Studies have largely focused on the impact of land-based wind energy facilities on large carnivores (wolves, bears) and ungulates (deer, moose), though smaller animals may be affected in similar ways. The construction process may temporarily displace mammals, causing a reduction in habitat. Access roads may permanently reduce habitat and can cause segmentation for smaller animals. Turbine noise emissions and visual stimuli (reflections, shadows, lighting) may stress wildlife and livestock, but animals may become accustomed to these disturbances. However, wind farms are not known to cause any direct mortality to terrestrial mammals.
Photo Credit: Jared Belson