Ecosystem processes are the physical, chemical, and biological processes that link organisms and their environment. These may include biogeochemical/nutrient cycling, energy flow, and food web dynamics. An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a system. It can be broken down further into categories such as an aquatic ecosystem which involves a body of water, or even further to marine ecosystem or freshwater ecosystem.
Organisms feed off one another in a balanced food chain, but small changes to the seascape may significantly impact the existing balance. By just impacting one population, the effects may propagate to all other species in the area, potentially leading to overpopulation, decimation, habitat changes, changes in the nutrient cycle, energy flow, resource availability, etc. As offshore wind and marine renewable energy devices enter the water, any stressor could alter the flow of energy or physical environment enough to upset the balance of the ecosystem. However, the particular concerns are changes in flow and impacts on water quality.
Photo Credit: NOAA