et al. September 2017 Conference Paper Birds
Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Golden Eagle Diets in the Western United States, with Implications for Conservation Planning Kochert, M., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
CEDREN Final Report Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy September 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Fish
Spatial Demographic Models to Inform Conservation Planning of Golden Eagles in Renewable Energy Landscapes Wiens, J., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
No Substitute for Survival: Perturbation Analyses Using a Golden Eagle Population Model Reveal Limits to Managing for Take Tack, J., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagles in a Changing World Collopy, M., Woodbridge, B., Brown, J. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
A Review of Options for Mitigating Take of Golden Eagles at Wind Energy Facilities Allison, T., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagle Diet Breadth and Reproduction in Relation to Fluctuations in Primary Prey Abundance in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin Preston, C., Jones, R., Horton, N. September 2017 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Bird Detection and Species Classification with Time-Lapse Images around a Wind Farm: Dataset Construction and Evaluation Yoshihashi, R., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds
Predicting the impacts of wind farms on seabirds: An individual- based model Warwick-Evans, V., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Performance Test and Verification of an Off the Shelf Automated Avian Radar Tracking System May, R., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds
Bird Impact Analysis of a Composite Wind Turbine Blade Tejas, K., Prashanth, A. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Match Between Soaring Modes of Black Kites and the Fine-Scale Distribution of Updrafts Santos, C., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Wing Kinematics and Flexibility for Optimal Manoeuvring and Escape Wong, J. July 2017 Thesis Birds
Seabird Ecology in High-Energy Environments: Approaches to Assessing Impacts of Marine Renewables Robbins, A. July 2017 Thesis Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Feasibility Study for Meta-Analysis of Red-Throated Diver Displacement Dirksen, S., et al. July 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Comparative Studies Reveal Variability in the use of Tidal Stream Environments by Seabirds Waggitt, J., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Windy Business: Exploring a Local Wind Power Project in Germany Dennis, K. June 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Possible Behavioural, Energetic and Demographic Effects of Displacement of Red-throated Divers Dierschke, V., et al. June 2017 Report Birds, Waterfowl
Long Search Intervals Underestimate Bird and Bat Fatalities Caused by Wind Turbines Smallwood, K. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Impact of Windmills and Power Lines on Birds: A Case Study at Porbandar Taluka, Gujarat-India Suthar, A., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
A Markov Model for Planning and Permitting Offshore Wind Energy: A Case Study of Radio-Tracked Terns in the Gulf of Maine, USA Cranmer, A., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Automated bird acoustic event detection and robust species classification Zhao, Z., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Birds
Differential Recovery of Habitat Use by Birds after Wind Farm Installation: A Multi-Year Comparison Farfan, M., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Wildlife and Wind Farms - Conflicts and Solutions, Volume 1 Onshore: Potential Effects Perrow, M. April 2017 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ecosystem, Terrestrial Mammals
Wildlife and Wind Farms - Conflicts and Solutions, Volume 2 Onshore: Monitoring and Mitigation Perrow, M. April 2017 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Selection, Survival, and Wind Energy Infrastructure LeBeau, C., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Visualising the Aspect-Dependent Radar Cross Section of Seabirds over a Tidal Energy Test Site Using a Commercial Marine Radar System McCann, D., Bell, P. April 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Golden Eagle Fatalities and the Continental-Scale Consequences of Local Wind-Energy Generation Katzner, T., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Towards a Framework for Quantifying the Population-Level Consequences of Anthropogenic Pressures on the Environment: The Case of Seabirds and Windfarms Cook, A., Robinson, R. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Impact on seabirds of new offshore wind energy test and demonstration projects in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP, N. Spain) Bald, J., et al. March 2017 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Climate Change, Wind Energy, and Conservation: A Survey of Conflicting Issues Bauman, D. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Distribution, Nesting Activities, and Age-Class of Territorial Pairs of Golden Eagles at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California, 2014-16 Kolar, P., Wiens, J. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Review of Methods and Techniques for Field Validation of Collision Rates and Avoidance Amongst Birds and Bats at Offshore Wind Turbines Dirksen, S. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Comparing Bird And Bat Data For New Wind Power Generation Smallwood, S., Neher, L. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Verreauxs' Eagle and Wind Farms: Guidelines for Impact Assessment, Monitoring, and Mitigation BirdLife South Africa March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Unforeseen Responses of a Breeding Seabird to the Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Harwood, A., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Introducing a New Avian Sensitivity Mapping Tool to Support the Siting of Wind Farms and Power Lines in the Middle East and Northeast Africa Allinson, T. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
A Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects (FAECE) of Offshore Wind Farms on Birds, Bats and Marine Mammals in the Southern North Sea Platteeuw, M., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
The Challenges of Addressing Wildlife Impacts When Repowering Wind Energy Projects Smallwood, K. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Bird Mortality in Two Dutch Wind Farms: Effects of Location, Spatial Design and Interactions with Powerlines Brenninkmeijer, A., Klop, E. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
A Large-Scale, Multispecies Assessment of Avian Mortality Rates at Land-Based Wind Turbines in Northern Germany Grunkorn, T., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Wind Turbines and Birds in Germany - Examples of Current Knowledge, New Insights and Remaining Gaps Reichenbach, M. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Birds
Red Kites and Wind Farms - Telemetry Data from the Core Breeding Range Hötker, H., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Wind Farms in Areas of High Ornithological Value - Conflicts, Solutions, Challenges: The Case of Thrace, Greece Kafetzis, A., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Radar Assisted Shutdown on Demand Ensures Zero Soaring Bird Mortality at a Wind Farm Located in a Migratory Flyway Tomé, R., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
A Method to Assess the Population-Level Consequences of Wind Energy Facilities on Bird and Bat Species Diffendorfer, J., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
A Spatial Explicit Agent Based Model Approach to Evaluate the Performance of Different Monitoring Options for Mortality Estimates in the Scope of Onshore Windfarm Impact Assessments Santos, M., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Multisensor Acoustic Tracking of Fish and Seabird Behavior Around Tidal Turbine Structures in Scotland Williamson, B., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Fish
Analysis of the Possible Displacement of Bird and Marine Mammal Species Related to the Installation and Operation of Marine Energy Conversion Systems Long, C. January 2017 Report Marine Energy general Static Device Birds, Marine Mammals
No Evidence for Displacement of Wintering Red-breasted Geese Branta ruficollis (Pallas, 1769) (Anseriformes) at a Wind Farms Area in Northeast Bulgaria: Long-term Monitoring Results Zahtindjiev, P., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Comparing Pre- Versus Postoperational Movement of Nocturnal Migrants around a Wind Energy Facility in Northeast British Columbia, Canada d'Entremont, M., Hartley, I., Otter, K. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Wind Energy’s Impacts on Birds in South Africa: A Preliminary Review of the Results of Operational Monitoring at the First Wind Farms of the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme in South Africa Ralston-Paton, S., et al. January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Determining Fine-Scale Use and Movement Patterns of Diving Bird Species in Federal Waters of the Mid-Atlantic United States Using Satellite Telemetry Spiegel, C., et al. January 2017 Report Birds, Seabirds
Status of herpatofaunal diversity of Ramagiri east and west reserve forests of Ananthapuramu district, Andhra Pradesh Subramanyam, B., Khan, I., Kumari, K. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Possible Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on Seabirds: A Pilot Study in Northern Gannets in the Southern North Sea Garthe, S., Markones, N., Corman, A. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Tafila Region Wind Power Projects: Cumulative Effects Assessment International Finance Corporation January 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Farfield Environment
DTBird System Pilot Installation in Sweden. Possibilities for Bird Monitoring Systems around Wind Farms. Experiences from Sweden's First DTBird Installation Litsgård, F., et al. December 2016 Report Wind Energy general Birds
Lack of Sound Science in Assessing Wind Farm Impacts on Seabirds Green, R., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Quantifying Pursuit-Diving Seabirds' Associations with Fine-Scale Physical Features in Tidal Stream Environments Waggitt, J., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Renewable Energy and Wildlife Conservation Khalil, M. December 2016 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
Bird Migration Intensity and Number of Collision Victims at the Wind Power Plant Le Peuchapatte (Switzerland) Aschwanden, J., Liechti, F. November 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Collision and Displacement Vulnerability Among Marine Birds of the California Current System Associated with Offshore Wind Energy Infrastructure Adams, J., et al. October 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Seabirds and Offshore Wind Farms in European Waters: Avoidance and Attraction Dierschke, V., Furness, R., Garthe, S. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Using multi-label classification for acoustic pattern detection and assisting bird species surveys Zhang, L., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Birds
Incorporating Data Uncertainty when Estimating Potential Vulnerability of Scottish Seabirds to Marine Renewable Energy Developments Wade, H., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general Birds, Seabirds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
A Synchronized Sensor Array for Remote Monitoring of Avian and Bat Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities Suryan, R., Albertani, R., Polagye, B. July 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands Costa, B., Kendall, M. July 2016 Report Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Negative Impact of Wind Energy Development on a Breeding Shorebird Assessed with a BACI Study Design Sansom, A., Pearce-Higgins, J., Douglas, D. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Prognosis and Assessment of Bird Collision Risks at Wind Turbines in Northern Germany PROGRESS Grunkorn, T., et al. July 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Predictable Hydrodynamic Conditions Explain Temporal Variations in the Density of Benthic Foraging Seabirds in a Tidal Stream Environment Waggitt, J., et al. July 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds

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