Land-based wind energy technologies harness kinetic energy from the wind to generate electricity. While wind energy is very abundant in many parts of the world, wind resource development may compete with other land uses and have the potential to negatively impact birds and bats, terrestrial mammals, and the physical environment overall.
The greatest environmental concern with land-based wind is collision risk for birds and bats. The construction and maintenance process can alter the physical environment by destroying or fragmenting key habitats. There are also concerns about noise and visual impacts to both the environment and people. Effects of transmission lines are also a consideration as they produce an electromagnetic field that may be harmful to some organisms. Additionally, changes in flow may also be a concern, with large wind farms potentially causing large-scale atmospheric changes.