Invertebrates are organisms that lack a backbone. This includes all animals apart from the subphylum Vertebrata. Benthic invertebrates typically live on the seafloor; common examples include cephalopods (squid, octopus, nautilus), crustaceans (crabs, shrimp, lobsters), and mollusks (clams, barnacles). Many benthic invertebrates serve as indicators of ecosystem health and are harvested commercially around the world. Invertebrates that may be found on land include insects, worms, and arachnids.
Electromagnetic fields, noise pollution, changes in flow, and other impacts from offshore developments may affect the health of some benthic invertebrates. Changes in water quality may also alter benthic habitats and the organisms that reside within them negatively. However, the addition of offshore wind energy and marine renewable energy’s subsea cables and support structures to the seafloor may also provide new habitat, potentially acting as artificial reefs and attracting benthic invertebrates. Invertebrates found on land, such as insects, may be attracted to land-based wind energy's lighting and as a result, may be at a heightened risk of collision.