Legal & Policy

How governing bodies plan for and regulate renewable energy projects through policy and legal frameworks.

Legal

 

There are several local and federal agencies that must approve the various components of a land-based wind, offshore wind, or marine renewable energy project throughout the permitting process. A baseline environmental assessment is typically required to identify potential environmental concerns, including the presence of threatened or endangered species. Depending on the concerns identified during this assessment, monitoring and mitigation efforts may be required during facility construction, operation, and decommissioning.

 

Policy

 

An in-depth understanding of the potential environmental impacts of a land-based wind, offshore wind, or marine renewable energy project is extremely important in determining the governing policies surrounding the assessment and approval of the project. The level of risk of a project presents is typically determined by considering both the known consequences of a project’s development and the uncertainty around its potential impacts. Various local, state, and federal policies have been developed to support the growth of the wind and marine renewable energy industries in a sustainable manner.

 

Total Results: 155
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
An Offshore Renewable Energy Environmental Research & Innovation Strategy for the UK Natural Environment Research Council December 2019 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Future policy implications of tidal energy array interactions Waldman, S., et al. October 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Hidden outlaws in the forest? A legal and spatial analysis of onshore wind energy in Germany Bunzel, K., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
The memory of place disruption, senses, and local opposition to Korean wind farms Kim, E., Chung, J. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Development of cumulative impact assessment guidelines for offshore wind farms and evaluation of use in project making Durning, B., Broderick, M. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Decision framework for ocean thermal energy plant site selection from a sustainability perspective: The case of China Zhang, J., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), OTEC Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
The post-normal politics and science of wind power planning: Evidence from a Danish near-shore wind farm tender Johansen, K., Upham, P. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Europe, China and the United States: Three different approaches to the development of offshore wind energy deCastro, M., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Global environmental regulation of offshore energy production: Searching for legal standards in ocean governance Giannopoulos, N. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Refusal of planning consent for the Docking Shoal offshore wind farm: Stakeholder perspectives and lessons learned Broadbent, I., Nixon, C. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
From strategic marine planning to project licences – Striking a balance between predictability and adaptability in the management of aquaculture and offshore wind farms Schütz, S., Slater, A. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
The integrated offshore grid in Europe: Exploring challenges for regional energy governance Dedecca, J., Hakvoort, R., Herder, P. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Sustainably reconciling offshore renewable energy with Natura 2000 sites: An interim adaptive management framework Le Lièvre, C. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Why does the offshore wind industry need standardized HSE management systems? An evidence from Denmark Ahsan, D., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Who influences windpower licensing decisions in Norway? Formal requirements and informal practices Inderberg, T., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Current Policy and Technology for Tidal Current Energy in Korea Ko, D., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Love me, love me not: Perceptions on the links between the energy sector and biodiversity conservation Moreira, F. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
The influence of maritime spatial planning on the development of marine renewable energies in Portugal and Spain: Legal challenges and opportunities Salvador, S., Gimeno, L., Larruga, F. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Renewable energy from the high seas: Geo-spatial modelling of resource potential and legal implications for developing offshore wind projects beyond the national jurisdiction of coastal States Elsner, P., Suarez, S. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Current status of wind energy policy in Poland Gnatowska, R., Moryn-Kucharczyk, E. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
The economic geography of variable renewable energy and impacts of trade formulations for renewable mandates Bistline, J., Santen, N., Young, D. May 2019 Journal Article Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Benthic Conservation Features and Species Associated With Subsea Pipelines: Considerations for Decommissioning Rouse, S., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Lost in Bias? Multifaceted Discourses Framing the Communication of Wind and Wildlife Research Results: The PROGRESS Case Weber, J., Biehl, J., Köppel, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind Legal & Policy
The Role of Adaptive Management in the Wind Energy Industry Copping, A., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Marine Renewable Energy Clustering in the Mediterranean Sea: The Case of PELAGOS Project Soukissian, T., Adamopoulos, C., Prospathopoulos, A. February 2019 Journal Article Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
The current state of marine renewable energy policy in China Yang, X., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Increased integration between innovative ocean energy and the EU habitats, species and water protection rules through Maritime Spatial Planning van Hees, S. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, Salinity Gradient, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Challenges and Opportunities for Ecosystem-Based Management and Marine Spatial Planning in the Irish Sea O'Higgins, T., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
The Role of the Law of the Sea in Marine Spatial Planning Pyć, D. January 2019 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Politics and Power in Marine Spatial Planning Flannery, W., Clarke, J., McAteer, B. January 2019 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
A procedure for deriving wind turbine noise limits by taking into account annoyance Fredianelli, L., Carpita, S., Licitra, G. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Marine Protected Areas: Attempting the Sustainability of the Seas Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D. January 2019 Book Chapter Legal & Policy
The politics of Estonia's offshore wind energy programme: Discourse, power and marine spatial planning Tafon, R., Howarth, D., Griggs, S. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Marine Renewable Energy Law and Policy in the Bay of Fundy: The Impact of Ambiguous Domestic Boundaries in Canada on Nova Scotia's Regulatory Framework Salcedo, E. January 2019 Journal Article Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
From ocean sprawl to blue-green infrastructure – A UK perspective on an issue of global significance Evans, A., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
World Seas: An Environmental Evaluation Volume III: Ecological Issues and Environmental Impacts Sheppard, C. January 2019 Book Noise Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Fisheries, Legal & Policy
Resolving Conflicts Between Endangered Species Conservation and Renewable Energy Siting: Wiggle Room for Renewables? Badichek, G. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Legal & Policy
The determinants of wind energy growth in the United States: Drivers and barriers to state-level development Schumacher, K., Yang, Z. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Perspectives on a way forward for ocean renewable energy in Australia Hemer, M., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Ecological best practice in decommissioning: a review of scientific research Fortune, I., Paterson, D. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Spatial targeting, synergies and scale: Exploring the criteria of smart practices for siting renewable energy projects Frantal, B., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Ensuring Co-benefits for Biodiversity, Climate Change and Sustainable Development Smith, R., et al. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Biodiversity Issues Should Be Better Taken into Account in the Energy Transition Hallosserie, A., et al. August 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
The legislative regime for environment assessment and approval of offshore wind energy developments in England and Wales Wawryk, A. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy
Lessons learned in marine governance: Case studies of marine spatial planning practice in the U.S. Smythe, T., McCann, J. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
An Overview of Offshore Wind Energy Resources in Europe Under Present and Future Climate deCastro, M., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Legal & Policy
Fragmented authorities, institutional misalignments, and challenges to renewable energy transition: A case study of wind power curtailment in China Cai, Y., Aoyama, Y. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Wind power gone bad: Critiquing wind power planning processes in northeastern Brazil Gorayeb, A., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Governance challenges of marine renewable energy developments in the U.S. - Creating the enabling conditions for successful project development Lange, M., Page, G., Cummins, V. April 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Obligations and aspirations: A critical evaluation of offshore wind farm cumulative impact assessments Willsteed, E., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal & Policy
Ocean Energy: Governance Challenges for Wave and Tidal Stream Technologies Wright, G., Kerr, S., Johnson, K. January 2018 Book Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
The mechanics of blue growth: Management of oceanic natural resource use with multiple, interacting sectors Klinger, D., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Consenting ocean energy projects: issues, challenges and opportunities O'Hagen, A., Wright, G. January 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Ensuring the sustainable development of ocean energy technologies through environmental assessment laws and policies Wright, G., Willsteed, E., O'Hagan, A. January 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
From Scotland to New Scotland: Constructing a Sectoral Marine Plan for Tidal Energy for Nova Scotia Sangiuliano, S., Mastrantonis, S. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Legal & Policy
Co-production in distributed generation: renewable energy and creating space for fitting infrastructure within landscapes Wolsink, M. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Visual Impacts, Legal & Policy
Legal System for the Development of Marine Renewable Energy in China Chang, Y., Wang, N. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Community benefits from offshore renewables: The relationship between different understandings of impact, community, and benefit Rudolph, D., Haggett, C., Aitken, M. March 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Improving Efficiencies of National Environmental Policy Act Documentation for Offshore Wind Facilities - Case Studies Report English, P., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Pacific Region Marine Renewables Environmental Regulatory Workshop Report Copping, A., et al. March 2017 Workshop Article Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Non-Financial and Non-Technical Barriers to the Development of the Ocean Energy Sector in Ireland Marine Renewables Industry Association February 2017 Report Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Assessing Environmental Effects (WREN): Adaptive Management White Paper Hanna, L., et al. December 2016 Report Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Marine wind energy and the North Sea Offshore Grid Initiative: A Multi-Level Perspective on a stalled technology transition? Flynn, B. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Achieving Blue Growth through Maritime Spatial Planning: Offshore Wind Energy Optimization and Biodiversity Conservation in Spain Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Funding and Financial Supports for Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia MacDougall, S. September 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Landscape design: Integrating ecological, social, and economic considerations into conservation planning Bartuszevige, A., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Media and policy in a complex adaptive system: Insights from wind energy legislation in the United States Smith, H., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Social & Economic Data
A Quality Management Review of Scotland's Sectoral Marine Plan for Tidal Energy Sangiuliano, S. August 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Consenting Processes for Ocean Energy Updated on Barriers and Recommendations O'Hagan, A. July 2016 Report Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
A Review of the Environmental Impacts for Marine and Hydrokinetic Projects to Inform Regulatory Permitting: Summary Findings from the 2015 Workshop on Marine and Hydrokinetic Technologies, Washington, D.C. Baring-Gould, E., et al. July 2016 Report Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Wave energy in Europe: Views on experiences and progress to date O'Hagan, A., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Widespread Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies in the UK Gove, B., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
The Governance of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea for Energy Production and Aquaculture: Challenges for Policy Makers in European Seas Stuiver, M., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Regulating wave and tidal energy: An industry perspective on the Scottish marine governance framework Wright, G. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Assessing the Impact of Small-Scale Wind Energy Proposals on the Natural Heritage Scottish Natural Heritage March 2016 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
The Environment Effects of Ocean Energy Development & Its Management Countermeasures in China Ling, O. February 2016 Presentation Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Funding the Development of the Ocean Energy Industry in Ireland Marine Renewables Industry Association February 2016 Report Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Fulfilling EU Laws to Ensure Marine Mammal Protection During Marine Renewable Construction Operations in Scotland Dolman, S., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General) Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Renewables, Shipping, and Protected Species: A Vanishing Opportunity for Effective Marine Spatial Planning? Petruny, L., Wright, A., Smith, C. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy (General) Noise Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Navigation
Learning from Early Commercial Tidal Energy Projects in the Puget Sound, Washington and the Pentland Firth, Scotland McMillin, N. January 2016 Thesis Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Establishing a legal research agenda for ocean energy Wright, G., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
A strategic policy framework for promoting the marine energy sector in Spain Vazquez, S., Astariz, S., Iglesias, G. December 2015 Journal Article Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Challenges in Implementing Sustainable Marine Spatial Planning: The New Portuguese Legal Framework Case Santos, C., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Wales' Marine Evidence Report Welsh Government October 2015 Report Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Legal & Policy, Social & Economic Data
Renewables-to-reefs: Participatory multicriteria decision analysis is required to optimize wind farm decommissioning Fowler, A., Macreadie, P., Booth, D. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Enabling Siting and Permitting of Marine Energy Devices, in Conjunction with Engineering Design and Deployment Strategies Copping, A., Geerlofs, S., Hanna, L. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Improving knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers to facilitate the adaptive governance of marine resources: A review of knowledge and research needs Cvitanovic, C., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Advancing the Environmentally Responsible Development of Offshore Wind Energy in New York State: A Regulatory Review and Stakeholder Perceptions New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) June 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Regulatory Introduction: Roles and Responsibilities within the Permitting Process West, A. May 2015 Presentation Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Handling the 'environmental knowledge paradox' in estuarine and coastal policy making de Jonge, V., Giebels, D. May 2015 Journal Article Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Value Proposition for Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia, Atlantic Canada and Canada Gardner, M., et al. April 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Review of Consenting Processes for Ocean Energy in Selected European Union Member States Simas, T., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Scotland's National Marine Plan - A Single Framework for Managing Our Seas Marine Scotland March 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Marine governance in an industrialised ocean: A case study of the emerging marine renewable energy industry Wright, G. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Consenting Processes for Ocean Energy on OES Member Countries WavEC Offshore Renewables February 2015 Report Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Marine Renewable Energy - The Essential Legal Considerations Chang, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
2015 Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan: Volume 2 - Baseline Assessment and Science Framework Commonwealth of Massachusetts January 2015 Report Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
2015 Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan: Volume 1 - Management and Administration Commonwealth of Massachusetts January 2015 Report Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Understanding and Informing Permitting Decisions for Tidal Energy Development Using an Adaptive Management Framework Jansujwicz, J., Johnson, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Consenting Guidance for Developers at the EMEC Fall of Warness Test Site European Marine Energy Centre January 2015 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy

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