Technology Types: The means by which energy is extracted from the system.
- Marine Energy general - The act of harnessing naturally occurring renewable energy in the ocean to generate electricity, excluding offshore wind.
- Ocean Current Energy - Capturing oceanic currents with turbines.
- Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion - Utilizing temperature gradients in deep oceans to generate electricity.
- Riverine Energy - The flow of the river is captured with either dams or independent turbines.
- Salinity Gradient - Utilizing salinity gradients where freshwater rivers meet seawater to generate electricity.
- Tidal Energy - Capturing tidal fluctuations with turbines, reciprocating devices, kites, screws, barrages, or lagoons.
- Wave Energy - Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.
- Wind Energy general - The act of harnessing naturally occuring wind energy in the atmosphere to generate electricity.
Stressors: Potential characteristics of renewable energy devices that can affect animals, habitats or ecosystem processes. (What are stressors?)
- Chemicals - An acute spill or chronic release of chemicals over time.
- Dynamic Device - Any part of the device that moves.
- EMF - An electromagnetic field created by electricity moving through cables.
- Energy Removal - Removal of energy from the physical system.
- Lighting - Light added for navigational purposes may attract or disorient organisms.
- Noise - Sounds created during construction and operation of device.
- Static Device - Any part of the device that does not move significantly.
Receptors: Organisms, habitats or ecosystem processes that may be affected by the presence or operation of renewable energy devices. (What are receptors?)
- Bats - Certain bat species have been known to migrate great distances offshore, at risk of collision with the device.
- Benthic Invertebrates - A broad term that encompasses cephalopods (squid, octopus), crustaceans (crabs, shrimp), mollusks (clams, barnacles), and various other benthic organisms.
- Birds - Generic term that applies to all types of birds.
- Ground-Nesting Birds - Birds that nest and reside mostly on the ground, including quail, pheasants, and prairie chickens.
- Passerines - The most common type of bird, known for perching.
- Raptors - Birds of prey that hunt and feed on small animals.
- Seabirds - Seabirds are birds that have adapted to life within the marine environment.
- Shorebirds - Shorebirds are birds commonly found along sandy or rocky shorelines, mudflats, and shallow waters.
- Waterfowl - Birds with webbed feet for aquatic environments, including ducks, geese, and swans.
- Ecosystem - The interaction between a community of organisms and their environment.
- Farfield Environment - The large-scale effects of a device beyond those affecting the direct site.
- Fish - Resident fish living near the device and migratory fish passing through the area.
- Marine Mammals - A broad term that encompasses pinnipeds (seals, sea lions), cetaceans (dolphins, whales), and sea otters.
- Nearfield Habitat - The physical environment surrounding a device.
- Sea Turtles - Sea turtles commonly utilize sea currents and travel great distances.
- Socio-economics - The human dimensions of renewable energy, including impacts on local communities, society and economy.
- Aesthetics - Visual appeal of existing landscape or seascape.
- Climate Change - Effects of renewable energy on reduction of negative environmental outcomes caused by anthropogenic activities.
- Fishing - Commercial fishing is an established industry in the marine environment and a key stakeholder for any marine or offshore renewables.
- Legal and Policy - How governing bodies plan for and regulate renewable energy projects through policy and legal frameworks.
- Life Cycle Assessment - Environmental Assessment through all stages of a project.
- Navigation - Vessels moving in proximity to a renewable energy project.
- Recreation - People enjoying activities in proximity to a renewable energy project.
- Stakeholder Engagement - Individuals, organizations, and companies with an interest in a renewable energy project.
- Terrestrial Mammals - A broad term that encompasses carnivores (wolves, bears) and ungulates (deer, moose).
Interactions: Details of the relationship between stressors and receptors.
- Attraction - Animals can be drawn to devices for increased food, curiosity, or new habitat.
- Avoidance - Animals may temporarily or permanently avoid an area where devices are present.
- Changes in Sediment Transport - Altering ocean sediment transport and distribution by changing the flow.
- Changes in Water Quality - Altering water constituents such as temperature, salinity, nutrients, and contaminents.
- Collision/Evasion - Reaction by animals approaching a turbine to evade or collide with a blade.
- Entrapment - Large marine animals feeling trapped by mooring lines, anchors, and export cables.
AIS: Automatic Identification System
BOEM: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management
DOE: United States Department of Energy
EA: Environmental Assessment
EIS: Environmental Impact Statement
EMF: Electromagnetic Field
ERES: Environmental Risk Evaluation System
FAD: Fish Aggregating Device
GIS: Geographic Information Service
HRA: Habitats Regulations Assessment
IEA: International Energy Agency
LCOE: Levelized Cost of Energy
MHK: Marine and Hydrokinetic
MRE: Marine Renewable Energy
NOAA: National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
OES: Ocean Energy Systems
ORE: Ocean Renewable Energy
OSW: Offshore Wind
OTEC: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
OWC: Oscillating Water Column
PNNL: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
SEA: Strategic Environmental Assessment
SPA: Special Protection Area
T&E: Threatened and Endangered Species
WEC: Wave Energy Converter