Wave

Capturing energy from waves with a point absorber buoy, surface attenuator, oscillating water column, or overtopping device.

Waves are a result of the interaction between the wind (a result of temperature differentials created from the sun) and the water’s surface. The energy potential for waves is greatest between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres on the west coast due to the global direction of the wind. Additionally, waves will increase in size when there is a greater distance for them to build up.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the five most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, overtopping devices, and oscillating wave surge converters.

 

Point Absorber Buoy

 

This device floats on the surface of the water and is held in place by cables connected to the seabed. Point absorber buoys use the rise and fall of swells to drive hydraulic pumps and generate electricity.

 

The presence of these buoys may affect fish, marine mammals, and birds as they pose a minor collision risk or may alter roosting sites. As with all electricity generation, there is some concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some device designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale wave energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem. Alternatively, devices absorbing wave energy may positively act as shoreline defense.

Surface Attenuator

 

Surface attenuators have multiple floating segments connected to one another and are oriented perpendicular to incoming waves. Similar to point absorber buoys, they use the rise and fall of swells to create a flexing motion that drives hydraulic pumps to generates electricity.

 

Concerns about collision, altering roosting sites, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy, with an additional concern that organisms could be pinched in the joints.

Oscillating Water Column

 

Oscillating water column devices can be located onshore or in deeper waters offshore. With an air chamber integrated into the device, swells compress air in the chambers forcing air through an air turbine to create electricity.

 

Significant noise is produced as air is pushed through the turbines, potentially affecting birds and other marine organisms within the vicinity of the device. There is also concern about marine organisms getting trapped or entangled within the air chambers. When located offshore, concerns about collision, altering roosting sites, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Overtopping Device

 

Overtopping devices are long structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a higher water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. Devices can be either onshore or floating offshore.

 

There is some concern regarding low levels of turbine noise, marine organisms getting trapped within the reservoir, or collision with the slow-moving turbines. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. When located offshore, concerns about altering roosting sites, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy; located onshore these concerns are no different than for a standard shoreline structure.

Oscillating Wave Surge Converter

 

These devices typically have one end fixed to a structure or the seabed while the other end is free to move. Energy is collected from the relative motion of the body compared to the fixed point. Oscillating wave surge converters often come in the form of floats, flaps, or membranes.

 

Environmental concerns include minor risk of collision with the moving component or artificial reefing near the fixed point. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of a point absorber buoy.

Total Results: 383
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Biodiversity Characterisation and Hydrodynamic Consequences of Marine Fouling Communities on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the Orkney Islands Archipelago, Scotland, UK N/A July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Ocean Wave Energy in the United States: Current Status and Future Perspectives N/A July 2017 Journal Article Wave Socio-economics
Characterisation of the Biofouling Community on a Floating Wave Energy Device N/A May 2017 Journal Article Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
The Impact of Marine Renewable Energy Extraction on Sediment Dynamics N/A April 2017 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wave energy and flow reduce the abundance and size of benthic species on oyster reefs N/A April 2017 Journal Article Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Acoustic characterization of Mutriku OWC Plant N/A March 2017 Presentation Wave Noise
Monitoring the Condition of Marine Renewable Energy Devices through Underwater Acoustic Emissions: Case study of a Wave Energy Converter in Falmouth Bay, UK Walsh, J., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wave Noise
Impact of Climate Change on Wave Energy Resource: The Case of Menorca (Spain) N/A February 2017 Journal Article Wave Climate Change
Wind Wave Behavior in Fetch and Depth Limited Estuaries N/A January 2017 Journal Article Wave
Experimental Measurement of Wave Field Variations around Wave Energy Converter Arrays O'Boyle, L., Elsäßer, B., Whittaker, T. January 2017 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Wave hazards on microtidal shore platforms: testing the relationship between morphology and exposure N/A January 2017 Journal Article Wave Nearfield Habitat
Global ecological success of Thalassoma fishes in extreme coral reef habitats N/A January 2017 Journal Article Wave Fish
OCEANTEC Wave Energy Converter Oceantec Energías Marinas, S.L. December 2016 Project Site Annex IV Wave
Multi-criteria evaluation of wave energy projects on the south-east Australian coast N/A December 2016 Journal Article Wave Socio-economics
The role of nature-based infrastructure (NBI) in coastal resiliency planning: A literature review N/A December 2016 Journal Article Wave Fish
Impact of Tidal Level Variations on Wave Energy Absorption at Wave Hub Castellucci, V., Eriksson, M., Waters, R. October 2016 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal
The PRAWLER, a Vertical Profiler Powered by Wave Energy N/A October 2016 Conference Paper Wave
Effective Energy-Saving Device of Eco-Ship by Using Wave Propulsion N/A October 2016 Conference Paper Wave
Underwater Noise Propagation Models and its Application in Renewable Energy Parks: WaveRoller Case Study Rocha, A. October 2016 Thesis Wave Noise
Semi-Active Control of Sound Radiated From an Elastic Circular Plate Integrated With Adaptive Tuned Vibration Absorbers N/A September 2016 Conference Paper Wave Noise
Biocide-Free Antifouling on Insulating Surface by Wave-Driven Triboelectrification-Induced Potential Oscillation N/A September 2016 Journal Article Wave Chemicals
Hybrid Wave and Offshore Wind Farms: A Comparative Case Study of Co-located Layouts N/A September 2016 Journal Article Wave, Offshore Wind
Levelized Cost of Energy for a Backward Bent Duct Buoy Bull, D., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wave Socio-economics
Numerical Modelling of Wave Energy Converters: Environmental Impact Assessment Kregting, L., Elsäßer, B. June 2016 Book Chapter Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Environmental Impact Assessment: Gathering Experiences from Wave Energy Test Centres in Europe Greaves, D., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Wave
Wave and Tidal Current Energy - A Review of the Current State of Research Beyond Technology Uihlein, A., Magagna, D. May 2016 Journal Article Tidal, Wave
Direct drive surge wave energy converter with grid integration functionality N/A May 2016 Journal Article Wave
Nearshore assessment of wave energy resources in central Chile (2009–2010) Mediavilla, D., Sepulveda, H. May 2016 Journal Article Wave
Wave Energy Converter Array Environmental Evaluation Tools Jones, C., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Wave
A Portable, Real-Time Passive Acoustic System and Autonomous Hydrophone Array for Noise Monitoring of Offshore Wave Energy Projects Haxel, J., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Wave Noise
Study on the Influence of the Distance to Shore for a Wave Energy Farm Operating in the Central Part of the Portuguese Nearshore Rusu, E., Onea, F. April 2016 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Reviews of Power Supply and Environmental Energy Conversions for Artificial Upwelling Zhang, D., et al. April 2016 Journal Article OTEC, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Wave Energy Level and Geographic Setting Correlate with Florida Beach Water Quality Feng, Z., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal
Beach Morphodynamics in the Lee of a Wave Farm: Synergies with Coastal Defence N/A March 2016 Thesis Wave Socio-economics
Waves4Power Wave El Buoy Waves4Power AB February 2016 Project Site Annex IV Wave
Ecological and morphological traits predict depth-generalist fishes on coral reefs N/A January 2016 Journal Article Wave Fish
Using kernel density estimation to explore habitat use by seabirds at a marine renewable wave energy test facility Lees, K., Guerin, A., Masden, E. January 2016 Journal Article Wave Seabirds
Measurement of Underwater Operational Noise Emitted by Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Lepper, P., Robinson, S. January 2016 Book Chapter Tidal, Wave Noise
Underwater Sound Levels at a Wave Energy Device Testing Facility in Falmouth Bay, UK Garrett, J., Witt, M., Johanning, L. January 2016 Book Chapter Wave Noise
Capturing Energy from the Motion of the Ocean in a Crowded Sea N/A January 2016 Journal Article Wave Socio-economics
A Self-Contained Subsea Platform for Acoustic Monitoring of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices - Field Deployments at Wave and Tidal Energy Sites in Orkney, Scotland Williamson, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Model Experimental Study on Wave Dissipation Effect for Double-deck Monomer Floating Structure N/A December 2015 Conference Paper Wave Fishing
BioWave Port Fairy Pilot Wave Energy Project BioPower Systems Pty Ltd December 2015 Project Site Annex IV Wave
Environmental Impact Assessment in the Marine Environment: A Comparison of Legal Frameworks Guerra, F., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wave Socio-economics
Marine Energy Research and Innovation Centre (MERIC) Chilean Ministry of Energy, et al. October 2015 Project Site Annex IV Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Wave, Tidal, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
OXYFLUX, an innovative wave-driven device for the oxygenation of deep layers in coastal areas: A physical investigation N/A October 2015 Journal Article Wave Climate Change, Fishing
Discussion of the Effects of the Underwater Noise Radiated by a Wave Energy Device - Portugal Cruz, E., Simas, T., Kasanen, E. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave Noise Marine Mammals
Combining Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Extraction: An Environmental Perspective Rumes, B., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave, Offshore Wind
Hybrid Wave and Offshore Wind Farms: a Comparative Case Study of Co-located Layouts [Conference Paper] Astariz, S., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave, Offshore Wind
Beach Morphodynamics in the Lee of a Wave Farm Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave Energy Removal
Wave Energy Converter Effects on Nearshore Wave Propagation Roberts, J., Chang, G., Jones, C. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave Energy Removal
Environmental Assessment, Management and Monitoring of Carnegie Wave Energy's Perth Wave Energy Project Ward, E., Sawyer, T. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave
Challenging Best Knowledge to Real Conditions on the SEMREV Marine Test Site Perignon, Y., Le Crom, I. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave
Combining Wave Energy with Wind and Solar: Short-Term Forecasting Reikard, G., Robertson, B., Bidlot, J. September 2015 Journal Article Wave, Offshore Wind
Symbiotic Offshore Energy Harvesting and Storage Systems Slocum, A. September 2015 Journal Article Wave, Offshore Wind Birds
TeraWatt Position Papers: A "Toolbox" of Methods to Better Understand and Assess the Effects of Tidal and Wave Energy Arrays on the Marine Environment Murray, R., et al. August 2015 Book Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Guidance to Inform Marine Mammal Site Characterisation Requirements at Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Sites in Wales Sparling, C., et al. July 2015 Report Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals
Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter Is Unlikely to Affect Marine Mammals Tougaard, J. July 2015 Journal Article Wave Noise Marine Mammals
Software Analysis Tools for Wave Sensors Morrison, J., et al. June 2015 Conference Paper Wave
The Simulation of Oscillating Wave Surge Converters using a Boussinesq Model: Wave Disturbances around an Array Greenwood, C., Christie, D. June 2015 Conference Paper Wave
Acoustic characterization of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) N/A April 2015 Presentation Wave Noise
Environmental impacts over the seabed and benthic communities of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) N/A April 2015 Presentation Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental impacts over fish communities of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) N/A April 2015 Presentation Wave Fish
The Environmental Impact Study of the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) project N/A April 2015 Presentation Wave
Environmental Monitoring Plan of the pre-operational phase of the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) project N/A April 2015 Presentation Wave
Integrating Ocean Wave Energy at Large-Scales: A Study of the US Pacific Northwest Parkinson, S., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Wave Farfield Environment
Does Stability in Local Community Composition Depend on Temporal Variation in Rates of Dispersal and Connectivity? N/A April 2015 Journal Article Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Coastal Defence using Wave Farms: The Role of Farm-to-Coast Distance Abanades, J., Greaves, D., Iglesias, G. March 2015 Journal Article Wave Socio-economics
Attitudes towards Marine Energy: Understanding the Values de Groot, J. March 2015 Thesis Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Stakeholder Engagement
Environmental Impact Assessment Tool for Wave Energy Conversion Beyene, A., et al. March 2015 Report Wave
The Challenging Life of Wave Energy Devices at Sea: A Few Points to Consider Tiron, R., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wave Static Device
The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of Wave Energy Using GIS Based Analysis: The Case Study of Portugal Castro-Santos, L., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wave Socio-economics
Ecological Value of Submerged Breakwaters for Habitat Enhancement on a Residential Scale N/A February 2015 Journal Article Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Session 1 Presentation - Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave, Current, and Sediment Circulation: A Coupled Wave and Hydrodynamic Model of Santa Cruz, Monterey Bay, CA Jones, C., Chang, G., Roberts, J. January 2015 Presentation Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
RiCORE Project Gray, D., et al. January 2015 Research Study Annex IV Tidal, Wave Legal and Policy
Modeling of Wave Energy Absorption: a Case Study for a Fishing Pier in Brazil N/A January 2015 Conference Paper Wave Fishing
D4.05 Non-Intrusive Wave Field Measurement Bourdier, S., et al. November 2014 Report Wave
Perth Wave Energy Project Carnegie Wave Energy Limited November 2014 Project Site Annex IV Wave
Environmental Impact Assessments for Wave Energy Developments - Learning from Existing Activities and Informing Future Research Priorities Leeney, R., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wave Fish
Anticipated Coastal Impacts: What Water-Users Think of Marine Renewables and Why Stokes, C., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Socio-economics
Assessment of the Changes Induced by a Wave Energy Farm in the Nearshore Wave Conditions Bento, A., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Insights from Archaeological Analysis and Interpretation of Marine Data Sets to Inform Marine Cultural Heritage Management and Planning of Wave and Tidal Energy Development for Orkney Waters and the Pentland Firth, NE Scotland Pollard, E., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Reference Model 6 (RM6): Oscillating Wave Energy Converter Bull, D., et al. September 2014 Report Wave
Investigation of Spatial Variation of Sea States Offshore of Humboldt Bay, CA Using a Hindcast Model Dallman, A., Neary, V., Stephenson, M. September 2014 Report Wave
Wave Farm Impact: The Role of Farm-to-Coast Distance Iglesias, G., Carballo, R. September 2014 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
FaBTest Geophysical Survey Insight Marine Projects July 2014 Report Wave
Wave Farm Modelling of Oscillating Wave Surge Converters Sarkar, D., Renzi, E., Dias, F. July 2014 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal
Physical Modelling of Wave Energy Converters Sheng, W., Alcorn, R., Lewis, T. July 2014 Journal Article Wave
A Review of the Potential Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Development on Scotland's Marine Environment Aquatera Ltd June 2014 Report Tidal, Wave Nearfield Habitat
Modelling Changes to Physical Environmental Impacts Due to Wave Energy Array Layouts Smith, H., Ashton, I. May 2014 Presentation Wave Farfield Environment
Advances in Research to Understand the Impacts of Wave and Tidal Energy Devices in the United States Brown-Saracino, J. May 2014 Presentation Tidal, Wave
Beach response to wave energy converter farms acting as coastal defence Mendoza, E., et al. May 2014 Journal Article Wave Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
EMEC Billia Croo Wave Test Site: Wildlife Observations Project Annual Report Marine Scotland May 2014 Report Wave Birds, Marine Mammals
A Wave Farm for an Island: Detailed Effects on the Nearshore Wave Climate Veigas, M., Ramos, V., Iglesias, G. May 2014 Journal Article Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
The Hebridean Wave Model Christie, D. May 2014 Presentation Wave
Annex IV - International Collaboration to Investigate Environmental Effects of Wave and Tidal Devices Copping, A., et al. April 2014 Presentation Tidal, Wave
Development and Consenting of Carnegie Wave Energy's Perth Wave Energy Project, Experiences from Down Under Ward, E. April 2014 Presentation Wave Legal and Policy
Perceptions of the Inshore Wave Resource by Beach Water Users in the Lee of Wave Hub Stokes, C. April 2014 Presentation Wave Recreation, Stakeholder Engagement

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