Management Measures Tool for Marine Energy

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Accessing Management Measures that Support Deployment of Wave and Tidal Energy Devices

As the marine renewable energy (MRE) industry moves beyond deployment of individual wave and tidal energy devices towards arrays, certain risks of MRE devices on the marine environment are not well understood and have led to onerous monitoring requirements placed on device developers.

A workshop was held in May 2017 with researchers, regulators, and developers to create the basis for the tool shown below. In consultation with the research and regulatory communities, it was agreed that applying a set of robust management measures could act as safeguards for marine animals and habitats until available monitoring data allows for determining the level of risk from MRE devices. At that point, measures could be dialed back or removed, if warranted. More information on the workshop and input for the tool can be found here.

The Management Measures Tool for Marine Energy shows management (or mitigation) measures from past or current MRE projects as a reference to help manage potential risks from future projects and allow them to move forward in the face of uncertainty, or until a risk can be retired. Additional management measures are regularly added by the OES-Environmental team. In addition to the searchable tool below, the information can be downloaded here. The download file includes additional details not shown below, including comments from stakeholders on past experience, cost of management measures, and when a management measure is needed.

View the instructions document for more in-depth details and examples on how to use the Management Measure Tool for Marine Energy or check out this webinar for an overview and demonstration of the tool. 

Last updated January 2023

Displaying 1 - 100 of 339 management measures
Technology Project Phase Stressor Receptor Management Measure Advantages Challenges Project Documents
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Habitat
Design feature

Site selection (taking into account cumulative impact of other developments).

Minimizes s risk of development causing displacement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Habitat Loss

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Habitat
Benthic invertebrates, demersal fish
Design feature

Cable protection management measures to ensure that any rock placement that is required will be kept to a minimum to reduce seabed disturbance.

Could reduce effects on sensitive habitats.

Additional cost.

Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Marine Mammals
Monitoring

Installation of ADCPs and turbulence sensors to better understand the baseline tidal flow conditions and hence the change in tidal flow due to presence of the device(s)

Reduces scientific uncertainty.

Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Aquatera 2017, Ramsey Sound, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Marine Mammals
Diving birds
Mitigation

Reduce maximum blade tip speed.

Could reduce the likelihood/consequence of potential collision events.

Potential impacts on power production.

Control mechanism of turbine blade speed unclear.

May cause increased fatigue.

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Marine Mammals
Design feature

Bury cables where possible and viable.

McGrath 2013, Fair Head Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation, Compliance

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS)
Wave, Tidal Decommissioning Vessel disturbance

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Marine Mammals
Cetaceans, seals
Mitigation

Avoid sudden changes of speed.

Reduces likelihood of any further disturbance to marine animals in the vicinity.

Orbital Marine Power 2018
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Reptiles
Mitigation

Timing of installation and decommissioning & marine operations to avoid times of particular sensitivity (e.g., breeding).

Minimizes risk of development causing displacement by avoiding works during sensitive times.

Can be disruptive and hence costly to developer.

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in sediment dynamics

The potential wider or secondary effects (siltation changes or smothering) on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to scour or siltation around devices and associated moorings, support structures and export cables.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates, demersal fish
Monitoring

Periodic visual monitoring through the use of divers or drop down video, static cameras / remote sensing techniques, benthic grab surveys, geophysical survey to identify scour pits, turbidity measurements.

Generation of data to quantify level and spatial extent of effect.

Technical and health and safety risks associated with periodic monitoring operation in close vicinity of infrastructure.

May require power shut down measure.

Subsea static monitoring options require O&M which may have time and cost implications.

Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, OpenHydro and SSE Group 2013, Foubister 2005, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2010, Davison and Mallows 2005, SSE Group 2011, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Xodus Group 2012, Ramsey Sound, Brims Tidal Array, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, EMEC Shapinsay Sound Scale Tidal Test Site, Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Westray South Tidal Project, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Contamination

Potential for oil/hydraulic spill incident resulting from the maintenance activities.

Benthic
Mitigation

All maintenance activities involving oil/hydraulic fluid treatments will be carried out on-shore.

Reduces the chance of oil spill to the environment.

Foubister 2005, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates
Design feature

Strategic use of rock placement/other cable protection.

Wave, Tidal Installation Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Benthic
Design feature

Avoid the introduction of hard bottom substrate into a soft bottom habitat.

Ensures the efficient recovery of species native to the surrounding habitat.

May have technical implications.

Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

Modifications to prey distribution and abundance (to include for other receptors) resulting in changes to foraging behavior.

Birds
Diving birds
Design feature

Design structures to minimize effect on turbulence structure.

Minimizes change in turbulence structure and hence potential interaction.

Can present financial, logistical, or design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device/moorings.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Ramsey Sound
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Birds
Design feature

Site selection (taking into account cumulative impact of other developments).

Minimizes risk of development causing displacement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

Argyll Tidal Limited 2013, Orbital Marine Power 2014, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Argyll Tidal Demonstrator Project, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Lighting

Potential for light from installation vessels to adversely affect nocturnal and migratory species.

Birds
Seabirds
Monitoring

Monitoring effects on animals.

Reduce scientific uncertainty.

Can be difficult to detect change as a result of interaction as opposed to natural variability.

Xodus Group 2019, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Fish
Mitigation

Adherence to vessel management plan.

Minimizes the potential interaction between animals and construction or maintenance vessels.

OpenHydro and SSE Group 2013, Aquatera 2017, ScottishPower Renewables 2010, Brims Tidal Array, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Fish
Monitoring

Environmental monitoring to better understand near-field behaviour and avoidance.

Could reduce potential effects on sensitive species during sensitive periods.

Help reduce scientific uncertainty.

Can be a high cost associated with this.

Unclear how much monitoring will be required to fully understand this risk.

Technology is not advanced enough yet to do this efficiently.

Data mortgage (data gathered more quickly than it can be analysed).

...Read more

Can be a high cost associated with this.

Unclear how much monitoring will be required to fully understand this risk.

Technology is not advanced enough yet to do this efficiently.

Data mortgage (data gathered more quickly than it can be analysed).

Power supply availability - hard-wired vs. battery; power is required for monitoring and power availability can present logistical, financial and technical challenges.

Interaction between equipment - e.g., multibeam sonar/ ADCP/echosounder; there can be interaction between monitoring equipment which can present challenges in monitoring.

Certain equipment used such as PAM may actually effect behaviour themselves.

Read less
Xodus Group 2019, Magallanes Renovables 2020, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Fish
Demersal fish
Design feature

Use of 3-phase cables instead of DC cables.

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Fish
Elasmobranch, large fish
Design feature

Cable design with maximum bend radius.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement

Mooring design driven by technical and commercial consideration.

Foubister 2005, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Fish
Compliance

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

McPherson 2015, MeyGen 2012, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Nova Innovation - Shetland Tidal Array, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project - Phase I, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

Sediment disturbance disrupting water clarity that results in smothering of fish spawning grounds.

Habitat
Mitigation

Best practice methodologies to reduce resuspension of sediment during cable burial or device foundation/mooring installation.

Orbital Marine Power 2014, ScottishPower Renewables 2010, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Galway Bay Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Habitat
Mitigation

Timing of installation and decommissioning & marine operations to avoid times of particular sensitivity (e.g. breeding).

Minimizes risk of development causing displacement by avoiding works during sensitive times

Can be disruptive and hence costly to developer

OpenHydro and SSE Group 2013, Aquatera Ltd 2011, Foubister 2005, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, SSE Group 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, McGrath 2013, Orbital Marine Power 2014, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, Brims Tidal Array, Wello Penguin at EMEC, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Westray South Tidal Project, Fair Head Tidal Array, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Habitat Loss

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Habitat
Benthic invertebrates, demersal fish
Mitigation

Use of locally sourced materials, for cable protection, of the same type as the habitat to be disturbed by cable installation.

Minimizes habitat loss as lost seabed is replaced with same material.

Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Marine Mammals
Design feature

Design structures to minimise effect on turbulence structure.

Minimizes change in turbulence structure and hence potential interaction.

Can present financial, logistical, or design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device/moorings.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Ramsey Sound
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Pontential risk of collision with device giving size and character of structure.

Marine Mammals
Design feature

Device components (e.g., transformer and power conditioning equipment) are designed internally.

Reduces potential for collision with external moving parts.

The Marine Institute 2016, Galway Bay Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Marine Mammals
Cetaceans
Design feature

Maintain taut mooring lines.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement.

Regular inspections can provide operational insight into condition.

Inspections help track interactions/events with marine animals.

Mooring design driven by technical and commercial consideration.

Regular ROV/dive or drop-down camera inspections required.

Aquatera Ltd 2011, Laminaria 2018, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Wello Penguin at EMEC, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Argyll Tidal Demonstrator Project, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Reptiles
Design feature

Site selection to avoid sensitive routes/areas.

Minimizes risk of development acting as a barrier to movement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Reptiles
Design feature

Array/ mooring configuration designed to avoid migratory routes or other important sites

Minimizes risk of development creating displacement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

May be inconsistent with optimal layout of the development for exploitation of the energy source.

Can be a costly measure when scaling up to larger arrays.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance Changes in sediment dynamics

The potential wider or secondary effects (siltation changes or smothering) on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to scour or siltation around devices and associated moorings, support structures and export cables.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates, demersal fish
Design feature

Micrositing of export cables and infrastructure to minimise the impact on sensitive habitats and species. Best practice techniques for cable installation, burial, and protection.

Reduces, limits, or offsets potential impacts on sensitive habitats and species.

Project Management Support Services 2006, Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Foubister 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, RSK Group 2012, South West of England Regional Development Agency (SWDRA) 2006, SSE Group 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, DP Energy Ltd. 2017, Laminaria 2018, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, THETIS Energy 2009, Royal Haskoning 2019, Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Anglesey Skerries Tidal Stream Array, Ramsey Sound, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Wave Hub, Westray South Tidal Project, Fair Head Tidal Array, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Swansea Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), Torr Head Project, Oyster 800 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Benthic
Design feature

Site selection (taking into account cumulative impact of other developments).

Minimises risk of development causing displacement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates
Design feature

Bundle cables together to reduce field vectors.

MeyGen 2012, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project - Phase I
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Benthic
Monitoring, Compliance

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Orbital Marine Power 2014, Xodus Group 2019, Magallanes Renovables 2020, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

Modifications to prey distribution and abundance (to include for other receptors) resulting in changes to foraging behavior.

Birds
Diving birds
Monitoring

Modelling to predict the interaction between changes in tidal flow, flux, and turbulence structure and animals.

Reduces scientific uncertainty so appropriate management measures can be employed.

Limited management measures available to minimize interaction despite modelling to fully predict interaction.

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Birds
Mitigation

Timing of installation and decommissioning & marine operations to avoid times of particular sensitivity (e.g. breeding).

Minimizes risk of development causing displacement by avoiding works during sensitive times.

Can be disruptive to installation/decommissioning and hence costly to developer.

OpenHydro and SSE Group 2013, Aquatera Ltd 2011, Foubister 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, SSE Group 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, McGrath 2013, Orbital Marine Power 2014, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Brims Tidal Array, Wello Penguin at EMEC, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Westray South Tidal Project, Fair Head Tidal Array, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Birds
Compliance

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

MeyGen 2012, Magallanes Renovables 2020, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project - Phase I, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

Reduced visibility impacting prey detection and obstruction avoidance.

Fish
Mitigation

Best practice methodologies to reduce resuspension of sediment during cable burial or device foundation/mooring installation.

Foubister 2005, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Swansea Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Fish
Mitigation

Selective structural and blade coatings (e.g., colors to aide detection).

Unknown implications, but possible that it will aid detection of subsea structures and help reduce risk.

Minimal one-off cost that can be easily planned for at the design stage.

Unknown and further research is needed.

This could result in 'attraction', increasing risk of collision.

Uncertainty around how animals use visual cues. Other sensory organs are often more important for fish.

...Read more

Unknown and further research is needed.

This could result in 'attraction', increasing risk of collision.

Uncertainty around how animals use visual cues. Other sensory organs are often more important for fish.

Use of such measures may be limited to conform with IALA standards.

Read less
Xodus Group 2019, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Fish
Demersal fish
Design feature

Lay cables in natural crevices.

MeyGen 2012, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project - Phase I
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Fish
Elasmobranch, large fish
Design feature, Monitoring

Install tension sensors on mooring lines.

Informs of problem with mooring lines allowing rectification.

Additional cost.

Would require control system integration.

Load from entangled animal is likely to be smaller than the device loading on the moorings.

Uncertainty of the efficacy of this measure.

Laminaria 2018, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Fish
Mitigation

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Lack of industry specific guidance.

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in sediment dynamics

The potential wider or secondary effects (siltation changes or smothering) on protected or sensitive littoral habitat due to devices and associated moorings, support structures, or landfall cables.

Habitat
Benthic species
Monitoring

Periodic visual monitoring through the use of divers, drop down video, or intertidal shore surveys.

Help reduce uncertainty.

Technical and Health and Safety risks associated with periodic monitoring operation in close vicinity of infrastructure.

Power shut down potential.

Subsea static monitoring options require O&M.

GlaxoSmithKlineMontrose 2012, Xodus AURORA 2010, Davison and Mallows 2005, GSK Montrose Tidal Array, HS1000 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Habitat
Design feature

Array/ mooring configuration designed to avoid migratory routes or other important sites.

Minimizes risk of development creating displacement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites

May be inconsistent with optimal layout of the development for exploitation of the energy source.

Can be a costly measure when scaling up to larger arrays.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Habitat Loss

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Habitat
Benthic invertebrates, demersal fish
Design feature

Site selection to avoid sensitive or protected sub-littoral seabed communities.

Could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats.

ScottishPower Renewables 2012, OpenHydro and SSE Group 2013, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array, Brims Tidal Array
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

Modifications to prey distribution and abundance (to include for other receptors) resulting in changes to foraging behaviour.

Marine Mammals
Design feature

Design structures to minimise effect on turbulence structure.

Minimizeschange in turbulence structure and hence potential interaction.

Can present financial, logistical, or design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device/moorings.

Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Ramsey Sound, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Marine Mammals
Diving birds
Mitigation

Design proportion of swept area to structure area to minimise collision risk.

Could reduce the likelihood/consequence of potential collision events.

Can be a high cost associated with this.

Can present financial, logistical, or design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device.

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Marine Mammals
Cetaceans
Design feature

Cable design with maximum bend radius.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement.

Mooring design driven by technical and commercial consideration.

Foubister 2005, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Marine Mammals
Compliance

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

McPherson 2015, MeyGen 2012, Davison and Mallows 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Magallanes Renovables 2020, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Nova Innovation - Shetland Tidal Array, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project - Phase I, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Reptiles
Design feature

Array/mooring configuration designed to avoid migratory routes or other important sites.

Minimizes risk of development acting as a barrier to movement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

May be inconsistent with optimal layout of the development for exploitation of the energy source.

Can be a costly measure when scaling up to larger arrays.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Reptiles
Sea turtles
Design feature

Maintain taut mooring lines.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement.

Regular inspections can provide operational insight into condition and track events.

Mooring design driven by technical and commercial consideration.

Regular ROV/dive or drop-down camera inspections required.

Aquatera Ltd 2011, Wello Penguin at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

Reduced visibility from altered water clarity associated with sediment mixing that can impact prey detection and obstruction avoidance.

Benthic
Mitigation

Best practice methodologies to reduce resuspension of sediment during cable burial or device foundation/mooring installation.

Foubister 2005, ScottishPower Renewables 2010, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, South West of England Regional Development Agency (SWDRA) 2006, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Wave Hub, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Swansea Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Benthic
Mitigation

Timing of installation and decommissioning & marine operations to avoid times of particular sensitivity (e.g., breeding).

Minimises risk of development causing displacement by avoiding works during sensitive times.

Can be disruptive and hence costly to developer.

OpenHydro and SSE Group 2013, Aquatera Ltd 2011, Foubister 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, SSE Group 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, McGrath 2013, Orbital Marine Power 2014, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Brims Tidal Array, Wello Penguin at EMEC, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Westray South Tidal Project, Fair Head Tidal Array, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates
Design feature

Bury cables where possible and viable.

Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), PacWave South Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Benthic
Mitigation, Design feature

Antifouling application on components such as the pile and rotor blades.

Prevents colonization of the device and structure, avoiding forming a stepping stone for non-native species.

Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Magallanes Renovables 2020, McGrath 2013, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Fair Head Tidal Array
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

Modifications to prey distribution and abundance (to include for other receptors) resulting in changes to foraging behavior.

Birds
Diving birds
Design feature

Site selection.

Minimizes significance of interaction.

Argyll Tidal Limited 2013, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Argyll Tidal Demonstrator Project, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Birds
Design feature

Array/mooring configuration designed to avoid migratory routes or other important sites

Minimizes risk of development creating displacement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

May be inconsistent with optimal layout of the development for exploitation of the energy source.

Can be a costly measure when scaling up to larger arrays.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Birds
Mitigation

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Lack of industry specific guidance.

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

Sediment disturbance disrupting water clarity that results in smothering of fish spawning grounds.

Fish
Mitigation

Best practice methodologies to reduce resuspension of sediment during cable burial or device foundation / mooring installation.

Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Swansea Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Fish
Mitigation

Minimise turbine standstill periods.

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Fish
Demersal fish
Design feature

Maximise length of any drilled boreholes.

MeyGen 2012, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project - Phase I
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Fish
Elasmobranch, large fish
Monitoring

Fishing debris detected during routine inspections of mooring lines and cables will be removed.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement.

Low cost measure, implemented as part of standard O&M procedures.

Regular monitoring will benefit system performance in addition to addressing environmental risks (e.g., early detection of damage or failures in the system).

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Fish
Mitigation, Compliance

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS)
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in sediment dynamics

The potential wider or secondary effects (siltation changes or smothering) on protected or sensitive littoral habitat due to devices and associated moorings, support structures, or landfall cables.

Habitat
Benthic species
Design feature

Micrositing of landfall cables and infrastructure to minimise the impact on sensitive habitats and species. Best practice techniques for cable installation, burial and protection.

Orbital Marine Power 2014, Craig 2008, OpenHydro and SSE Group 2013, DP Energy Ltd. 2013, South West of England Regional Development Agency (SWDRA) 2006, SSE Group 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, DP Energy Ltd. 2017, Laminaria 2018, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, OpenHydro Alderney, Brims Tidal Array, West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park, Wave Hub, Westray South Tidal Project, Fair Head Tidal Array, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Swansea Tidal Lagoon (SBTL)
Wave Operation & Maintenance Dissipation of wave energy

The potential wider or secondary effects (siltation changes or smothering) on protected or sensitive littoral habitat due to devices and associated moorings, support structures or landfall cables.

Habitat
Benthic invertebrates
None identified

Benthic and intertidal surveys focused on indicator species, species assemblage, community structure and ecosystem function.

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2019, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Xodus Group 2012, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, EMEC Shapinsay Sound Scale Tidal Test Site, Galway Bay Test Site, Pelamis Wave Power P2 Demonstration at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Habitat
Compliance

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

McPherson 2015, MeyGen 2012, Xodus Group 2019, South West of England Regional Development Agency (SWDRA) 2006, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Magallanes Renovables 2020, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Orbital Marine Power 2018, Nova Innovation - Shetland Tidal Array, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project - Phase I, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Wave Hub, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, PacWave South Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Marine Mammals
Monitoring

Modelling to predict the interaction between changes in tidal flow, flux and turbulence structure and animals.

Reduces scientific uncertainty so appropriate management measures can be employed

Limited management measures available to minimize interaction despite modelling to fully predict interaction.

Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Minimise turbine standstill periods.

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Marine Mammals
Cetaceans
Design feature, Monitoring

Install tension sensors on mooring lines.

Informs of problem with mooring lines allowing rectification.

Additional cost and control system integration requirement.

Load from entangled animal is likely to be smaller than the device loading on the moorings.

Uncertainty of the efficacy of this measure.

Laminaria 2018, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Marine Mammals
Monitoring

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduces/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Reptiles
Mitigation

Adherence to vessel management plan.

Minimizes the potential interaction between animals and construction or maintenance vessels.

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Reptiles
Sea turtles
Monitoring

Fishing debris detected during routine inspections of mooring lines and cables will be removed.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement.

Low cost measure, implemented as part of standard O&M procedures.

Regular monitoring will benefit system performance in addition to addressing environmental risks (e.g., early detection of damage or failures in the system).

Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

Sediment disturbance disrupting water clarity that results in smothering of fish spawning grounds.

Benthic
Mitigation

Best practice methodologies to reduce resuspension of sediment during cable burial or device foundation/mooring installation.

ScottishPower Renewables 2010, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, South West of England Regional Development Agency (SWDRA) 2006, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Wave Hub, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Swansea Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Benthic
Design feature

Array/mooring configuration designed to avoid migratory routes or other important sites.

Minimises risk of development creating displacement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

May be inconsistent with optimal layout of the development for exploitation of the energy source.

Can be a costly measure when scaling up to larger arrays.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entrapment

Potential risk of entrapment within device chambers and mooring arrays.

Benthic
Mitigation

Regular ROV/drop down camera surveys to establish occurrence of entrapment

Early detection of entrapment.

Additional cost.

Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Airborne noise

The potential effects from airborne noise generated during installation/construction (excluding piling).

Birds
Seabirds
Mitigation

Avoid/limit 'noisy works' within close proximity to sensitive sites (e.g., known seal haul outs and important cliff nesting sites) during sensitive periods, defining appropriate clearance distances where necessary.

Could reduce potential effects on sensitive species during sensitive periods.

Could increase project construction timescales (e.g., if continuous drilling time is restricted or specific periods need to be avoided) and may increase costs.

OpenHydro and SSE Group 2013, Aquatera Ltd 2011, Foubister 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, SSE Group 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, McGrath 2013, Orbital Marine Power 2014, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, Brims Tidal Array, Wello Penguin at EMEC, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Westray South Tidal Project, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Birds
Diving birds
Monitoring

Environmental monitoring to detect collision events.

Understand avoidance behavior, nature of interactions, and outcome of collision events.

Can be a high cost associated with measure.

Unclear how much monitoring will be required to fully understand this risk.

Technology is not advanced enough yet to do this efficiently.

Data mortgage (data generated more quickly than it can be analysed).

...Read more

Can be a high cost associated with measure.

Unclear how much monitoring will be required to fully understand this risk.

Technology is not advanced enough yet to do this efficiently.

Data mortgage (data generated more quickly than it can be analysed).

Power supply availability - hard-wired vs. battery; power is required for monitoring and power availability can present logistical, financial, and technical challenges.

Interaction between equipment - e.g., multibeam sonar/ADCP/echosounder; can be interaction between monitoring equipment which can present challenges in monitoring.

Certain equipment used such as PAM may actually effect behaviour themselves.

Read less
SIMEC Atlantis Energy Ltd 2011, Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Orbital Marine Power 2014, Minesto 2016, SSE Group 2011, Xodus Group 2012, McGrath 2013, GlaxoSmithKlineMontrose 2012, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Westray South Tidal Project, Costa Head Wave Farm, Fair Head Tidal Array, GSK Montrose Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Birds
Diving birds
Design feature

Maintain taut mooring lines.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement.

Regular inspections can provide operational insight into condition, and help track effects/interaction with marine animals.

Mooring design driven by technical and commercial consideration.

Regular ROV/dive or drop-down camera inspections required.

Aquatera Ltd 2011, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Wello Penguin at EMEC, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Birds
Mitigation, Compliance

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

Reduced visibility impacting prey detection and obstruction avoidance.

Fish
Design feature

Minimize the amount of structure on the seabed.

Minimizes the changes in sediment dynamics due to presence of structure on the seabed.

Can present financial, logistical, or design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device/moorings.

OpenHydro and SSE Group 2013, Brims Tidal Array
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Birds
Diving birds
Mitigation

Reduce maximum blade tip speed.

Could reduce the likelihood/consequence of potential collision events.

Potential impacts on power production.

Control mechanism of turbine blade speed unclear.

May cause increased fatigue.

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Fish
Demersal fish
Design feature

Strategic use of rock placement/other cable protection.

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in lost fishing gear or other equipment trapped on infrastructure.

Fish
Elasmobranch, large fish
Monitoring

Ensure standard notifications of loss of fishing gear in region notified to operators. Reporting of entanglement events.

Good practice for emergency preparedness.

Chances of lost fishing gear being reported is reportedly low.

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Fish
Mitigation

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

McPherson 2015, Nova Innovation - Shetland Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

The potential wider or secondary effects (siltation changes or smothering) on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to scour or siltation around devices and associated moorings, support structures, and export cables.

Habitat
Benthic species
Design feature

Minimise the amount of structure on the seabed.

Minimizes the changes in sediment dynamics due to presence of structure on the seabed.

Can present financial, logistical, or design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device/moorings

OpenHydro and SSE Group 2013, Brims Tidal Array
Wave Operation & Maintenance Dissipation of wave energy

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Habitat
Benthic invertebrates
Monitoring

Benthic and intertidal surveys focused on indicator species, species assemblage, community structure and ecosystem function.

Reduce scientific uncertainty.

Determining impacts against natural variability may be difficult.

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2019, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Xodus Group 2012, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, EMEC Shapinsay Sound Scale Tidal Test Site, Galway Bay Test Site, Pelamis Wave Power P2 Demonstration at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Habitat
Mitigation

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Lack of industry specific guidance.

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, Xodus Group 2019, Orbital Marine Power 2018, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

Modifications to prey distribution and abundance (to include for other receptors) resulting in changes to foraging behaviour.

Marine Mammals
Monitoring

Modelling to predict the interaction between changes in tidal flow, flux and turbulence structure and animals.

Reduces scientific uncertainty so appropriate management measures can be employed

Limited management measures available to minimize interaction despite modelling to fully predict interaction.

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Marine Mammals
Design feature

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination/pollution escaping from structure.

Foubister 2005, MeyGen 2012, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, THETIS Energy 2009, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project - Phase I, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Galway Bay Test Site, Torr Head Project
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Marine Mammals
Cetaceans
Monitoring

Fishing debris detected during routine inspections of mooring lines and cables will be removed.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement

Low cost measure, implemented as part of standard O&M procedures.

Regular monitoring will benefit system performance in addition to addressing environmental risks (e.g., early detection of damage or failures in the system).

Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Underwater noise

The potential effects from underwater noise generated during installation/construction (excluding piling).

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Avoid/limit 'noisy works' within close proximity to sensitive sites (e.g., known seal haul outs during sensitive periods, defining appropriate clearance distances where necessary).

Could reduce potential effects on sensitive species during sensitive periods.

Could increase project construction timescales (e.g., if continuous drilling time is restricted or specific periods need to be avoided).

Orbital Marine Power 2014, Xodus AURORA 2010, Aquatera Ltd 2011, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, Davison and Mallows 2005, Xodus Group 2019, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, McGrath 2013, Aquatera 2017, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, DP Energy Ltd. 2017, HS1000 at EMEC, Wello Penguin at EMEC, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Fair Head Tidal Array, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Fair Head Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Reptiles
Monitoring

Monitoring of existing developments.

Reduces scientific uncertainty.

Can be complex and costly.

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in lost fishing gear or other equipment trapped on infrastructure.

Reptiles
Sea turtles
Monitoring

Ensure standard notifications of loss of fishing gear in region notified to operators. Reporting of entanglement events.

Good practice for emergency preparedness.

Chances of lost fishing gear being reported is reportedly low.

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

The potential wider or secondary effects (siltation changes or smothering) on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to scour or siltation around devices and associated moorings, support structures, and export cables.

Benthic
Design feature

Minimize the amount of structure on the seabed.

Minimises the changes in sediment dynamics due to presence of structure on the seabed.

Can present financial/ logistical/ design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device/moorings.

OpenHydro and SSE Group 2013, Brims Tidal Array
Wave Operation & Maintenance Dissipation of wave energy

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates
Monitoring

Benthic and intertidal surveys focused on indicator species, species assemblage, community structure and ecosystem function.

Reduce scientific uncertainty.

Determining impacts against natural variability may be difficult.

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2019, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2011, Xodus Group 2012, McGrath 2013, The Marine Institute 2016, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, EMEC Shapinsay Sound Scale Tidal Test Site, Costa Head Wave Farm, Fair Head Tidal Array, Galway Bay Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Habitat Creation

The introduction of infrastructure and artificial substrates may generate additional habitat diversity.

Benthic
Benthic species
Monitoring

Structure colonization and biofouling surveys.

Informs understanding of potential for increased prey availability and ecological diversity.

Cost associated with monitoring.

Magallanes Renovables 2020, Orbital Marine Power 2018
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Airborne noise

The potential effects from airborne noise from support vessel activity.

Birds
Seabirds
Mitigation

Adherence to Scotish Marine Wildlife Watching Code (SMWWC).

Magallanes Renovables 2020, Xodus Group 2019, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2020, Aquatera 2017, Laminaria 2018, Orbital Marine Power 2018, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, EMEC Scapa Flow Scale Wave Test Site, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Birds
Diving birds
Monitoring

Environmental monitoring to better understand near-field behaviour and avoidance.

Telp reduce scientific uncertainty.

Can be a high cost associated with this.

Unclear how much monitoring will be required to fully understand this risk.

Technology is not advanced enough yet to do this efficiently.

Data mortgage (data generated more quickly than it can be analysed).

...Read more

Can be a high cost associated with this.

Unclear how much monitoring will be required to fully understand this risk.

Technology is not advanced enough yet to do this efficiently.

Data mortgage (data generated more quickly than it can be analysed).

Power supply availability - hard-wired vs. battery; power is required for monitoring and power availability can present logistical, financial, and technical challenges.

Interaction between equipment - e.g., multibeam sonar/ADCP/echosounder; there can be interaction between monitoring equipment which can present challenges in monitoring.

Certain equipment used such as PAM may actually effect behaviour themselves.

Read less
Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, OpenHydro and SSE Group 2013, Minesto 2016, SSE Group 2011, Xodus Group 2012, GlaxoSmithKlineMontrose 2012, Orbital Marine Power 2018, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Brims Tidal Array, Westray South Tidal Project, Costa Head Wave Farm, GSK Montrose Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Birds
Diving birds
Design feature

Fishing debris detected during routine inspections of mooring lines and cables will be removed.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement.

Low cost measure, implemented as part of standard O&M procedures.

Regular monitoring will benefit system performance in addition to addressing environmental risks (e.g., early detection of damage or failures in the system).

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Birds
Mitigation

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

McPherson 2015, Nova Innovation - Shetland Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

Sediment disturbance disrupting water clarity that results in smothering of fish spawning grounds.

Fish
Design feature

Minimize the amount of structure on the seabed.

Minimizes the changes in sediment dynamics due to presence of structure on the seabed.

Can present financial, logistical, or design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device/moorings.

OpenHydro and SSE Group 2013, Brims Tidal Array