Wind Energy Monitoring and Mitigation Technologies Tool

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As part of its mission to support the global deployment of wind energy through a better understanding of environmental issues, WREN has created a free, online tool to catalog monitoring and mitigating technologies developed to assess and reduce potential wildlife impacts resulting from land-based and offshore wind energy development. WREN will continuously maintain and update the research status of technologies to ensure the international community has access to current, publicly available information on monitoring and mitigation solutions, their state of development, and related research on their effectiveness.

Results can be refined by selecting from the drop down menus or entering a search term. Listed monitoring and mitigation technologies are reviewed on an annual basis, but can be updated more frequently if needed, by emailing tethys@pnnl.gov. The wind energy community may also contribute additional technologies for consideration by filling out this survey.

The full list of monitoring and mitigation technologies can be downloaded here. Definitions for terms used in this tool are available here.

Displaying 1 - 50 of 60 technologies
Hierarchy Industry & Phase Stressor & Receptor Technology Description Placement & Integration Research Summary Citations
Monitoring Land-based, Offshore

Planning, Operation
Attraction, Avoidance, Turbine Collision

Bats, Birds
Normandeau Associates Inc. Acoustic and Thermographic Offshore Monitoring (ATOM) system

The ATOM system represents a collection of multiple sensors designed to collect information about bird and bat activity in the rotor swept zone....Read more

The ATOM system represents a collection of multiple sensors designed to collect information about bird and bat activity in the rotor swept zone. Each ATOM system combines four types of wildlife sensors that collect data: thermal cameras operating in stereo, a visible-light camera, acoustic detectors for birds and bats, and a VHF receiver to detect birds fitted with Motus TagsTM. Use of a combination of sensors aims to allow the system to continuously collect data in harsh environmental conditions. System status can be checked using an internet connection from a satellite modem, wifi, or ethernet port.

Read less

Sensors installed on turbine platforms and buoys

Large-Scale Field Study

Willmott et al. (2015) analysed data collected by the ATOM system over 16 months (December 2011 to March 2013) at two turbines: one in Delaware (US) and one off the coast of North Carolina (US)....Read more

Willmott et al. (2015) analysed data collected by the ATOM system over 16 months (December 2011 to March 2013) at two turbines: one in Delaware (US) and one off the coast of North Carolina (US). Thermographic, ultrasound acoustic, and audio acoustic data were collected and used to evaluate system performance.

Willmott et al. (2014) designed and deployed the ATOM system off the coast of North Carolina (US). Seabird observations with the system were compared with those expected.

Read less
Willmott et al. 2015,
Willmott and Forcey 2014
Monitoring Offshore

Operation, Planning
Turbine Collision

Birds, Bats
Biodiversity Research Institute Aerofauna Collision Avoidance Monitoring System (ACAMS)

The Aerofauna Collision Avoidance Monitoring System (ACAMS) aims to use two stereo-optic high definition cameras to determine the three dimensional coordinates of flying birds in the rotor swept area of a wind turbine. A near-infrared component is under development for nighttime usage....Read more

The Aerofauna Collision Avoidance Monitoring System (ACAMS) aims to use two stereo-optic high definition cameras to determine the three dimensional coordinates of flying birds in the rotor swept area of a wind turbine. A near-infrared component is under development for nighttime usage. The system consists of two visual cameras and two thermal cameras in addition to software which masks stationary image components with the goal of reducing data bandwidth.

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Cameras installed in the vicinity of a turbine or mounted on the nacelle

Small-Scale Field Study

Adams et al. (2017) installed ACAMS at two turbines in Maine (US) between September and December 2015 as part of a 7 phase research initiative to improve the 3-D tracking capacity of the technology.

Adams et al. 2017
Monitoring Offshore

Planning, Operation, Construction
Cumulative Effects, Displacement, Habitat Alteration

Marine Mammals, Fish, Marine Reptiles, Ecosystem Processes, Habitat, Hydrodynamics
University of New Hampshire Atlantic Deepwater Ecosystem Observatory Network

The Atlantic Deepwater Ecosystem Observatory Network (ADEON) is an observation network which aims to generate long-term measurements of natural and human factors active in the U.S. Mid- and South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf to better understand the marine soundscape....Read more

The Atlantic Deepwater Ecosystem Observatory Network (ADEON) is an observation network which aims to generate long-term measurements of natural and human factors active in the U.S. Mid- and South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf to better understand the marine soundscape. The network collects data with space-based remote sensing, hydrographic sensors, and mobile platforms which are then stored on a data management system and made available to the public.

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Data collected throughout the U.S. Mid- and South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf using mobile platforms and remote sensing

Large-Scale Field Study

Popper et al. (2022) identified seven research priority areas relating to offshore wind development in the United States. ADEON is identified as an existing source of monitoring data to build upon.

...Read more

Popper et al. (2022) identified seven research priority areas relating to offshore wind development in the United States. ADEON is identified as an existing source of monitoring data to build upon.

Miksis-Olds et al. (2021) compared backscatter relating to fish and zooplankton observed from three nodes of ADEON which contain multi-frequency echosounder systems. Data from these sites was collected from November 2017 to December 2020 and analyzed for baseline ecosystem patterns.

Miksis-Olds et al. (2018) detail the deployment, calibration, and use recommendations for ADEON. Experimental procedures relating to mobile platform data collection are described as well.

Read less
Popper et al. 2022,
Miksis-Olds et al. 2021,
Miksis-Olds et al. 2018
Monitoring Offshore, Land-based

Operation
Turbine Collision

Birds, Bats
EMPEKO S.A. B-finder

The B-finder system aims to detect fatal collisions between birds or bats and wind turbines. A B-finder system is composed of three layers of sensors (thermal cameras) and software which detects the fall of dead or injured animals and reports the location and time of the collision.

Computing unit inside the turbine tower, three levels of sensors. Sensors are composed of 4-12 thermal cameras placed at three levels on turbine tower. Video cameras, LiDAR sensors and a combination of sensor technology series are available.

Small-Scale Field Study

Lagerveld et al. (2020) evaluated various technologies developed to detect bird and bat collisions with wind turbines.

...Read more

Lagerveld et al. (2020) evaluated various technologies developed to detect bird and bat collisions with wind turbines.

Przybycin et al. (2019) evaluates the first prototypes of B-Finder. Freshly dead birds and plastic objects were dropped with drones or rockets. B-Finder achieved 95% efficiency at distances from 50-100m. Tests were conducted in western Poland from November 1027 - November 2019.

Read less
Lagerveld et al. 2020,
Przybycin et al. 2019
Mitigation, Monitoring Land-based, Offshore

Operation
Turbine Collision

Bats
NRG Systems Bat Deterrent System

NRG Systems' Bat Deterrent System is made up of multiple Bat Deterrent Units (BDU) that emit an ultrasonic acoustic field in the same range as bats’ natural calling frequencies. Each BDU is composed of six individual, solid state ‘speakers’ that create a ‘cone’ of ultrasonic noise....Read more

NRG Systems' Bat Deterrent System is made up of multiple Bat Deterrent Units (BDU) that emit an ultrasonic acoustic field in the same range as bats’ natural calling frequencies. Each BDU is composed of six individual, solid state ‘speakers’ that create a ‘cone’ of ultrasonic noise. To accomplish full coverage of the rotor swept zone, multiple BDU are mounted on the nacelle, projecting ultrasound outward.

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Mounted on the nacelle and/or tower

Large-Scale Field Study

Good et al. (2022) tested the effectiveness of curtailment combined with NRG Systems' Bat Deterrent System to reduce bat fatalities at the Pilot Hill Wind and Kelly Creek Wind Farms in Illinois (US) during fall migration (between 1 August and 15 October in 2018).

...Read more

Good et al. (2022) tested the effectiveness of curtailment combined with NRG Systems' Bat Deterrent System to reduce bat fatalities at the Pilot Hill Wind and Kelly Creek Wind Farms in Illinois (US) during fall migration (between 1 August and 15 October in 2018).

Weaver et al. (2020) quantified bat fatalities at the Los Vientos III, IV, and V wind energy facilities in Texas (US) from 31 July through 30 October in 2017 and 2018, and assessed deterrent effectiveness using generalized linear mixed models.

Read less
Good et al. 2022,
Weaver et al. 2020
Monitoring Land-based

Operation
Turbine Collision

Bats
EcoObs GmbH Batcorder

The Batcorder aims to detect and record bat calls for bat monitoring and data collection. A microphone disk inserted directly into the turbine nacelle aims to collect bat call data and distinguish bat calls from other sound sources....Read more

The Batcorder aims to detect and record bat calls for bat monitoring and data collection. A microphone disk inserted directly into the turbine nacelle aims to collect bat call data and distinguish bat calls from other sound sources. If the Batcorder system detects a bat call, the system is designed to autonomously record it.

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Microphone mounted in the nacelle

Large-Scale Field Study

There is no publicly available literature documenting this technology's testing and validation history.

No available documents.
Mitigation Offshore

Construction
Noise

Marine Mammals, Fish, Marine Reptiles
Weyres Offshore Big Bubble Curtain

The Weyres Big Bubble Curtain aims to reduce the noise produced by pile driving in offshore wind turbine installation. The bubble curtain consists of alternating layers of water collars with bubble emitters, composite sound absorption materials, and steel plating.

Bubble curtain applied around the monopile during pile driving and removed after turbine construction is complete.

Large-Scale Field Study

Bellman et al....Read more

Bellman et al. (2020) determined the noise reductions achieved by three commercially available pile driving noise mitigation methods through a cross-project analysis of 21 project reports produced by companies involved in offshore construction in the North Sea and Baltic Sea between 2012 and 2019.

Dähne et al. (2017) analysed the effects of construction of the DanTysk offshore wind farm (Germany) on harbour propoises from February to December of 2013 through acoustic monitoring of pile driving noise and harbour porpoise echolocation. Noise reduction was studied for the application of two types of bubble curtains.

Read less
Bellmann et al. 2020,
Dähne et al. 2017
Mitigation Offshore

Construction, Operation
Habitat Alteration

Fish, Ecosystem Processes, Habitat, Invertebrates
Ecocean, Perpignan University Biohut®

Biohuts aim to provide artificial habitat and support reef development on floating offshore wind turbines by acting as a shelter and nursery area. Biohuts are composed of recyclable and recycled steel cages placed in clusters and filled with rocks or oyster shells.

Cages placed in clusters on turbine foundation

Large-Scale Field Study

Mercader et al. (2019) conducted tank experiments using Biohuts as artifical habitat to observe the relationship between juvenile survival rate and artificial habitat.

...Read more

Mercader et al. (2019) conducted tank experiments using Biohuts as artifical habitat to observe the relationship between juvenile survival rate and artificial habitat.

Bouchoucha et al. (2016) observed the effects of Biohut implementation on Diplodis species in marinas on the French Mediterranean coast between April and August 2013 and 2014.

Mercader et al. (2017) evaluated the ecosystem effects of 107 Biohuts installed at a large commercial port in the Northern Mediterranean between June and September 2014.

Read less
Mercader 2019,
Bouchoucha 2016,
Mercader et al. 2017
Mitigation Land-based, Offshore

Operation
Turbine Collision

Bats
UMass Amherst, Texas A & M Biomimetic Ultrasonic Whistle

The biomimetic ultrasonic whistle borrows elements of bat and toad larynx geometry in order to produce ultrasonic sound with the intent of deterring bats from the rotor swept zone of an operation turbine....Read more

The biomimetic ultrasonic whistle borrows elements of bat and toad larynx geometry in order to produce ultrasonic sound with the intent of deterring bats from the rotor swept zone of an operation turbine. The device produces ultrasonic sound passively using the windflow over turbine blades in a range appropriate for bat deterrence.

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Whistles installed at multiple locations on turbine blades, potential for placement in vortex generators

Laboratory

Sievert et al. (2021) developed and tested the biomimetic whistle. The efficacy of the whistle was tested with Mexican freetailed bats and tri-colored bats in a laboratory setting.

Sievert et al. 2021
Monitoring, Mitigation Land-based, Offshore

Operation, Planning
Turbine Collision

Birds
Bioseco Bioseco (BPS) Bird Protection System

The system aims to monitor bird activity in real-time around wind turbines and reduce collisions risk with the use of smart deterrent system or turbine stop. The system is composed of independent detection and deterrence modules....Read more

The system aims to monitor bird activity in real-time around wind turbines and reduce collisions risk with the use of smart deterrent system or turbine stop. The system is composed of independent detection and deterrence modules. Through stereovision, the system is able to estimate the bird distance, altitude and flight trajectory. Furthermore, the system is able to classify birds size (smaller/larger) and activate the deterrence or turbine stopping on selected parameters of distance, size and altitude. Bird detection efficiency at higher distances is achieved by the use of 4K cameras and advanced optics

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Depending on the system version, between 6-8 detection modules are mounted on turbine towers and computing system with detection software installed inside the turbine tower or power substation


Gradolewski et al. (2021) developed and tested a detection and deterrence system which drew on technologies from previous works (strobing light, sound-based deterrence, artificial intelligence tracking)....Read more

Gradolewski et al. (2021) developed and tested a detection and deterrence system which drew on technologies from previous works (strobing light, sound-based deterrence, artificial intelligence tracking). The system was tested in northern Poland on a land-based wind turbine between May and July of 2020. Validation tests with a fixed-wing drone equipped with GPS and verifying observations by ornithologists have been used to determine the detection efficiency

Read less
Gradolwski et al. 2021
Monitoring, Mitigation Land-based

Operation, Planning
Turbine Collision

Birds
ZSW BirdRecorder

BirdRecorder is a bird detection system which aims to use artificial intelligence to identify birds at risk of collision with wind turbine blades. The system consists of a wide angle high definition camera and artificial intelligence software.

Cameras placed in the vicinity of wind turbines

Small-Scale Field Study

Streiffeler & Bruns (2021) discussed the development of anti-collision systems which intend to reduce the frequency of bird collisions with wind turbines. BirdRecorder evaluation is ongoing at a wind farm in Schwäbische, Germany.

KNE (Kompetenzzentrum Naturschutz und Energiewende) 2021
Monitoring Land-based, Offshore

Operation, Planning
Turbine Collision, Displacement

Birds, Bats
Swiss Birdradar Solution AG BirdScan MR1

BirdScan MR1 is a pulsed, vertical-looking radar system designed for long-term monitoring of birds and bats in a localized area. The system is composed of a rotating horn antenna and a conventional ship radar receiver....Read more

BirdScan MR1 is a pulsed, vertical-looking radar system designed for long-term monitoring of birds and bats in a localized area. The system is composed of a rotating horn antenna and a conventional ship radar receiver. The system aims to detect bird height, wing flapping pattern, flight direction, and flight speed.

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Radar system in the vicinity of the wind turbine, consists of transmitter/receiver unit and computation unit.

Small-Scale Field Study

Nilsson et al. (2018) compared radar systems aimed at bird tracking in southern Sweden from September to November of 2015. Migration intensity, flight direction, and flight speed were evaluated.

...Read more

Nilsson et al. (2018) compared radar systems aimed at bird tracking in southern Sweden from September to November of 2015. Migration intensity, flight direction, and flight speed were evaluated.

Hill et al. (2014) reviewed the various bird detection technologies utilized for bird monitoring at the offshore wind farm alpha ventus in Germany.

Neumann et al. (2009) developed the a fixed pencil beam radar system in order to quantify the migration intensity of birds. The system was developed from ship and military radar systems modified to have greater range and distinguish between avian and non-avian echo signatures

Read less
Nilsson et al. 2018,
Hill et al. 2014,
Neumann et al. 2009
Monitoring Land-based, Offshore

Operation, Planning
Turbine Collision

Birds
Swiss Birdradar Solution AG BirdScan MS1

The BirdRadar MS1 system aims to detect medium to large birds in the vicinity of a wind turbine to monitor bird activity and potentially prevent collisions. The system uses a fixed X-band radar with a detection range of up to 1500m depending on the target size....Read more

The BirdRadar MS1 system aims to detect medium to large birds in the vicinity of a wind turbine to monitor bird activity and potentially prevent collisions. The system uses a fixed X-band radar with a detection range of up to 1500m depending on the target size. Data collection includes Migration Traffic Rate and bird classification for large birds.

Read less

Radar units placed throughout wind farm with nearby controller and communications units

Small-Scale Field Study

Zehtindjiev et al. (2019) discuss the findings of a year-long study (2018) of the Integrated System for Protection of Birds in Kaliakra, Bulgaria....Read more

Zehtindjiev et al. (2019) discuss the findings of a year-long study (2018) of the Integrated System for Protection of Birds in Kaliakra, Bulgaria. The study area included 114 wind turbines and bird activity was monitored using three different radar systems: Bird Scan MS1, Deltatrack Radar System, and Radar System Robin.

Michev et al. (2017) observed nocturnal bird migration and anthropogenic bird mortality in Northeast Bulgaria in September, 2014 using the MS1 BirdScan radar system.

Read less
Zehtindjiev and Whitfield 2019,
Michev et al. 2017
Monitoring Offshore, Land-based

Operation, Planning
Turbine Collision, Displacement

Birds, Bats
STRIX Environment and Innovation Birdtrack radar

The Birdtrack radar system aims to aid in mitigating bird-turbine collisions through selective curtailment and in bird migration monitoring. The system intends to classify and extract bird tracks using radar and software which identifies bird tracks from radar data.

Radar are placed in the vicinity of wind turbines, data is analysed with Birdtracker software

Large-Scale Field Study

Skov et al. (2009) evaluated bird migration levels at the Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm, the Horns Rev 1 Transformer Station, and Blåvands Huk from September to November of 2008 using four radar technologies. Birdtracker software was used for flight track identification....Read more

Skov et al. (2009) evaluated bird migration levels at the Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm, the Horns Rev 1 Transformer Station, and Blåvands Huk from September to November of 2008 using four radar technologies. Birdtracker software was used for flight track identification. Radar data and analysis was compared to visual observations made during the same period.

Read less
Skov et al. 2009
Monitoring Offshore, Land-based

Operation
Turbine Collision

Birds
Bürgerwindpark Hohenlohe GmbH BirdVision

BirdVision is a camera system with accompanying machine learning software that aims to detect incoming birds and then stop the blades of the associated wind turbine before the bird enters the rotor swept area....Read more

BirdVision is a camera system with accompanying machine learning software that aims to detect incoming birds and then stop the blades of the associated wind turbine before the bird enters the rotor swept area. Artificial intelligence is used to identify birds and flight paths which may lead to a collision.

Read less

Cameras mounted between 6-30m on base of turbine tower, image processing server inside tower

Small-Scale Field Study

There is no publicly available literature documenting this technology's testing and validation history.

No available documents.
Monitoring Offshore

Construction
Noise

Marine Mammals
SMRU Consulting Coastal Acoustic Buoy for Offshore Wind (CABOW)

The Coastal Acoustic Buoy for Offshore Wind system intends to act as real time acoustic monitoring for the detection of whales during offshore wind turbine construction....Read more

The Coastal Acoustic Buoy for Offshore Wind system intends to act as real time acoustic monitoring for the detection of whales during offshore wind turbine construction. The system consists of microphones fixed to the seabed in addition to a base station which processes audio data using open source software

Read less

Microphones fixed to the seabed and surface buoys connected to a central anchor platform.

Small-Scale Field Study

Palmer et al. (2021) undertook field testing and modeling for the Coastal Acoustic Buoy for Offshore Wind by using recorded right whale sounds and simulations to compare the efficacy of the COBOW system to single sensor and observation monitoring.

Palmer et al. 2021
Mitigation Offshore

Construction, Operation
Habitat Alteration

Fish, Ecosystem Processes, Habitat
Witteven + Bos Cod hotel (Cotel)

A Cod Hotel is a cage-like structure attached to the foundation (typically jacket foundations) of an offshore wind turbine which intends to increase Atlantic cod biomass in an ecosystem by providing shelter and foraging area....Read more

A Cod Hotel is a cage-like structure attached to the foundation (typically jacket foundations) of an offshore wind turbine which intends to increase Atlantic cod biomass in an ecosystem by providing shelter and foraging area. The Cod Hotel consists of a steel gabion basket containing perforated tubes and monitoring funnels.

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Cod hotels fixed to offshore wind turbine foundation

Small-Scale Field Study

Hermans et al. (2020) reviewed add-on designs for ecosystem support in offshore wind development. The report provides design drawings for the Cod Hotel.

...Read more

Hermans et al. (2020) reviewed add-on designs for ecosystem support in offshore wind development. The report provides design drawings for the Cod Hotel.

Degraer et al. (2020) discuss the effects of offshore wind farms on fish populations, particularly as they relate to the introduction of an artificial reef structure (turbine foundation).

Read less
Hermans et al. 2020,
Degraer et al. 2020
Monitoring Offshore

Construction, Operation, Planning
Noise, Avoidance, Cumulative Effects, Displacement

Marine Mammals
Chelonia Limited CPOD / FPOD

CPODs and FPODs are automated passive acoustic monitoring instruments which aim to detect cetaceans by identifying the echo-locating click trains they produce. The instruments consist of a hydrophone, and ADC sampler (running at 1 million samples per second), and a real-time signal processor....Read more

CPODs and FPODs are automated passive acoustic monitoring instruments which aim to detect cetaceans by identifying the echo-locating click trains they produce. The instruments consist of a hydrophone, and ADC sampler (running at 1 million samples per second), and a real-time signal processor. The C-POD has been replaced by the more advanced F-POD

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CPODs and FPODs are anchored to the seafloor or surface and dispersed throughout wind farm (range: 400 m - 1500 m depending on species). Data is stored on an SD card and is processed ashore with automated analysis software.

Large-Scale Field Study

Benhemma-Le Gall et al. (2021) observed the effects of construction on harbor porpoise occurrence at two offshore wind farms in Scotland throughout 2017 to 2019 ....Read more

Benhemma-Le Gall et al. (2021) observed the effects of construction on harbor porpoise occurrence at two offshore wind farms in Scotland throughout 2017 to 2019 . Harbor porpoise activity was monitored using passive acoustic monitoring (C-PODs) and calibrated noise recorders (SoundTraps and SM2Ms).

Jacobson et al. (2017) estimated the effective harbor porpoise detection area of C-POD passive acoustic monitoring sensors. Population estimates from passive acoustic sensor detection were compared against estimations made with visual observations and a Bayesian model.

Redden et al. (2015) evaluated the performance of different hydrophone technologies by surveying marine mammals in Nova Scotia, Canada from December 2013 to June 2014.

Read less
Benhemma-Le Gall et al. 2021,
Jacobson et al. 2017,
Redden and Porskamp 2015
Mitigation, Monitoring Land-based, Offshore

Operation
Turbine Collision

Bats
Natural Power Detection and Active Response Curtailment (DARC)

DARC technology aims to use SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) data, meteorological data, and acoustic data to curtail wind turbines when bats are present within the swept area of the turbine blades....Read more

DARC technology aims to use SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) data, meteorological data, and acoustic data to curtail wind turbines when bats are present within the swept area of the turbine blades. Additional factors, such as wind speed and minimum temperature, can influence DARC’s automated curtailment decisions established by a predetermined set of rules.

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Mounted on the nacelle

Large-Scale Field Study

Natural Power conducted a validation study at Alliant Energy’s 170 MW English Farms wind power plant in Iowa (US) that compared bat fatalities and energy production at 69 wind turbines under three scenarios (minimal curtailment, blanket curtailment, and DARC curtailment) between August and...Read more

Natural Power conducted a validation study at Alliant Energy’s 170 MW English Farms wind power plant in Iowa (US) that compared bat fatalities and energy production at 69 wind turbines under three scenarios (minimal curtailment, blanket curtailment, and DARC curtailment) between August and October 2020.

Read less
No available documents.
Mitigation Land-based

Operation
Turbine Collision

Bats
USGS Dim UV Light

Dim, flickering UV light was tested as a method of deterring bats from wind turbines. UV light arrays were mounted on turbines and thermal imaging was used to detect night flying animals.

UV light array mounted on turbine tower

Small-Scale Field Study

Cryan et al. (2021) applied UV light arrays to a wind turbine in Boulder, Colorado (US) between August 2018 and October 2019 and observed night flying animal behavior using thermal imagery.

...Read more

Cryan et al. (2021) applied UV light arrays to a wind turbine in Boulder, Colorado (US) between August 2018 and October 2019 and observed night flying animal behavior using thermal imagery.

Gorresen et al. (2015) illuminated trees with UV in the habitat area of the Hawaiian hoary bat in Hawaii (US) between September of 2009 and October of 2010 in order to observe the effect of the light on bat behavior.

Read less
Cryan et al. 2021,
Gorresen et al. 2015
Monitoring, Mitigation Land-based, Offshore

Operation
Turbine Collision

Birds
DTBird DTBird

The DTBird system aims to detect birds and deter them from flying into the rotor-swept zone of an operational wind turbine. It is comprised of multiple components (high definition or thermal imaging cameras and a deterrence module), and is mounted on the turbine tower....Read more

The DTBird system aims to detect birds and deter them from flying into the rotor-swept zone of an operational wind turbine. It is comprised of multiple components (high definition or thermal imaging cameras and a deterrence module), and is mounted on the turbine tower. Upon detection, the system emits warning sounds and/or stops the turbine.

Read less

Cameras mounted on turbine tower

Large-Scale Field Study

Terrill et al. (2018) used fixed-wing UAVs to evaluate the performance of the DTBird detection and deterrent-triggering systems at the Manzana Wind Power Project located in Kern County, California (US) between December 2016 and August 2017.

...Read more

Terrill et al. (2018) used fixed-wing UAVs to evaluate the performance of the DTBird detection and deterrent-triggering systems at the Manzana Wind Power Project located in Kern County, California (US) between December 2016 and August 2017.

Litsgård et al. (2016) monitored bird movement to evaluate the effectiveness of the DTBird system on a wind turbine near Lundsbrunn, Sweden from July to September 2015.

Hanagasioglu et al. (2015) data collected using the DTBird and BTBat systems at the Calandawind wind turbine in Switzerland between June 2014 and October 2014. Data collected were compared to data collected by bird and bat specialists.

May et al. (2012) evaluated the capability of the DTBird system in detecting birds near the rotor swept area of a wind turbine and in studying the flight patterns of birds close to turbines in Norway. Data were collected with the DTBird system between March and September of 2012 at the Smøla wind-power plant in Norway.

Read less
Terrill et al. 2018,
Litsgård et al. 2016,
Hanagasioglu et al. 2015,
May et al. 2012
Monitoring, Mitigation Land-based

Operation
Turbine Collision

Birds
Laufer Wind Eagle Take Minimization System

The Eagle Take Minimization System aims to detect eagles at risk of flying into the rotor-swept zone of an operational wind turbine at a far enough distance to stop the relevant turbines before collision....Read more

The Eagle Take Minimization System aims to detect eagles at risk of flying into the rotor-swept zone of an operational wind turbine at a far enough distance to stop the relevant turbines before collision. The system consists of X-band radar, PZT visible cameras and a Central Controller computer.

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Cameras and radars placed throughout wind farm with overlapping fields of view.

Laboratory

Petr et al. (2018) discussed the development of the Eagle Take Minimization System. Prototype testing was conducted in Bedford, New Hampshire (US) using drones to simulate golden eagle flight.

Petr et al. 2018
Mitigation Offshore

Construction, Operation
Habitat Alteration

Fish, Ecosystem Processes, Habitat, Invertebrates
ECOncrete ECOncrete ECO Mats®

ECO Mats aim to reduce the habitat impacts of underwater cables (like those used in offshore wind operations) by facilitating biogenic buildup on mats of interlocking ECOncrete material covering such cables....Read more

ECO Mats aim to reduce the habitat impacts of underwater cables (like those used in offshore wind operations) by facilitating biogenic buildup on mats of interlocking ECOncrete material covering such cables. The concrete mix design consists of ECOncrete® Admix coupled with complex surface textures with the goal of encouraging colonization and attachment by marine epifauna.

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The ECOncrete ACBMs can be used in place of traditional ACBMs, which are typically placed on top of underwater cables or in areas where scour protection is required

Small-Scale Field Study

Sella et al. (2021) evaluated the structural and biological efficacy of the ECO Mat over two years from April 2017 to April 2019 in Florida (US).

...Read more

Sella et al. (2021) evaluated the structural and biological efficacy of the ECO Mat over two years from April 2017 to April 2019 in Florida (US).

Cinti (2021) compared the fish assemblage change associated with the placement of ECO Mat material and control material in Port Everglades, Florida (US).

Read less
Sella et al. 2021,
Cinti 2020
Mitigation Offshore

Construction, Operation
Habitat Alteration

Habitat
ECOncrete ECOncrete Wind Turbine Scour Protection Unit

ECOncrete® Wind Turbine Scour Protection Units are structural, interlocking, ecological concrete units gravity fed from a barge which intend to replace/complement rock armor scour protection around the base of offshore wind turbines....Read more

ECOncrete® Wind Turbine Scour Protection Units are structural, interlocking, ecological concrete units gravity fed from a barge which intend to replace/complement rock armor scour protection around the base of offshore wind turbines. The ecological design of the units and interstitial spaces between them aims to create an environment that mimics optimal marine habitats, while providing the structural functionality required of armoring for scour protection.

Read less

Placed around the base of offshore wind turbines

Small-Scale Field Study

These units are still in development and will be piloted for Northeast offshore infrastructure in spring 2022.

No available documents.
Mitigation Offshore

Construction
Noise

Marine Mammals, Fish, Marine Reptiles
Electronic and Geophysical Services EGS Bubble Curtain

The EGS Bubble Curtain aims to reduce the propagation of sound waves during pile driving activities. The bubble curtain consists of a hose with 3 mm holes every 0.3-0.4 m anchored to the sea bottom around the pile-driving operation....Read more

The EGS Bubble Curtain aims to reduce the propagation of sound waves during pile driving activities. The bubble curtain consists of a hose with 3 mm holes every 0.3-0.4 m anchored to the sea bottom around the pile-driving operation. Bubbles produced disrupt the propagation of sound from the construction actvities.

Read less

Hose anchored to the sea bottom in a circle surrounding the monopile during pile driving

Large-Scale Field Study

Nehls et al. (2007) compared the costs and efficacy of three methods of noise reduction in pile driving: bubble curtains, modifications to the pile hammer, and pile sleeves. Bubble curtain technologies compared design, diameter, air supply, water depth, and noise reduction....Read more

Nehls et al. (2007) compared the costs and efficacy of three methods of noise reduction in pile driving: bubble curtains, modifications to the pile hammer, and pile sleeves. Bubble curtain technologies compared design, diameter, air supply, water depth, and noise reduction. The EGS Bubble Curtain was larger than other bubble curtains, with comparable noise reduction.

Würsig et al. (2000) developed a 25m radius bubble curtain using hose with 3mm holes every 0.3-0.4m through which air was emitted at 20m^3/minute. The sound reduction produced was evaluated for curtain application around a pile driving operation in Hong Kong in April 1996. Noise reductions ranging from 5 to 20 dB were observed, with the greatest reductions in the 1 - 6 kHz frequency range.

Read less
Nehls et al. 2007,
Würsig et al. 2000
Mitigation Offshore

Construction
Noise

Marine Mammals, Fish, Marine Reptiles
Menck Fire-Hose System

The Menck fire-hose system aims to reduce the noise generated by pile driving through use of a two-layer curtain made of inflated, vertically arranged fire-hoses. Sound attenuation occurs due to the physical disruption to sound wave propagation created by the oscillating bubbles.

Fire-hose system applied around the monopile during construction and removed after pile driving is complete. The system is inflated once applied to the monopile.

Large-Scale Field Study

Wilke et al. (2012) evaluated various techniques for the reduction of noise in offshore wind turbine pile driving in a field study in Lübeck Bay, Germany.

Wilke et al. 2012
Mitigation Offshore

Construction
Noise

Marine Mammals, Fish, Marine Reptiles
Arup Gravitas Foundation

The Gravitas Foundation is a type of gravity based foundation which aims to reduce the noise associated with monopile foundation driving. Gravity based foundation can be applied in areas of high load bearing soil and in deeper waters than monopile foundations....Read more

The Gravitas Foundation is a type of gravity based foundation which aims to reduce the noise associated with monopile foundation driving. Gravity based foundation can be applied in areas of high load bearing soil and in deeper waters than monopile foundations. The Gravitas Foundation consists of a hollow conical base which is filled with a ballast material during installation thus sinking the foundation to the sea floor.

Read less

Foundation at base of offshore wind turbine, utilizes gravity in installation

Large-Scale Field Study

Esteban et al. (2019) reviewed the advantages and disadvantages of available gravity based foundations in future offshore wind development.

...Read more

Esteban et al. (2019) reviewed the advantages and disadvantages of available gravity based foundations in future offshore wind development.

Marmo et al. (2013) modelled the operating noise produced by offshore wind turbines with three different foundation types: steel monopile, gravity based, and jacket. The gravity based foundation considered was modelled off of the Gravitas Foundation.

Read less
Esteban et al. 2019,
Marmo et al. 2013
Mitigation Offshore

Construction
Noise

Marine Mammals, Fish, Marine Reptiles
OffNoise - Solutions Hydro-Sound-Damper System

The Hydro Sound Damper System intends to reduce the noise produced during pile driving in offshore wind turbine installation....Read more

The Hydro Sound Damper System intends to reduce the noise produced during pile driving in offshore wind turbine installation. It consists of layers of netting containing air filled envelopes, rubber, and polyethylene foam elements that surround the monopile and physically disrupt sound waves from pile driving.

Read less

Hydro Sound Dampener installed around the monopile during pile driving. Netting is initially fixed to the sea bottom and then stretched to the surface due to buoyancy forces.

Large-Scale Field Study

Elmer et al. (2014) evaluated the noise reduction capacity of the Hydro Sound Dampener during the installation of offshore wind turbines at several locations including the London Array wind farm (Great Britain) and the Amrumbank-West wind farm (Germany) in the North Sea.

Elmer and Savery 2014
Monitoring Land-based, Offshore

Operation
Turbine Collision

Birds, Bats
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research ID-Stat

ID-Stat is a monitoring system which aims to use microphones placed within turbine blades to record bird or bat collisions. The system consists of microphones and software which automatically records detected collisions.

Microphones installed within turbine blades and accompanying software

Small-Scale Field Study

Delprat et al. (2011) presented the concept of the ID stat system at the Conference on Wind energy and Wildlife impacts in Norway in May 2011. A small scale study of the technology was scheduled for March 2012 at an onshore wind turbine.

...Read more

Delprat et al. (2011) presented the concept of the ID stat system at the Conference on Wind energy and Wildlife impacts in Norway in May 2011. A small scale study of the technology was scheduled for March 2012 at an onshore wind turbine.

Delprat & Alcuri (2011) presented at the Conference on Wind Energy and Wildlife Impacts on the 2nd-5th of May 2011, in Trondheim, Norway.

Read less
Collier et al. 2011,
Delprat and Alcuri 2011
Monitoring, Mitigation Land-based

Operation
Turbine Collision

Birds
IdentiFlight International IdentiFlight

IdentiFlight aims to combine optical systems with machine vision and AI software to monitor and minimize bird collisions at wind turbines. The IdentiFlight towers operate as an autonomous system with overlapping aerial coverage for detailed viewing....Read more

IdentiFlight aims to combine optical systems with machine vision and AI software to monitor and minimize bird collisions at wind turbines. The IdentiFlight towers operate as an autonomous system with overlapping aerial coverage for detailed viewing. Proprietary software and neural network technologies process the images to determine 3D position, velocity, trajectory, and protected species of interest.

Read less

Autonomous towers in vicinity of wind turbine

Large-Scale Field Study

Aschwanden et al. (2020) monitored bird movements to assess the effectiveness of the IdentiFlight system at the Wind Energy Research Cluster South in Stötten, Germany between April and May 2020.

...Read more

Aschwanden et al. (2020) monitored bird movements to assess the effectiveness of the IdentiFlight system at the Wind Energy Research Cluster South in Stötten, Germany between April and May 2020.

McClure et al. (2018) used human observation to test and compare the ability of IdentiFlight to detect, classify, and track birds at the Top of the World wind farm in Wyoming (US) from August to September 2016.

Rogers (2022) evaluated the efficacy of the Identiflight Avian Detection System at the Castle Hill Wind Farm in Tasmania from August 2020 to February 2022.

Read less
Aschwanden and Liechti 2020,
McClure et al. 2018,
Rogers 2022
Monitoring Land-based, Offshore

Planning, Operation
Attraction, Avoidance, Displacement, Turbine Collision

Bats
PNNL Injectable RF Bat Tags

The injectible radio-frequency Bat Tags come in three different designs and aim to use a 3D tracking algorithm to track bat movement. The first design is intended for the endangered Myotis species and minimizes transmitter size and weight: 0.16 grams and 10-km detection range....Read more

The injectible radio-frequency Bat Tags come in three different designs and aim to use a 3D tracking algorithm to track bat movement. The first design is intended for the endangered Myotis species and minimizes transmitter size and weight: 0.16 grams and 10-km detection range. The second design is intended for hoary, eastern red, and silver-haired bats and prioritizes service life while staying under 5% tag-burden guidelines: 0.4 grams and >20-km detection range. The third design is intended to study potential attraction of bats to wind turbines and fine-scale movements across one or more wind farms and prioritizes detection range while keeping a reasonable size and weight: 0.6 grams and >20-km detection range.

Read less

Transmitters attached to animals, receivers located in the vicinity of the turbine

Pilot Field Study

Deng et al. (2021) designed a animal tracking transmitter with the goal of reducing weight and increasing transmission range. Drones were used to assess the effective range of the transmitter near Richland, Washington (US) in December 2021.

...Read more

Deng et al. (2021) designed a animal tracking transmitter with the goal of reducing weight and increasing transmission range. Drones were used to assess the effective range of the transmitter near Richland, Washington (US) in December 2021.

Deng et al (2019) implemented three designs of animal tracking transmitters aimed at tracking bats for applications in wind energy. Lab scale testing and algorithm validation were undertaken in 2018.

Read less
Lu et al. 2021,
Deng et al. 2021
Monitoring Land-based, Offshore

Construction, Operation, Planning
Turbine Collision, Displacement, Attraction, Avoidance

Birds, Bats
Furuno radars, DHI (software) LAWR (Local Area Weather Radar)

LAWR is a limited range X-Band radar system commonly used for meteorological observations but which has been considered as a system for detecting birds and bats in the proximity of operational wind turbines.

Radar mounted in proximity of turbines, software to process imagery (BirdTrack, BirdWatch)


Skov et al. (2009) utilized a LAWR system to collect data on the long-distance migration of waterbirds across Horns Rev. The monitoring system was deployed at an offshore wind farm in Denmark from September to November of 2008.

Skov et al. 2009
Monitoring Land-based, Offshore

Operation, Planning
Turbine Collision

Birds, Bats
DeTect Merlin Avian Radar System

The MERLIN Avian Radar System is designed to use horizontal and vertical radar to determine the flight path of birds and bats with the intent of capturing flight data. The radar system can be adjusted to remain within a user-assigned perimeter....Read more

The MERLIN Avian Radar System is designed to use horizontal and vertical radar to determine the flight path of birds and bats with the intent of capturing flight data. The radar system can be adjusted to remain within a user-assigned perimeter. The system consists of radar hardware and bird tracking software for automatic registration of bird echos and for data collection during day and night.

Read less

Radar system located in the vicinity of the turbine or mounted vertically on tower

Large-Scale Field Study

May et al. (2017) evaluated the detection ranges of the MERLIN Avian Radar by using an unmanned aerial vehicle to simulate various flight patterns and bird sizes. The study took place off the coast of Central Norway in August 2009.

...Read more

May et al. (2017) evaluated the detection ranges of the MERLIN Avian Radar by using an unmanned aerial vehicle to simulate various flight patterns and bird sizes. The study took place off the coast of Central Norway in August 2009.

Skov et al. (2016) utilized the MERLIN Avian Radar in a study of soaring migrants and their attraction to an offshore wind farm in Denmark during the autumn raptor migration in 2010 and 2011.

Fijn et al. (2015) implemented the MERLIN Avian Radar system at the Dutch offshore wind farm Egmond aan Zee from June 2007 to May 2010 in order to study bird flight intensity in the rotor swept zone (25m-115m) over the North Sea. The Merlin system was used to observe fluxes as well as flight altitudes and paths.

Krijgsveld et al. (2011) studied the collision risks and barrier effects of birds due to the Offshore Wind farm Egmond aan Zee in the Netherlands using the MERLIN Avian Radar System between April 2007 and June 2010.

Read less
Fijn et al. 2015,
May et al. 2017,
Skov et al. 2016,
Krijgsveld et al. 2011
Monitoring Land-based, Offshore

Operation, Planning
Turbine Collision, Displacement

Birds
DHI Group MUSE: Multi-Sensor bird detection

The Multi-Sensor bird detection system MUSE uses a combination of horizontal radar with infrared and visual cameras in order to detect and record flying birds in the proximity of a wind turbine....Read more

The Multi-Sensor bird detection system MUSE uses a combination of horizontal radar with infrared and visual cameras in order to detect and record flying birds in the proximity of a wind turbine. The system is used by an offshore wind farms in the Netherlands, United Kingdom and United States to monitor bird interactions with wind turbines.

Read less

Horizontal radar and cameras located in the vicinity of wind turbines

Small-Scale Field Study

Lagerveld et al. (2020) evaluated various technologies developed to detect bird and bat collisions with wind turbines.

Lagerveld et al. 2020
Mitigation Offshore

Construction
Noise

Marine Mammals, Fish, Marine Reptiles
Van Oord Offshore Wind Projects, AdBm Technologies, and TNO (Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research) Noise Mitigation System

The Noise Mitigation System aims to reduce the noise produced by pile driving during offshore wind turbine installation. The system consists of Hemholtz resonators contained in a slatted system which unfolds around the monopile during deployment.

Noise Mitigation System surrounds the monopile during pile driving. The system is unfolded in a similar fashion to venetian blinds

Large-Scale Field Study

Elzinga et al. (2019) tested the Noise Mitigation System at the Butendiek and Luchterduinen Offshore Wind Parks in the Netherlands in the fall of 2018.

...Read more

Elzinga et al. (2019) tested the Noise Mitigation System at the Butendiek and Luchterduinen Offshore Wind Parks in the Netherlands in the fall of 2018.

Wochner (2019) discussed the three approaches to reducing noise from pile driving: reducing at the source, breaking the transmissions path, and noise absorption.

Read less
Elzinga et al. 2019,
Wochner 2019
Mitigation Land-based

Planning, Operation
Turbine Collision

Birds
NREL NREL-Stochastic Soaring Raptor Simulator

SSRS (Stochastic Soaring Raptor Simulator) is a generalizable, probabilistic, predictive model that estimates the potential for collisions between soaring raptors (particularly golden eagles, which rely heavily on updrafts to subsidize flight) to interact with operating wind turbines, without the...Read more

SSRS (Stochastic Soaring Raptor Simulator) is a generalizable, probabilistic, predictive model that estimates the potential for collisions between soaring raptors (particularly golden eagles, which rely heavily on updrafts to subsidize flight) to interact with operating wind turbines, without the need for site-specific data collection. The model uses publicly available wind condition data and ground surface information, combined with energy-minimization principles to simulate thousands of eagles at turbine-scale resolution (50 m) and generate a soaring raptor density map. Model outputs may be used to inform pre-construction studies and siting decisions.

Read less

Open source modeling tool

Laboratory

Sandhu et al. (2022) simulated golden eagle flight paths using an updraft field. Model results were validated with golden eagle telemetry data from a study location containing three wind power plants in Casper, Wyoming (US) for years 2019 and 2020.

Sandhu et al. 2022
Mitigation, Monitoring Land-based, Offshore

Operation
Turbine Collision

Birds
nvisionist nvbird

nvbird aims to use a machine learning algorithm in collaboration with HD cameras to recognize the protected birds, analyze their flight path, and deter them with special sounds. If the incoming bird is not deterred the system is intended to stop the wind generator until the birds fly away.

Even with blade tips on the tower


There is no publicly available literature documenting this technology's testing and validation history.

No available documents.
Monitoring Offshore

Construction, Operation, Planning
Noise, Avoidance, Cumulative Effects, Displacement

Marine Mammals
MTC Media PAMGuard

Freely available, open source PAMGuard software is designed to aid in the analysis of passive acoustic monitoring data. The software aims to detect, locate, and classify marine mammals from the sounds they produce.

PAMGuard analyzes passive acoustic monitoring data

Large-Scale Field Study

Clausen et al. (2019) examined the performance of different passive acoustic monitoring filters and detectors in varying ocean noise environments....Read more

Clausen et al. (2019) examined the performance of different passive acoustic monitoring filters and detectors in varying ocean noise environments. The PAMGuard system was used to analyse harbour porpoise clicks and ambient noise data collected in the spring of 2013 and summer of 2014 in the west of Denmark.

Sarnocinska et al. (2017) observed harbor porpoises in the Danish Great and Little Belts between June and November, 2015 with C-PODS and PAMGuard. The accuracy of both methods was compared.

Keating et al. (2013) describe the beaked whale detectors and classifiers used during beaked whale surveys in Southern California (US) in the summer and fall of 2012.

Yack et al. (2009) evaluated the efficacy of using PAMGuard software (version 1.0) to detect cetaceans in marine environments by comparing manual detections to those made by PAMGuard during a SWFSC dolphin survey conducted in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean from 20 August to 28 November, 2007.

Read less
Clausen et al. 2019,
Sarnocinska et al. 2016,
Keating and Barlow 2013,
Yack et al. 2009
Mitigation Offshore

Construction, Operation
Habitat Alteration

Fish, Ecosystem Processes, Habitat, Invertebrates
ARC Marine Reef cube®

Reef cubes are concrete structures which aim to provide artificial reef structure and shelter for benthic animals. Reef cubes consist of materials developed to facilitate reef establishment. Configuration depends on the target species or habitat.

Reef cubes placed around turbine foundation

Small-Scale Field Study

Bureau Waardenburg (2020) conducted a survey of reef establishment techniques in the interest of enhancing ecosystem health around wind farms in the North Sea. Artificial reef structures such as reef cubes were included in the "toolbox" discussed.

...Read more

Bureau Waardenburg (2020) conducted a survey of reef establishment techniques in the interest of enhancing ecosystem health around wind farms in the North Sea. Artificial reef structures such as reef cubes were included in the "toolbox" discussed.

Brock et al. (1989) compared the efficacy of four artificial reef structures in establishing reef habitat over 12 years off of Oahu, Hawaii (US).

Read less
Bureau Waardenburg bv 2020,
Brock and Norris 1989
Mitigation Offshore

Construction, Operation
Habitat Alteration

Habitat, Fish, Marine Reptiles, Ecosystem Processes
Reef Ball Foundation ReefBalls

Reef Balls are concrete structures which aim to facilitate reef growth and provide shelter for benthic animals. Reef Balls consist of materials designed to facilitate reef establishment and are typically placed in groupings to initiate reef establishment.

Placed around the base of offshore wind turbines


Del Vita (2016) conducted hydraulic analysis of reef balls in a flume at the University of Naples.

Scyphers et al. (2015) compared the habitat value of oyster shell bags and Reef Balls along eroding coastline in Alabama (US) over the course of two years.

...Read more

Del Vita (2016) conducted hydraulic analysis of reef balls in a flume at the University of Naples.

Scyphers et al. (2015) compared the habitat value of oyster shell bags and Reef Balls along eroding coastline in Alabama (US) over the course of two years.

Langhamer et al. (2012) evaluated the state of artificial reef technology as it relates to the development of marine energy resources. Reef Balls were considered in their application around the base of marine energy infrastructure projects.

Wilson (2007) discussed benthic habitat changes expected in the development of offshore wind turbine. Measures for improving habitat such as artificial reef structures and scour protection measures were also discussed.

Read less
ILARIA DEL VITA 2016,
Scyphers et al. 2015,
Langhamer 2012,
Wilson 2007
Monitoring Land-based

Construction, Operation, Planning
Turbine Collision

Bats
Normandeau Associates REMOTE BAT ACOUSTIC TECHNOLOGY (ReBAT®) SYSTEM

The ReBAT® system uses a full-spectrum AR125 microphone (Binary Acoustic Technology, LLC) with the intent of classifying bat calls with a combination of manual expert analysis and SonoBatTM software (SonoBat, Arcata, CA) automated analysis.

Acoustic detectors mounted on the nacelle


Rabie et al. (2022) used ReBat as part of a Turbine Integrated Mortality Reduction (TIMR) system-curtailed turbines on 10 turbines at a wind farm in Fond Du Lac County, Wisconsin (US) in 2008-2009.

...Read more

Rabie et al. (2022) used ReBat as part of a Turbine Integrated Mortality Reduction (TIMR) system-curtailed turbines on 10 turbines at a wind farm in Fond Du Lac County, Wisconsin (US) in 2008-2009.

Foo et al. (2017) used Rebat on two operational wind turbines at Wolf Ridge Wind farm in the southern Great Plains (US) from July 2010 - 2011 to look at bat mortality rates and forging habits in proximity to wind farms.

Read less
Rabie et al. 2022,
Hale et al. 2017
Monitoring, Mitigation Land-based, Offshore

Planning, Construction, Operation, Decommissioning
Turbine Collision

Birds
Robin Radar Robin Radar 3D Flex system

Robin Radar's 3D Flex system consists of a horizontal S-band radar, combined with a flexible Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar....Read more

Robin Radar's 3D Flex system consists of a horizontal S-band radar, combined with a flexible Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar. The horizontal S-band radar aims to identify the presence and number of birds in time – including their location, height, direction, speed and route – up to 10 kilometres away. The FMCW radar has a 'scanning' mode, 'staring' mode, and 'automatic acquisition' mode. The system is designed to automatically switch turbines off and on again when the number of birds that enter a pre-set range crosses a specific threshold.

Read less

Free standing towers located on wind farm

Large-Scale Field Study

Zehtindjiev & Whitfield (2021) used the Robin Radar 3D Flex system at the Kaliakra Wind Farm (Bulgaria) to reduce collision risk between December 2020 and February 2021 and to test the system's ability to shut down a turbine to avoid collisions.

...Read more

Zehtindjiev & Whitfield (2021) used the Robin Radar 3D Flex system at the Kaliakra Wind Farm (Bulgaria) to reduce collision risk between December 2020 and February 2021 and to test the system's ability to shut down a turbine to avoid collisions.

Niemi & Tanttu (2020) used the Robin Radar 3D Flex system as part of a deep learning–based automatic bird identification system that was evaluated in terms of bird detection and identification ability at the Tahkoluoto Offshore Wind Farm (Finland).

Read less
Zehtindjiev and Whitfield 2022,
Niemi and Tanttu 2020
Monitoring, Mitigation Land-based, Offshore

Planning, Construction, Operation, Decommissioning
Turbine Collision

Birds
Robin Radar Robin Radar MAX

Robin Radar's MAX is a single sensor system that aims to create a 3D visualisation of bird flight paths. MAX consists of a radar system including radar antenna, processing station and user interface, breakout box and interconnecting power and network cables....Read more

Robin Radar's MAX is a single sensor system that aims to create a 3D visualisation of bird flight paths. MAX consists of a radar system including radar antenna, processing station and user interface, breakout box and interconnecting power and network cables. The system intends to capture height information for bird tracks and bird movements and display data in real-time. The system is designed to automatically switch turbines off and on again when the number of birds that enter a pre-set range crosses a specific threshold.

Read less

Free standing towers located on wind farm

Large-Scale Field Study

There is no publicly available literature documenting this technology's testing and validation history.

No available documents.
Mitigation, Monitoring Land-based, Offshore

Operation
Turbine Collision

Birds, Bats
Biodiv-Wind SAS SafeWind

SafeWind applies Artificial Intelligence algorithms to wildlife video-detection in order to detect birds and bats and deter them from flying into the rotor-swept zone of operational wind turbines. The deterrence system involves emitting warning sounds or shutting down the turbine.

Computing system with detection software inside the turbine tower based on 8 high-resolution cameras (infrared and visual) detection mounted on the turbine tower

Small-Scale Field Study

Soni et al. (2020) evaluated the SafeWind System at Hassel Wind Park in Germany in 2018. They looked at detection range and reaction range for several species.

...Read more

Soni et al. (2020) evaluated the SafeWind System at Hassel Wind Park in Germany in 2018. They looked at detection range and reaction range for several species.

Salkanović et al. (2020) evaluated various systems which use artificial intelligence software with the intent of predicting bird and bat turbine collisions.

Roche et al. (2017) tested the SafeWind system on a 2MW turbine in Mayenne, France during October 2016. Four cameras were installed in addition to a collision recording device. Infrared and video recordings were taken in addition to meteorological measurements. Experimentation is ongoing.

Read less
Soni et al. 2020,
Salkanovic et al. 2020,
Roche et al. 2017
Monitoring Offshore, Land-based

Operation, Planning
Turbine Collision

Birds
TERMA SCANTER 5000 Radar Series: Aircraft Detection Lighting System (ADLS) + Bird Monitoring

The SCANTER 5000 Radars are solid-state surveillance systems which aim to detect and separate small targets close to large targets such as wind turbines and wind farms. SCANTER is a fan beam and solid state radar which connects to a receiver....Read more

The SCANTER 5000 Radars are solid-state surveillance systems which aim to detect and separate small targets close to large targets such as wind turbines and wind farms. SCANTER is a fan beam and solid state radar which connects to a receiver. Side lobe suppression is intnded to allow the radar to detect small air targets around, between and above wind turbines up to 18 nautical miles. Turbine aviation lights can be kept off during night time to prevent light pollution and attracting birds while the radar ensures that the light is only turned on when aircraft are detected in the vicinity of the turbines

Read less

Onshore: Free standing towers located inside or outside wind farm.

Offshore: On substation (OSS), Transition Pieces (TP) or dedicated turbine tower/mono-pile.

The SCANTER radars provide radar plots/tracks and video in ASTERIX format. SCANTER series can be integrated with SCADA systems and is WTG independent

Large-Scale Field Study

Skov et al. (2018) used SCANTER and LAWR radars to monitor seabird behavior at the Thanet Offshore Wind Farm (UK) between August 2014 and June 2016. In total, the SCANTER radar detected and tracked 1,205 tracks for five target species.

Skov et al. 2018
Monitoring Offshore

Planning
Habitat Alteration

Ecosystem Processes, Habitat, Hydrodynamics
Integral Consulting Sediment Erosion at Depth Flume (SEDflume)

SEDFlume is a tool that aims to provide direct measurement of the erosion properties of marine sediment by measuring erosion rates with depth and characterizing erosion properties of layered sediment....Read more

SEDFlume is a tool that aims to provide direct measurement of the erosion properties of marine sediment by measuring erosion rates with depth and characterizing erosion properties of layered sediment. SEDflume intends to be effective for any type of marine sediments but is most designed for fine sediment and fine sandy sediment mixtures.

Read less

Samples are collected from the seabed, safely stored, and tested in the laboratory.

Large-Scale Field Study

SEDflume has been applied at over 100 sites worldwide to characterize sediment erodibility. McNeil et. al (1996) and Roberts et. al (1998) laid the groundwork for further development and applications by Integral Consulting staff....Read more

SEDflume has been applied at over 100 sites worldwide to characterize sediment erodibility. McNeil et. al (1996) and Roberts et. al (1998) laid the groundwork for further development and applications by Integral Consulting staff. Use of SEDflume and its methods have been approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to evaluate sediment mobility and inform engineering design. SEDflume has not been applied for an offshore wind development yet.

Read less
McNeil et al. 1996,
Roberts et al. 1998
Monitoring Land-based

Construction, Operation, Planning
Habitat Alteration, Noise

Bats, Ecosystem Processes
SonoBat SonoBat

SonoBat is bat call analysis software that aims to allow users to identify bat species and number through the detection and extraction of ball calls from audio recordings.

Separate computer not on wind farm

Large-Scale Field Study

Starbuck et al. (2022) used SonoBat to monitor bat activity at 92 sites in northern Arizona (US) in summer and fall of 2016 and 2017 and analyze how land cover and topography effects bat activity.

...Read more

Starbuck et al. (2022) used SonoBat to monitor bat activity at 92 sites in northern Arizona (US) in summer and fall of 2016 and 2017 and analyze how land cover and topography effects bat activity.

Grider et al. (2016) used SonoBat to monitor nightly bat activity at 6 locations in North Carolina (US) from September 2012 to August 2014 using data collected by Song Meter.

Read less
Starbuck et al. 2022,
Grider et al. 2016
Monitoring, Mitigation Land-based, Offshore

Operation, Planning, Construction
Turbine Collision, Habitat Alteration, Displacement

Birds
Spoor Spoor AI Bird Monitoring System

Spoor´s software aims to use computer vision and AI to detect, track, and classify birds in wind farms to help developers and operators gain insights and guide mitigation measures....Read more

Spoor´s software aims to use computer vision and AI to detect, track, and classify birds in wind farms to help developers and operators gain insights and guide mitigation measures. Spoor is intended to help developers to improve understanding of how birds behave while travelling in the vicinity of wind farms.

Read less

Mounted on the turbine service platform, flaoating bouys, and other wind farm infrastructure

Large-Scale Field Study

The Spoor AI system is currently installed at the Unitech Zefyros floating turbine test site off the coast of Norway and in the North Sea. Additionally, it has been installed at four onshore sites and will be installed on Equinor's Hywind Tampen Windfarm. Results are currently unpublished.

Nicholls et al. 2022
Monitoring Offshore, Land-based

Operation
Turbine Collision

Bats
Wageningen University Thermal Stereo Vision Application

The Thermal Stereo Vision Application aims to better understand bat movements in the area surrounding an offshore wind turbine through the collection of 3D and 2D flight path data. The system consists of two thermal cameras in a stereoscopic setup in addition to ultrasonic microphones.

Two synchronized thermal cameras in the vicinity of the turbine, three ultrasound microphones mounted on the turbine tower at varying heights

Small-Scale Field Study

Lagerveld et al. (2020) evaluated various technologies developed to detect bird and bat collisions with wind turbines.

...Read more

Lagerveld et al. (2020) evaluated various technologies developed to detect bird and bat collisions with wind turbines.

Lagerveld et al. (2017) conducted a feasibility study evaluating the use of thermal cameras in a stereoscopic setup to record bat flight paths at an offshore wind turbine. The study was conducted between August and September 2016 at an offshore wind operation in Wieringermeer, the Netherlands.

Read less
Lagerveld et al. 2020,
Lagerveld et al. 2017
Monitoring Land-based, Offshore

Planning, Operation
Attraction, Avoidance, Turbine Collision

Birds, Bats
PNNL ThermalTracker-3D

The ThermalTracker-3D system aims to evaluate the flight tracks of birds and bats around offshore wind turbines. A pair of thermal video cameras sense movement of animals and objects, day and night, and stereo-vision processing transforms the flight track into three dimensions....Read more

The ThermalTracker-3D system aims to evaluate the flight tracks of birds and bats around offshore wind turbines. A pair of thermal video cameras sense movement of animals and objects, day and night, and stereo-vision processing transforms the flight track into three dimensions. Real-time processing aims to reduce data storage and bandwidth requirements. For floating applications, the ThermalTracker-3D may require camera stabilization to compensate for wave motion.

Read less

Located on ground, surface, or floating platform, looking upward at turbine blades

Pilot Field Study

Matzner et al. (2022) describe the integration of the ThermalTracker-3D system with a wind-profiling buoy and deployment offshore in California. The system was deployed for 14 weeks between May and August 2021, collecting seabird activity data, including nocturnal activity.

...Read more

Matzner et al. (2022) describe the integration of the ThermalTracker-3D system with a wind-profiling buoy and deployment offshore in California. The system was deployed for 14 weeks between May and August 2021, collecting seabird activity data, including nocturnal activity.

Matzner et al. (2020) present a method for tracking the flight trajectories of birds and bats and creating composite images of flight trajectories with data from thermal cameras. Drones were used to assess accuracy of detections near a wind farm in Boulder, Colorado (US) during 2020.

Read less
Matzner et al. 2022,
Matzner et al. 2020,
Matzner et al. 2015