Birds

Generic term that applies to all types of birds.

Birds

Birds (class Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines. Collision with wind turbine blades can kill birds, though the impact of individual deaths on the greater population varies greatly based on species. Reserach is exploring mitigation such as operation limitations, siting location, and lighting selection. Bird collisions with offshore wind turbines present the additional challenge of being unable to count bodies to determine the scale of mortality. Marine energy poses some threat to diving birds colliding with tidal turbines, or birds colliding with floating wave devices during adverse weather conditions. Birds are classified in the following categories:

Photo Credit: "Birds in sunset over water" by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Total Results: 1427
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus population trends in relation to wind farms Wilson, M., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Comparing Pre- Versus Postoperational Movement of Nocturnal Migrants around a Wind Energy Facility in Northeast British Columbia, Canada d'Entremont, M., Hartley, I., Otter, K. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
DTBird System Pilot Installation in Sweden. Possibilities for Bird Monitoring Systems around Wind Farms. Experiences from Sweden's First DTBird Installation Litsgård, F., et al. December 2016 Report Wind Energy general Birds
Assessment of Displacement Impacts of Offshore Windfarms and Other Human Activities on Red-Throated Divers and Alcids McGovern, S., Goddard, B., Rehfisch, M. December 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Response of migrating raptors to an increasing number of wind farms Cabrera-Cruz, S., Villegas-Patraca, R. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Quantifying Pursuit-Diving Seabirds' Associations with Fine-Scale Physical Features in Tidal Stream Environments Waggitt, J., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Renewable Energy and Wildlife Conservation Khalil, M. December 2016 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
Patterns of migrating soaring migrants indicate attraction to marine wind farms Skov, H., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Lack of Sound Science in Assessing Wind Farm Impacts on Seabirds Green, R., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Appendix L-1 WEST Summary of Risks to Birds and Bats Gordon, C., Erickson, W. November 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Pentland Firth MeyGen AR1500 and HS1500 Video Camera Data November 2016 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Bird Migration Intensity and Number of Collision Victims at the Wind Power Plant Le Peuchapatte (Switzerland) Aschwanden, J., Liechti, F. November 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Bird migration monitoring in the Saint Nikola Wind Farm, Kaliakra region, in autumn 2016, and an analysis of potential impact after seven years of operation Zehtindjiev, P. November 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Bird and Bat Impacts and Behaviors at Old Wind Turbines at Forebay, Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., Neher, L. November 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds
Collision and Displacement Vulnerability Among Marine Birds of the California Current System Associated with Offshore Wind Energy Infrastructure Adams, J., et al. October 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Seabirds and Offshore Wind Farms in European Waters: Avoidance and Attraction Dierschke, V., Furness, R., Garthe, S. October 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Wind energy, nest success, and post‐fledging survival of Buteo hawks Kolar, P., Bechard, M. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Predicting the offshore distribution and abundance of marine birds with a hierarchical community distance sampling model Goyert, H., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Evaluating Digital VHF Technology to Monitor Shorebird and Seabird Use of Offshore Wind Energy Areas in the Western North Atlantic Loring, P. September 2016 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Using multi-label classification for acoustic pattern detection and assisting bird species surveys Zhang, L., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Birds
Incorporating Data Uncertainty when Estimating Potential Vulnerability of Scottish Seabirds to Marine Renewable Energy Developments Wade, H., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general Birds, Seabirds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Predicting Eagle Fatalities at Wind Facilities Bay, K., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Displacement of seabirds by an offshore wind farm in the North Sea Welcker, J., Nehls, G. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
A Synchronized Sensor Array for Remote Monitoring of Avian and Bat Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities Suryan, R., Albertani, R., Polagye, B. July 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Predictable Hydrodynamic Conditions Explain Temporal Variations in the Density of Benthic Foraging Seabirds in a Tidal Stream Environment Waggitt, J., et al. July 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Bird Migration Monitoring in the Saint Nikola Wind Farm, Kaliakra Region, in Autumn 2015, and an Analysis of Potential Impact after Six Years of Operation Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. July 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Negative Impact of Wind Energy Development on a Breeding Shorebird Assessed with a BACI Study Design Sansom, A., Pearce-Higgins, J., Douglas, D. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands Costa, B., Kendall, M. July 2016 Report Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Prognosis and Assessment of Bird Collision Risks at Wind Turbines in Northern Germany PROGRESS Grunkorn, T., et al. July 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards Mojica, E., Watts, B., Turrin, C. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Auditory Sensitivity in Aquatic Animals Lucke, K., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Proximity to wind-power plants reduces the breeding success of the white-tailed eagle Balotari-Chiebao, F., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Deep Green Holyhead Deep Project Phase I (0.5 MW) - Environmental Statement Minesto June 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessment of Diurnal Wind Turbine Collision Risk for Grassland Birds on the Southern Great Plains Wulff, S., Butler, M., Ballard, W. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Guidelines for Conducting Bird and Bat Studies at Commercial Wind Energy Projects New York State Department of Environmental Conservation June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Modeling At-Sea Occurrence and Abundance of Marine Birds to Support Atlantic Marine Renewable Energy Planning: Phase 1 Report Kinlan, B., et al. May 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Avian Interactions with Energy Infrastructure in the Context of Other Anthropogenic Threats Loss, S. May 2016 Journal Article Birds
Reproductive success of Horned Lark and McCown's Longspur in relation to wind energy infrastructure Mahoney, A., Chalfoun, A. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Passerines
Literature review and evidence based field study on the effects of high voltage transmission lines on birds May 2016 Report Wind Energy general Static Device Birds
Integrating a Multibeam and a Multifrequency Echosounder on the Flowbec Seabed Platform to Track Fish and Seabird Behavior around Tidal Turbine Structures Williamson, B., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Fish
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Wintering Sandhill Crane Exposure to Wind Energy Development in the Central and Southern Great Plains, USA Pearse, A., Brandt, D., Krapu, G. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Avian interactions with renewable energy infrastructure: An update Smith, J., Dwyer, J. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds
Wind Energy Development: Methods to Assess Bird and Bat Fatality Rates Post-Construction Huso, M., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
ABC’s Bird-Smart Wind Energy Campaign: Protecting Birds from Poorly Sited Wind Energy Development Hutchins, M., Parr, M., Schroeder, D. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
Reconciling endangered species conservation with wind farm development: Cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe Vasilakis, D., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report Sinclair, K., DeGeorge, E. April 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Avian Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North America: A Comparison of Recent Approaches Johnson, D., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Impact of Wind Energy on Wildlife: Synthesis Leopold, B., Hutchins, M. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
Contrasting effects of GPS device and harness attachment on adult survival of Lesser Black‐backed Gulls Larus fuscus and Great Skuas Stercorarius skua Thaxter, C., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general Birds
Wind Energy Development: Methods for Assessing Risks to Birds and Bats Pre-Construction Katzner, T., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Framework for Testing the Effectiveness of Bat and Eagle Impact-Reduction Strategies at Wind Energy Projects Sinclair, K., DeGeorge, E. April 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Mitigating Wind Energy Impacts on Wildlife: Approaches for Multiple Taxa Arnett, E., May, R. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "St. Nikola" territory and the Kaliakra region in winter 2015/2016 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, P. April 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Waterfowl
A Theoretical Approach to Estimating Bird Risk of Collision with Wind Turbines Where Empirical Flight Activity Data Are Lacking Furness, R., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season Warwick-Evans, V., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2015 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Indirect Effects of an Existing Wind Energy Facility on Lekking Behavior of Greater Prairie-Chickens Smith, J., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Prioritizing Avian Species for Their Risk of Population Level Consequences from Wind Energy Development Beston, J., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Environmental Interview: Wind Power, Birds and Bats Green, M., Rydell, J. March 2016 Video Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
Addressing the factors that juxtapose raptors and wind turbines Hunt,G., Watson, J. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Assessing the Impact of Small-Scale Wind Energy Proposals on the Natural Heritage Scottish Natural Heritage March 2016 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Assessing spring direct mortality to avifauna from wind energy facilities in the Dakotas Graff, B., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
The Use of an Unsupervised Learning Approach for Characterizing Latent Behaviors in Accelerometer Data Chimienti, M., et al. February 2016 Journal Article Birds
Effects of Wind-Energy Facilities on Breeding Grassland Bird Distributions Shaffer, J., Buhl, D. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Approaching Population Thresholds in Presence of Uncertainty: Assessing Displacement of Seabirds from Offshore Wind Farms Busch, M., Garthe, S. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Collision Risk Model for "rufa" Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa) Interacting with a Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Facility in Nantucket Sound, Massachusetts Gordon, C., Nations, C. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Shorebirds
Impacts to Birds and Bats Due to Collisions and Electrocutions from Some Tall Structures in the United States: Wires, Towers, Turbines, and Solar Arrays - State of the Art in Addressing the Problems Manville, A. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Effects of a Wind Energy Development on Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Selection and Population Demographics in Southeastern Wyoming LeBeau, C., et al. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Reintroduction of White-tailed Eagles Haliaeetus albicilla to Ireland Mee, A., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Avian Collision Risk Models for Wind Energy Impact Assessments Masden, E., Cook, A. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Using kernel density estimation to explore habitat use by seabirds at a marine renewable wave energy test facility Leesa, K., Guerin, A., Masden, E. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds
Problematic Wildlife: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach Angelici, F. January 2016 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Bird collisions at an offshore platform in the North Sea Hüppop, O., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
A Self-Contained Subsea Platform for Acoustic Monitoring of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices - Field Deployments at Wave and Tidal Energy Sites in Orkney, Scotland Williamson, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Conflicts Between Birds and On-Shore Wind Farms Zwart, M., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
U.S. Geological Survey—Energy and Wildlife Research Annual Report for 2016 Khalil, M. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Assessing local population vulnerability with branching process models: an application to wind energy development Erickson, R., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
A framework for decision points to trigger adaptive management actions in long-term incidental take permits Dalthorp, D., Huso, M. December 2015 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
Direct Mortality of Birds from Anthropogenic Causes Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Three Dimensional Tracking of a Wide-Ranging Marine Predator: Flight Heights and Vulnerability to Offshore Wind Farms Cleasby, I., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Synopsis des internationalen Kenntnisstandes zum Einfluss der Windenergie auf Fledermäuse und Vögel und Spezifizierung für die Schweiz Muller, J., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Ökobilanzierung von Schweizer Windenergie Eymann, L., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Statistical guidelines for assessing marine avian hotspots and coldspots: A case study on wind energy development in the U.S. Atlantic Ocean Zipkin, E., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Effects of Wind Farms on Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus) in Southern Spain Hernández-Pliego, J., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Two-Dimensional Thermal Video Analysis of Offshore Bird and Bat Flight Matzner, S., Cullinan, V., Duberstein, C. November 2015 Journal Article Bats, Birds
Acoustic Indices for Biodiversity Assessments: Analyses of Bias Based on Simulated Bird Assemblages and Recommendations for Field Surveys Gasc, A., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Birds, Ecosystem
Developing an automated risk management tool to minimize bird and bat mortality at wind facilities Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Hooton, L. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
Assessing the structure and temporal dynamics of seabird communities: the challenge of capturing marine ecosystem complexity Moreno, R., et al. October 2015 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem
Wales' Marine Evidence Report Welsh Government October 2015 Report Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Pentland Firth Meygen AR1500 FLOWBEC Platform Multi-beam and Echosounder Data October 2015 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
A Unifying Framework for the Underlying Mechanisms of Avian Avoidance of Wind Turbines May, R. October 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Birds
Wildlife Densities and Habitat Use Across Temporal and Spatial Scales on the Mid-Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (2012-2014) Williams, K., et al. October 2015 Report Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Continuation Implementation Masterplan Wind at Sea Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid), Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (Rijkwaterstaat) September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
NYSERDA Environmental Research Program Plan Research Area 4: Marine Wind and Wildlife New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Impacts of Wind Energy on Environment: A Review Wang, S., Wang, S. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Symbiotic Offshore Energy Harvesting and Storage Systems Slocum, A. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Developing an Avian Collision Risk Model to Incorporate Variability and Uncertainty Masden, E. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Investigating the Potential Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Developments on Seabirds Wade, H. September 2015 Thesis Marine Energy general Birds
Assessing Seabird Displacement at Offshore Wind Farms: Power Ranges of a Monitoring and Data Handling Protocol Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds

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