EMF

An electromagnetic field created by electricity moving through cables.

Electromagnetic Fields

 

Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are generated around cables and substations that transmit or store electricity. Offshore renewable energy generated at sea is transported to shore through large power export cables along the seabed, while land-based wind energy may often transport the electricity through large overhead power lines. The movement of electricity induces both an electric field and a magnetic field, which are collectively referred to as EMF. The distance over which the EMF persists is dependent on the strength of the signal and the density of the surrounding material. Electric fields can be contained by shielding and undersea cables will commonly be buried under sensitive intertidal habitat; however, magnetic fields are not easily contained. In addition to the naturally occurring geomagnetic fields on earth, EMF from cables and devices are thought to potentially cause changes in behavior, migratory navigation, development rate, and reproductive success. Marine organisms at high risk include species of elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays), finfish including some species of sturgeon and eels, and sea turtles. 

Total Results: 155
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
A review of potential impacts of submarine power cables on the marine environment: Knowledge gaps, recommendations and future directions Taormina, B., et al. November 2018 Journal Article EMF, Static Device
Behavioral responses by migrating juvenile salmonids to a subsea high-voltage DC power cable Wyman, M., et al. August 2018 Journal Article EMF Fish
Understanding the effects of electromagnetic field emissions from Marine Renewable Energy Devices (MREDs) on the commercially important edible crab, Cancer pagurus (L.) Scott, K., Harsanyi, P., Lyndon, A. June 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates
Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Impacts on Elasmobranch (shark, rays, and skates) and American Lobster Movement and Migration from Direct Current Cables Hutchison, Z., et al. March 2018 Report Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Assessment of Potential Impact of Electromagnetic Fields from Undersea Cable on Migratory Fish Behavior Kavet, R., et al. September 2016 Report Marine Energy general EMF Fish
Effects of EMF Emissions from Undersea Electric Cables on Coral Reef Fishes Jermain, R. July 2016 Thesis EMF Fish
Appendix O Summary of Current Information Related to Electromagnetic Field Impacts on Fish and LEEDCo Proposed Transmission Cable Verhamme, E., Daley, J., Peterson, G. June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
Assessment of Electromagnetic Field Emissions from Subsea Cables Dhanak, M., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general EMF
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Renewable Energy in situ Power Cable Observation Love, M., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Modeling Magnetic Fields from a DC Power Cable Buried Beneath San Francisco Bay Based on Empirical Measurements Kavet, R., Wyman, M., Klimley, A. February 2016 Journal Article EMF
Potential Impact of Submarine Power Cables on Crab Harvest Bull, A., Nishimoto, M. February 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates
Current Ability to Assess Impacts of Electromagnetic Fields Associated with Marine and Hydrokinetic Technologies on Marine Fishes in Hawaii Claisse, J., et al. September 2015 Report Marine Energy general EMF Fish
MaRVEN - Environmental Impacts of Noise, Vibrations and Electromagnetic Emissions from Marine Renewable Energy Thomsen, F., et al. September 2015 Report Marine Energy general EMF
Characterization of EMF Emissions from Submarine Cables and Monitoring for Potential Responses of Marine Species Dhanak, M., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper EMF
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Behavior of Largemouth Bass and Pallid Sturgeon in an Experimental Pond Setting Bevelhimer, M., Cada, G., Scherelis, C. September 2015 Report EMF Fish
MHK and Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) Gill, A. May 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general EMF
Wind Energy's Impact on Aviation, Radar, and Telecommunications Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind EMF Socio-economics, Navigation
Environmental and Ecological Impacts of Wind Energy on Humans: Public Health Issues Walker, R., Swift, A. May 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Lighting, Noise
Identical Response of Caged Rock Crabs (Genera Metacarcinus and Cancer) to Energized and Unenergized Undersea Power Cables in Southern California, USA Love, M., et al. April 2015 Journal Article EMF Benthic Invertebrates
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1 Electromagnetic Fields Best Practice Report Rollings, E. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF
Electromagnetic Field Impacts on Elasmobranch and American Lobster Movement and Migration from Direct Current Cables March 2015 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Environmental Issues Associated with Wind Energy - A Review Dai, K., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF, Noise, Static Device
Evidence for Geomagnetic Imprinting and Magnetic Navigation in the Natal Homing of Sea Turtles Brothers, J., Lohmann, K. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general EMF Sea Turtles
Using Medaka Embryos as a Model System to Study Biological Effects of the Electromagnetic Fields on Development and Behavior Lee, W., Yang, K. October 2014 Journal Article EMF Fish
Assessing Ecological Risks of Offshore Wind Power on Kattegat Cod Hammar, L., Wikström, A., Molander, S. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish
Rearing in a Distorted Magnetic Field Disrupts the 'Map Sense' of Juvenile Steelhead Trout Putman, N., Meinke, A., Noakes, D. May 2014 Journal Article EMF Fish
Navitus Bay Wind Park Technical Appendix 2.1 - EMF Calculations Report Dorey, P. April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Wildlife - A Generalized Impact Assessment Bergström, L., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
An Inherited Magnetic Map Guides Ocean Navigation in Juvenile Pacific Salmon Putman, N., et al. February 2014 Journal Article EMF Fish
Marine Renewable Energy, Electromagnetic (EM) Fields and EM-Sensitive Animals Gill, A., et al. February 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general EMF
D4.7 Best Practice Report on Environmental Monitoring and New Study Techniques Norris, J., et al. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device
Elasmobranch Cognitive Ability: Using Electroreceptive Foraging Behaviour to Demonstrate Learning, Habituation and Memory in a Benthic Shark Kimber, J., et al. January 2014 Journal Article EMF Fish
Humanity and the Sea: Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions Shields, M., Payne, A. January 2014 Book Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
MaRVEN - Environmental Impacts of Noise, Vibrations and Electromagnetic Emissions from Marine Renewables December 2013 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Fairhead Tidal Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Document McGrath, C. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Marine Renewable Energy: A Global Review of the Extent of Marine Renewable Energy Developments, the Developing Technologies and Possible Conservation Implications for Cetaceans James, V. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals
An Analysis about Wind Farm Construction Based on the Perspective of the Development of Ecological Environment Bai, Z. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Noise, Static Device
Effects of an Electric Field on White Sharks: In Situ Testing of an Electric Deterrent Huveneers, C., et al. May 2013 Journal Article EMF Fish
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates - FY2012 Progress Report Woodruff, D., et al. May 2013 Report Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Behavioral Responses of Representative Freshwater Fish Species to Electromagnetic Fields Bevelhimer, M., et al. April 2013 Journal Article EMF Fish
Bioelectric Fields of Marine Organisms: Voltage and Frequency Contributions to Detectability by Electroreceptive Predators Bedore, C., Kajiura, S. April 2013 Journal Article EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
EPRI Workshop on EMF and Aquatic Life Electric Power Research Institute April 2013 Workshop Article Marine Energy general EMF Nearfield Habitat
Proceedings of the Oregon Marine Renewable Energy Environmental Sciences Conference Boehlert, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Evidence for Geomagnetic Imprinting as a Homing Mechanism in Pacific Salmon Putman, N., et al. February 2013 Journal Article EMF Fish
Electromagnetic Simulation of the Near-Field Distribution around a Wind Farm Ling, H., Yang, S. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Nearfield Habitat
Partnership for Research In Marine Renewable Energy (PRIMaRE) January 2013 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Will Ocean Energy Harm Marine Ecosystems? January 2013 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Conceptual Models of Potential Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Impacts on Biological Resources Grippo, M., Hlohowskyj, I. October 2012 Report Marine Energy general EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
MERiFIC 3.2.1: Documentary Summary of the Environmental Impact of Renewable Marine Energy Sotta, C. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Potential Interactions between Diadromous Fishes of U.K. Conservation Importance and the Electromagnetic Fields and Subsea Noise from Marine Renewable Energy Developments Gill, A., Bartlett, M., Thomsen, F. July 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general EMF, Noise Fish
Offshore Wave Energy Generation Devices: Impacts on Ocean Bio-Environment Lin, L., Yu, H. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
The Magnetic Map of Hatchling Loggerhead Sea Turtles Lohmann, K., Putman, N., Lohmann, C. April 2012 Journal Article EMF Sea Turtles
Admiralty Inlet Final License Application Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Simulating Transoceanic Migrations of Young Loggerhead Sea Turtles: Merging Magnetic Navigation Behavior with an Ocean Circulation Model Putman, N., et al. February 2012 Journal Article EMF Sea Turtles
Environmental Impact Assessment of the Danish Wave Energy Center January 2012 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Electromagnetic Fields Emitted by High Voltage Alternating Current Offshore Wind Power Cables and Interactions with Marine Organisms Gill, A., et al. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Stenberg, C., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Ecology of Fishes in a High-Latitude, Turbid River with Implications for the Impacts of Hydrokinetic Devices Seitz, A., et al. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal Fish
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Copping, A., Hanna, L. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Final Environmental Assessment of Maine's Deepwater Offshore Floating Wind Turbine Testing and Demonstration Project US Department of Energy September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of MHK Energy Copping, A., et al. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Effects on Freshwater Organisms of Magnetic Fields Associated with Hydrokinetic Turbines Cada, G., et al. July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Effects of EMFs from Underwater Power Cables on Elasmobranchs and Other Marine Species Tricas, T., Gill, A. May 2011 Report EMF Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Effects of EMFs from Undersea Power Cables on Elasmobranchs and other Marine Species Normandeau Associates, et al. May 2011 Report EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Effective Monitoring Strategies Conley, D. April 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals, EMF, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Longitude Perception and Bicoordinate Magnetic Maps in Sea Turtles Putman, N., et al. March 2011 Journal Article EMF Sea Turtles
Scotland's Marine Atlas: Information for the National Marine Plan Baxter, J., et al. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
A Preliminary Review of the Impact of Placing Portions of an Extra-High Voltage Transmission Line Beneath the Chesapeake Bay & Other Waters Community & Environmental Defense Service February 2011 Report EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Coastal Marine Animal Surveys January 2011 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general EMF, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
The ability of a benthic elasmobranch to discriminate between biological and artificial electric fields Kimber, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article EMF Fish
Bringing OTEC Environmental Assessments of the 1980s Up To 21st Century Oceanographic Standards Sansone, F., Comfort, C., Weng, K. December 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Impact of Electric and Magnetic Fields from Sub-sea Cables on Marine Organisms - The Current State of Knowledge Olsson, T., et al. November 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Magnetic Intensity Study: Long Island Replacement Cables Ocean Surveys November 2010 Report EMF
Accelerating Ocean Energy to the Marketplace: Environmental Research at the U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratories Copping, A., et al. October 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Socio-economics
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates - FY2010 Progress Report Schultz, I., et al. October 2010 Report Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
List of Environmental Effects of MHK Devices Simas, T., Moura, A., Conley, D. September 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Review of Literature and Studies on Electro Magnetic Fields (EMF) Generated by Undersea Power Cables and Associated Influence on Marine Organisms Switzer, T., Meggitt, D. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Marine Species: A Literature Review Slater, M. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Bayesian Integration for Marine Spatial Planning and Renewable Energy Siting September 2010 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Electromagnetic Field Study Slater, M., et al. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF
Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy Wilhelmsson, D., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Acuity of a Cryptochrome and Vision-Based Magnetoreception System in Birds Solov'yov, I., Mouritsen, H., Schulten, K. July 2010 Journal Article EMF Birds
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 1: Overview, Summary, and Application Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Assessing Potential Physical, Chemical and Biological Impacts and Risks Coastal Response Research Center June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Coastal And Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Wilson, J., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Potential OTEC Impacts in the Hawaiian Marine Environment Parke, M. January 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Literature Review on the Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields and Subsea Noise from Marine Renewable Energy Developments on Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel Gill, A., Bartlett, M. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF, Noise Fish
Assessing the Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development on Marine and Estuarine Resources Ward, J., et al. January 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Environmental Impacts NOAA Office of Ocean & Coastal Resource Management January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Report to Congress on the Potential Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies US Department of Energy December 2009 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
The Physics Of Geomagnetic-Field Transduction In Animals Winklhofer, M. November 2009 Journal Article EMF Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of Tidal and Wave Energy Technology in Canada Isaacman, L., Lee, K. November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
The Aversive Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation on Foraging Bats - A Possible Means of Discouraging Bats from Approaching Wind Turbines Nicholls, B., Racey, P. July 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF Bats
Strategic Priorities for Assessing Ecological Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Devices in the Pentland Firth (Scotland, UK) Shields, M., et al. July 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
COWRIE 2.0 Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Phase 2: EMF Sensitive Fish Response to EM Emissions from Sub-sea Electricity Cables of the Type used by the Offshore Renewable Energy Industry Gill, A., et al. March 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
Peninsula Research Institute for Marine Renewable Energy (PRIMaRE) January 2009 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Navigation

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