Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Waves are a result of the interaction between the wind (a result of temperature differentials created from the sun) and the water’s surface. The energy potential for waves is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast due to the global direction of the wind. Additionally, waves will increase in size when there is a greater distance for them to build up.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the five most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

 

This device floats on the surface of the water and is held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Point absorber buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity.

 

The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or they may either attract organisms to the device or cause them to avoid the site. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some device designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale wave energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Surface Attenuator

 

Surface attenuators have multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. Similar to point absorber buoys, they use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that drives hydraulic pumps to generates electricity.

 

Concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

 

Oscillating water column devices can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity.

 

Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collision, attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.

 

There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting trapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. When located offshore, concerns about attraction or avoidance, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes.

 

Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision with the moving component or attraction, such as artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy.

Total Results: 450
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
An LCA of the Pelamis wave energy converter Thomson, R., Chick, J., Harrison, G. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Life Cycle Assessment
"Small is Beautiful" - But will Small WECs Ever Become Commercial? Friis-Madsen, E., Soerensen, H., Russell, I. July 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
2018 State of the Sector Report: Marine Renewable Energy in Canada Marine Renewables Canada June 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Spotlight on Ocean Energy: 20 Projects + 5 Policy Initiatives Ocean Energy Systems (OES) April 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Wave and Tidal Energy: Environmental Effects Iglesias, G., et al. March 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
The Role of Wave Energy Converter Farms on Coastal Protection in Eroding Deltas, Guadalfeo, Southern Spain Bergillos, R., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Assessment of Chemicals Released in the Marine Environment by Dielectric Elastomers Useful as Active Elements in Wave Energy Harvesters Zaltariov, M., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals
CorPower Ocean – Scapa Flow, EMEC January 2018 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
The State of Knowledge for Environmental Effects: Driving Consenting/Permitting for the Marine Renewable Energy Industry Copping, A. January 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
REEFS: An Artificial Reef for Wave Energy Harnessing and Shore Protection – A New Concept Towards Multipurpose Sustainable Solutions de Almeida, J. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Artificial Reefs, Fish Aggregating Devices, and Benthic Changes Sharon Kramer and Olivia Langhamer November 2017 Blog Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Final Report The Pacific Marine Energy Center - South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) Batten, B., Hellin, D. November 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Measuring Changes in Ambient Noise Levels from the Installation and Operation of a Surge Wave Energy Converter in the Coastal Ocean Henkel, S., Haxel, J. October 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Large Scale Three-Dimensional Modelling for Wave and Tidal Energy Resource and Environmental Impact: Methodologies for Quantifying Acceptable Thresholds for Sustainable Exploitation Gallego, A., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Developing Methodologies for Large Scale Wave and Tidal Stream Marine Renewable Energy Extraction and its Environmental Impact: An Overview of the TeraWatt Project Side, J., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wave and Tidal Range Energy Devices Offer Environmental Opportunities as Artificial Reefs Callaway, R., et al. September 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Final Report Feasibility Study for the California Wave Energy Test Center (CalWave) Volume 2 Dooher, B., et al. July 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Final Report Feasibility Study for the California Wave Energy Test Center (CalWave) Volume 1 Blakeslee, S., et al. July 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Biodiversity Characterisation and Hydrodynamic Consequences of Marine Fouling Communities on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the Orkney Islands Archipelago, Scotland, UK Want, A., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Ocean Wave Energy in the United States: Current Status and Future Perspectives Lehmann, M., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Assessment of the Motion of Wave Power Generation by Water Tank Test Yoshida, T., Kitazawa, D., Mizukami, Y. June 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Acoustic Life Cycle Assessment of Offshore Renewables - Implications from a Wave-Energy Converter Deployment in Falmouth Bay, UK Blondel, P., Walsh, J. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Characterisation of the Biofouling Community on a Floating Wave Energy Device Nall, C., Schläppy, M., Guerin, A. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
The Impact of Marine Renewable Energy Extraction on Sediment Dynamics Neill, S., Robins, P., Fairley, I. April 2017 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wave energy and flow reduce the abundance and size of benthic species on oyster reefs Lunt, J., Reustle, J., Smee, D. April 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Acoustic characterization of Mutriku OWC Plant Bald, J., et al. March 2017 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Monitoring the Condition of Marine Renewable Energy Devices through Underwater Acoustic Emissions: Case study of a Wave Energy Converter in Falmouth Bay, UK Walsh, J., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Impact of Climate Change on Wave Energy Resource: The Case of Menorca (Spain) Sierra, J., Casas-Prat, M., Campins, E. February 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Climate Change
Wind Wave Behavior in Fetch and Depth Limited Estuaries Karimpour, A., Chen, Q., Twilley, R. January 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Experimental Measurement of Wave Field Variations around Wave Energy Converter Arrays O'Boyle, L., Elsäßer, B., Whittaker, T. January 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Wave hazards on microtidal shore platforms: testing the relationship between morphology and exposure Kennedy, D., Ierodiaconou, D., Weir, A. January 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Global ecological success of Thalassoma fishes in extreme coral reef habitats Fulton, C., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Fish
OCEANTEC Wave Energy Converter December 2016 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
The location of offshore wave power devices structures epifaunal assemblages Langhamer, O. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
The role of nature-based infrastructure (NBI) in coastal resiliency planning: A literature review Saleh, F., Weinstein, M. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Fish
Multi-criteria evaluation of wave energy projects on the south-east Australian coast Flocard, F., Ierodiaconou, D., Coghlan, I. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Progress in Renewable Energies Offshore Soares, C. October 2016 Book Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Wave Dragon - 'Coldward and Stormward' Russell, I., Friis-Madsen, E., Soerensen, H.C. October 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Impact of Tidal Level Variations on Wave Energy Absorption at Wave Hub Castellucci, V., Eriksson, M., Waters, R. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
The PRAWLER, a Vertical Profiler Powered by Wave Energy Osse, T., et al. October 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Effective Energy-Saving Device of Eco-Ship by Using Wave Propulsion Huang, S., et al. October 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Underwater Noise Propagation Models and its Application in Renewable Energy Parks: WaveRoller Case Study Rocha, A. October 2016 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Semi-Active Control of Sound Radiated From an Elastic Circular Plate Integrated With Adaptive Tuned Vibration Absorbers Hemmatian, M., Sedaghati, R. September 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Biocide-Free Antifouling on Insulating Surface by Wave-Driven Triboelectrification-Induced Potential Oscillation Zhao, X., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Chemicals
Hybrid Wave and Offshore Wind Farms: A Comparative Case Study of Co-located Layouts Astariz, S., et al. September 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Levelized Cost of Energy for a Backward Bent Duct Buoy Bull, D., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Numerical Modelling of Wave Energy Converters: Environmental Impact Assessment Kregting, L., Elsäßer, B. June 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Wave energy in Europe: Views on experiences and progress to date O'Hagan, A., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Environmental Impact Assessment: Gathering Experiences from Wave Energy Test Centres in Europe Greaves, D., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Nearshore assessment of wave energy resources in central Chile (2009–2010) Mediavilla, D., Sepulveda, H. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave and Tidal Current Energy - A Review of the Current State of Research Beyond Technology Uihlein, A., Magagna, D. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Direct drive surge wave energy converter with grid integration functionality Enferad, E., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave
Wave Energy Converter Array Environmental Evaluation Tools Jones, C., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
A Portable, Real-Time Passive Acoustic System and Autonomous Hydrophone Array for Noise Monitoring of Offshore Wave Energy Projects Haxel, J., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Study on the Influence of the Distance to Shore for a Wave Energy Farm Operating in the Central Part of the Portuguese Nearshore Rusu, E., Onea, F. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Reviews of Power Supply and Environmental Energy Conversions for Artificial Upwelling Zhang, D., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Wave Energy Level and Geographic Setting Correlate with Florida Beach Water Quality Feng, Z., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Beach Morphodynamics in the Lee of a Wave Farm: Synergies with Coastal Defence Abanades, J. March 2016 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Waves4Power Wave El Buoy February 2016 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Ecological and morphological traits predict depth-generalist fishes on coral reefs Bridge, T., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Fish
Measurement of Underwater Operational Noise Emitted by Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Lepper, P., Robinson, S. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
Capturing Energy from the Motion of the Ocean in a Crowded Sea Plummer, M., Feist, B. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Using kernel density estimation to explore habitat use by seabirds at a marine renewable wave energy test facility Leesa, K., Guerin, A., Masden, E. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Seabirds
A Self-Contained Subsea Platform for Acoustic Monitoring of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices - Field Deployments at Wave and Tidal Energy Sites in Orkney, Scotland Williamson, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Underwater Sound Levels at a Wave Energy Device Testing Facility in Falmouth Bay, UK Garrett, J., Witt, M., Johanning, L. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Model Experimental Study on Wave Dissipation Effect for Double-deck Monomer Floating Structure Zhou, C., Shang Guan, Z., Shen, L. December 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Fishing
BioWave Port Fairy Pilot Wave Energy Project December 2015 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental Impact Assessment in the Marine Environment: A Comparison of Legal Frameworks Guerra, F., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
D2.28 Model Construction Methods Thiebaut, F., Sutton, G., Johnstone, C. October 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Marine Energy Research and Innovation Centre (MERIC) October 2015 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
OXYFLUX, an innovative wave-driven device for the oxygenation of deep layers in coastal areas: A physical investigation Antonini, A., Lamberti, A., Archetti, R. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Climate Change, Fishing
Discussion of the Effects of the Underwater Noise Radiated by a Wave Energy Device - Portugal Cruz, E., Simas, T., Kasanen, E. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Marine Mammals
Beach Morphodynamics in the Lee of a Wave Farm Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Wave Energy Converter Effects on Nearshore Wave Propagation Roberts, J., Chang, G., Jones, C. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal
Hybrid Wave and Offshore Wind Farms: a Comparative Case Study of Co-located Layouts [Conference Paper] Astariz, S., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Combining Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Extraction: An Environmental Perspective Rumes, B., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Environmental Assessment, Management and Monitoring of Carnegie Wave Energy's Perth Wave Energy Project Ward, E., Sawyer, T. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Challenging Best Knowledge to Real Conditions on the SEMREV Marine Test Site Perignon, Y., Le Crom, I. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental Impact Assessment Of Wave Energy Converters: A Review Riefolo, L., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Symbiotic Offshore Energy Harvesting and Storage Systems Slocum, A. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Combining Wave Energy with Wind and Solar: Short-Term Forecasting Reikard, G., Robertson, B., Bidlot, J. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
TeraWatt Position Papers: A "Toolbox" of Methods to Better Understand and Assess the Effects of Tidal and Wave Energy Arrays on the Marine Environment Murray, R., et al. August 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Guidance to Inform Marine Mammal Site Characterisation Requirements at Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Sites in Wales Sparling, C., et al. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals
Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter Is Unlikely to Affect Marine Mammals Tougaard, J. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Marine Mammals
Software Analysis Tools for Wave Sensors Morrison, J., et al. June 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
The Simulation of Oscillating Wave Surge Converters using a Boussinesq Model: Wave Disturbances around an Array Greenwood, C., Christie, D. June 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
The Environmental Impact Study of the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP) project Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental impacts over the seabed and benthic communities of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Monitoring Plan of the pre-operational phase of the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) project Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental impacts over fish communities of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Fish
Acoustic characterization of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Does Stability in Local Community Composition Depend on Temporal Variation in Rates of Dispersal and Connectivity? Valanko, S., Norkko, J., Norkko, A. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Integrating Ocean Wave Energy at Large-Scales: A Study of the US Pacific Northwest Parkinson, S., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment
D4.13 Report on field buoy research Johanning, L., et al. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
The Challenging Life of Wave Energy Devices at Sea: A Few Points to Consider Tiron, R., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device
Environmental Impact Assessment Tool for Wave Energy Conversion Beyene, A., et al. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Attitudes towards Marine Energy: Understanding the Values de Groot, J. March 2015 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Coastal Defence using Wave Farms: The Role of Farm-to-Coast Distance Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics

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