- Marine Energy: The generation of renewable energy from tides, waves, currents, salinity, and temperature gradients in the oceans, seas, and rivers.
- Ocean Current Energy: Capturing energy from ocean currents.
- Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Capturing energy using temperature gradients across water depths.
- Riverine Energy: Capturing energy from river currents.
- Salinity Gradient Energy: Capturing energy from salinity gradients where freshwater meets seawater.
- Tidal Energy: Capturing energy from tidal fluctuations.
- Wave Energy: Capturing energy from waves.
- Wind Energy: The generation of renewable energy from the wind, either land-based or offshore.
Stressors & Interactions
- Attraction: Increased presence of organisms to a device.
- Avoidance: Temporary or permanent voluntary absence of organisms from the area surrounding a device.
- Changes in Flow: A device impeding or altering the flow of water or air.
- Collision: Direct contact between an animal and a device component.
- Displacement: Potential for the loss of habitat due to disturbance or barrier effects.
- Electromagnetic Fields: Physical fields generated by electrically charged objects.
- Entanglement: Marine organisms becoming entangled by mooring lines, anchors, or cables.
- Habitat Change: Changes to the physical habitat around the device.
- Lighting: Artificial lighting added to devices for navigational safety.
- Noise: Sound generated during the construction or operation of a device.
- Bats: Mammals with webbed wings capable of true flight.
- Birds: A broad term that applies to all species of birds.
- Ground-Nesting Birds: Birds that nest and reside mostly on the ground.
- Passerines: The most common type of birds, known for perching.
- Raptors: Birds of prey that hunt and feed on large vertebrates compared to their size.
- Seabirds: Birds that have adapted to life within the marine environment.
- Shorebirds: Birds commonly found along shorelines, mudflats, and shallow water.
- Waterfowl: Birds with webbed feet for aquatic environments.
- Ecosystem Processes: The physical, chemical, and biological processes that link organisms and their environment.
- Fish: Migratory fish passing through the area and resident fish living near a device.
- Invertebrates: A broad term that encompasses both marine and terrestrial animals lacking a backbone.
- Marine Mammals: A broad term that encompasses cetaceans, pinnipeds, and others.
- Physical Environment: The area surrounding a device.
- Reptiles: A broad term that encompasses turtles, snakes, lizards, and others.
- Terrestrial Mammals: A broad term that encompasses carnivores (wolves, bears) and ungulates (deer, moose).
- Human Dimensions: Potential impacts on local communities, societies, and economies.
- Climate Change: Effects of renewable energy on the reduction of negative environmental outcomes caused by anthropogenic activities.
- Environmental Impact Assessment: Process of examining the anticipated environmental effects of a proposed project.
- Environmental Justice: The fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies.
- Fisheries: Commercial fishing is an established industry and a key stakeholder in the marine environment.
- Legal & Policy: How governing bodies plan for and regulate renewable energy projects through policy and legal frameworks.
- Life Cycle Assessment: Environmental assessment of all stages of a project’s life.
- Marine Spatial Planning: Tool to plan, manage, and engage stakeholders of the many uses of marine resources.
- Navigation: The movement of vessels and aircrafts in proximity to a device.
- Recreation & Tourism: Activities done for enjoyment and/or during travels.
- Social & Economic Data: Data that has been collected for the purpose of identifying social and economic impacts.
- Stakeholder Engagement: Involvement of individuals, organizations, and companies with an interest in a project.
- Visual Impacts: Visual appeal of existing landscape or seascape.
AIS: Automatic Identification System
BOEM: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management
DOE: United States Department of Energy
EIA: Environmental Impact Assessment
EIS: Environmental Impact Statement
EMF: Electromagnetic Field
ERES: Environmental Risk Evaluation System
FAD: Fish Aggregating Device
GIS: Geographic Information Service
HRA: Habitats Regulations Assessment
IEA: International Energy Agency
LCA: Life Cycle Assessment
LCOE: Levelized Cost of Energy
MHK: Marine and Hydrokinetic
MRE: Marine Renewable Energy
MSP: Marine Spatial Planning
NOAA: National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
OES: Ocean Energy Systems
ORE: Ocean Renewable Energy
OSW: Offshore Wind
OTEC: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
OWC: Oscillating Water Column
PNNL: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
SEA: Strategic Environmental Assessment
SPA: Special Protection Area
SWAC: Sea Water Air Conditioning
T&E: Threatened and Endangered Species
WEC: Wave Energy Converter