- Marine Energy: The generation of renewable energy from tides, waves, currents, salinity, and temperature gradients in the oceans, seas, and rivers.
- Ocean Current Energy: Capturing energy from ocean currents.
- Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Capturing energy using temperature gradients across water depths.
- Riverine Energy: Capturing energy from river currents.
- Salinity Gradient Energy: Capturing energy from salinity gradients where freshwater meets seawater.
- Tidal Energy: Capturing energy from tidal fluctuations.
- Wave Energy: Capturing energy from waves.
- Wind Energy: The generation of renewable energy from the wind, either land-based or offshore.
Stressors & Interactions
- Attraction: Increased presence of organisms to a device.
- Avoidance: Temporary or permanent voluntary absence of organisms from the area surrounding a device.
- Changes in Flow: A device impeding or altering the flow of water or air.
- Collision: Direct contact between an animal and a device component.
- Displacement: Potential for the loss of habitat due to disturbance or barrier effects.
- Electromagnetic Fields: Physical fields generated by electrically charged objects.
- Entrapment: Large marine organisms feeling trapped by mooring lines, anchors, or cables.
- Habitat Change: Changes to the physical habitat around the device.
- Lighting: Artificial lighting added to devices for navigational safety.
- Noise: Sound generated during the construction or operation of a device.
- Bats: Mammals with webbed wings capable of true flight.
- Birds: A broad term that applies to all species of birds.
- Ground-Nesting Birds: Birds that nest and reside mostly on the ground.
- Passerines: The most common type of birds, known for perching.
- Raptors: Birds of prey that hunt and feed on large vertebrates compared to their size.
- Seabirds: Birds that have adapted to life within the marine environment.
- Shorebirds: Birds commonly found along shorelines, mudflats, and shallow water.
- Waterfowl: Birds with webbed feet for aquatic environments.
- Ecosystem Processes: The physical, chemical, and biological processes that link organisms and their environment.
- Fish: Migratory fish passing through the area and resident fish living near a device.
- Invertebrates: A broad term that encompasses both marine and terrestrial animals lacking a backbone.
- Marine Mammals: A broad term that encompasses cetaceans, pinnipeds, and others.
- Physical Environment: The area surrounding a device.
- Reptiles: A broad term that encompasses turtles, snakes, lizards, and others.
- Terrestrial Mammals: A broad term that encompasses carnivores (wolves, bears) and ungulates (deer, moose).
- Human Dimensions: Potential impacts on local communities, societies, and economies.
- Climate Change: Effects of renewable energy on the reduction of negative environmental outcomes caused by anthropogenic activities.
- Environmental Impact Assessment: Process of examining the anticipated environmental effects of a proposed project.
- Environmental Justice: the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people, regardless of race, color, national origin, or income, with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies.
- Fisheries: Commercial fishing is an established industry and a key stakeholder in the marine environment.
- Legal & Policy: How governing bodies plan for and regulate renewable energy projects through policy and legal frameworks.
- Life Cycle Assessment: Environmental assessment of all stages of a project’s life.
- Marine Spatial Planning: Tool to plan, manage, and engage stakeholders of the many uses of marine resources.
- Navigation: The movement of vessels and aircrafts in proximity to a device.
- Recreation & Tourism: Activities done for enjoyment and/or during travels.
- Social & Economic Data: Data that has been collected for the purpose of identifying social and economic impacts.
- Stakeholder Engagement: Involvement of individuals, organizations, and companies with an interest in a project.
- Visual Impacts: Visual appeal of existing landscape or seascape.
AIS: Automatic Identification System
BOEM: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management
DOE: United States Department of Energy
EIA: Environmental Impact Assessment
EIS: Environmental Impact Statement
EMF: Electromagnetic Field
ERES: Environmental Risk Evaluation System
FAD: Fish Aggregating Device
GIS: Geographic Information Service
HRA: Habitats Regulations Assessment
IEA: International Energy Agency
LCA: Life Cycle Assessment
LCOE: Levelized Cost of Energy
MHK: Marine and Hydrokinetic
MRE: Marine Renewable Energy
MSP: Marine Spatial Planning
NOAA: National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
OES: Ocean Energy Systems
ORE: Ocean Renewable Energy
OSW: Offshore Wind
OTEC: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
OWC: Oscillating Water Column
PNNL: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
SEA: Strategic Environmental Assessment
SPA: Special Protection Area
SWAC: Sea Water Air Conditioning
T&E: Threatened and Endangered Species
WEC: Wave Energy Converter