Collision/Evasion

Reaction by animals approaching a turbine to evade or collide with a blade.

Collision/Evasion

An animal approaching a turbine (wind or tidal) may or may not detect the threat of collision with the blade, and may or may not be able to evade the collision. Animals that are most like to encounter wind and tidal turbines include birds, bats, fish, and marine mammals. Successful detection may vary based on time of day, maturity of the animal, and the method for detection. For example, bats may be less likely to anticipate a wind turbine blade with echolocation, and an adolescent fish may be less capable of evading a turbine in fast currents. Many studies explore the circumstances of bird and bat collisions to reduce the risks; larger turbines may be more difficult to evade because of the faster tip speed of the blades. To date there have been no observed collisions of marine animals or diving seabirds with tidal turbines; fish collision has been observed with low mortality rates relative to hydro turbines and ship propellers that spin at much greater rotations per minute.

Photo Credit: "Interactions between wind turbines and birds" by 台灣水鳥研究群 彰化海岸保育行動聯盟

Total Results: 436
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Avian vulnerability to wind farm collision through the year: insights from Lesser Black-backed Gulls (Larus fuscus) tracked from multiple breeding colonies Thaxter, C., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds, Seabirds
Investigation of existing post-construction mortality monitoring at Victorian wind farms to assess its utility in estimating mortality rates Moloney, P., Lumsden, L., Smales, I. September 2019 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats, Birds
First three‐dimensional tracks of bat migration reveal large amounts of individual behavioral flexibility O'Mara, M., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Impacts to Wildlife of Wind Energy Siting and Operation in the United States Allison, T., et al. September 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Developing a science-based approach to defining key species of birds and bats of concern for wind farm developments in Victoria Lumsden, L., Moloney, P., Smales, I. September 2019 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats, Birds
Predictable shorebird departure patterns from a staging site can inform collision risks and mitigation of wind energy developments Howell, J., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Shorebirds
Understanding Wind Energy Impacts to Bats and Testing Reduction Strategies in South Texas Weaver, S. August 2019 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Modelling flight heights of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Great Skuas from GPS: a Bayesian approach Ross-Smith, V., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Wind turbines in high quality habitat cause disproportionate increases in collision mortality of the white-tailed eagle Heuck, C., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Monitoring of Marine Mammal Strandings Along French Coasts Reveals the Importance of Ship Strikes on Large Cetaceans: A Challenge for the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive Peltier, H., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Red bat fatality: Geographic extents through deuterium and niche models Murtaugh, R., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Harnessing the Wind: How to Advance Wind Power Offshore NRDC July 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Noise
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines, version 2 van Kooten, T., et al. July 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Over or under? Autonomous sensor fish reveals why overshot weirs may be safer than undershot weirs for fish passage Pflugrath, B., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Riverine Habitat Change Fish
A framework to evaluate the environmental impact of OCEAN energy devices Mendoza, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Collision, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Environmental Impact Assessment
Machine learning applied to wind turbine blades impact detection Hu, C., Albertani, R. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Agent-Based Modelling of fish collisions with tidal turbines Rossington, K., Benson, T. May 2019 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Is wind energy increasing the impact of socio-ecological change on Mediterranean mountain ecosystems? Insights from a modelling study relating wind power boost options with a declining species Ferreira, D., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Minimizing wildlife impacts for offshore wind energy development: Winning tradeoffs for seabirds in space and cetaceans in time Best, B., Halpin, P. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Noise Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Mortality and Injury Assessment for Three Species of Fish Exposed to Simulated Turbine Blade Strike Bevelhimer, M., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Riverine Collision Fish
Biases in the Literature on Direct Wildlife Mortality from Energy Development Loss, S., Dorning, M., Diffendorfer, J. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General)
A smart curtailment approach for reducing bat fatalities and curtailment time at wind energy facilities Hayes, M., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Empirical Determination of Severe Trauma in Seals from Collisions with Tidal Turbine Blade Onoufriou, J., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds, Marine Spatial Planning
Bird and Bat Conservation Strategy Deuel Harvest North Wind Farm Deuel County, South Dakota Simon, S., Welch-Acosta, B. March 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Estimating the Potential Mortality of Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus) Due to Wind Energy Development on the Island of Crete (Greece) Xirouchakis, S., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Raptors
Camera-Trapping Versus Conventional Methodology in the Assessment of Carcass Persistence for Fatality Estimation at Wind Farms Rosa, L., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Assess risk of individual turbines to Golden Eagles Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Future Directions in Conservation Research on Petrels and Shearwaters Rodríguez, A., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Wildlife Mortality at Wind Facilities: How We Know What We Know How We Might Mislead Ourselves, and How We Set Our Future Course Huso, M. March 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General)
Review of Raptor Sections of the Bluestone Wind Avian Risk Assessment Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wind turbines cause functional habitat loss for migratory soaring birds Marques, A.,, et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Raptors
Effectiveness of a mitigation measure for the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) in wind farms in Spain Pescador, M., Ramírez, J., Peris, S. February 2019 Journal Article Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Testing efficacy of bird deterrents at wind turbine facilities: a pilot study in Nova Scotia, Canada Dorey, K., Dicky, S., Walker, T. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
A review of the major threats and challenges to global bat conservation Frick, W., Kingston, T., Flanders, J. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Evaluation of Wind‐Energy Survey Protocols for Migrating Eagle Detection Chabot, E., Slater, S. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Developing an efficient protocol for monitoring eagle fatalities at wind energy facilities Hallingstad, E., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Humpback Whales and Floating Offshore Wind Farm Animation Grear, M., et al. November 2018 Video Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Predicting bird collisions with wind turbines: Comparison of the new empirical Flux Collision Model with the SOSS Band model Kleyheeg-Hartman, J., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
State of the World's Raptors: Distributions, Threats, and Conservation Recommendations McClure, C., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Interference of Flying Insects and Wind Parks Trieb, F. October 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision
Use of an optical rangefinder to assess the reliability of seabird flight heights from boat‐based surveyors: implications for collision risk at offshore wind farms Harwood, A., Perrow, M., Berridge, R. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
The auditory attributes of Golden Eagles: Do Golden (Aquila chrysaetos) and Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) share the same auditory space? Walsh, E., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Birds
Humpback Whale Encounter with Offshore Wind Mooring Lines and Inter-Array Cables Copping, A., Grear, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Process-based vs. ad-hoc methods to estimate mortality using carcass surveys data: A review and a note about evidence complacency Peron, G. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision
Collision and displacement vulnerability to offshore wind energy infrastructure among marine birds of the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf Kelsey, E., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Applying a simple model for estimating the likelihood of collision of marine mammals with tidal turbines Copping, A., Grear, M. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
Long‐term effect of a tidal, hydroelectric propeller turbine on the populations of three anadromous fish species Dadswell, M., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Estimating Seabird Flight Height using LiDAR Cook, A., et al. August 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Using network analysis to identify indicator species and reduce collision fatalities at wind farms Sebastian-Gonzalez, E., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Environmental Challenges for Ocean Energy Generation Apunda, M., Nyangoye, B. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates
A Summary of Bat Fatality Data in a Nationwide Database Allison, T., Butryn, R. July 2018 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats
Texturizing Wind Turbine Towers to Reduce Bat Mortality Bennett, V., Hale, A. July 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Improving estimation of flight altitude in wildlife telemetry studies Poessel, S., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Birds
Behaviour related flight speeds of Sandwich Terns and their implications for wind farm collision rate modelling and impact assessment Fijn, R., Gyimesi, A. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds, Seabirds
Quantifying avian avoidance of offshore wind turbines: Current evidence and key knowledge gaps Aonghais, S., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
How many observation days are needed to reliably describe bird migration? Tanskanen, A., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds
The Ornithodolite as a tool to quantify animal space use and habitat selection: a case study with birds diving in tidal waters Cole, E., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Collision Birds, Seabirds
OERA Webinar Series: Finite Element Analysis to Assess Fish Mortality from Interactions with Tidal Turbine Blades Fyffe, N. May 2018 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Predicting Migratory Corridors of White Storks, Ciconia ciconia, to Enhance Sustainable Wind Energy Planning: A Data-Driven Agent-Based Model Oloo, F., Safi, K., Aryal, J. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Inconspicuous echolocation in hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) Corcoran, A., Weller, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Risk of whale encounters with offshore renewable energy mooring lines and electrical cables Copping, A., Grear, M., Sanders, G. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Resolving environmental effects of wind energy Sinclair, K., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
A Stochastic Collision Risk Model for Seabirds in Flight McGregor, R., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Evaluating a Novel Approach to Optimize Operational Minimization to Reduce Bat Fatalities at the Pinnacle Wind Farm, Mineral County, West Virginia, 2015 Schirmacher, M., et al. April 2018 Report Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Ecological Impact of Airborne Wind Energy Technology: Current State of Knowledge and Future Research Agenda Bruinzeel, L., et al. April 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Collision Birds
Bird Collisions at Wind Turbines in a Mountainous Area Related to Bird Movement Intensities Measured by Radar Aschwanden, J., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Passerines
Mitigating the negative impacts of tall wind turbines on bats: Vertical activity profiles and relationships to wind speed Wellig, S., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Raptor Interactions with Wind Energy: Case Studies from Around the World Watson, R., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Predicting the impacts of wind farms on seabirds: An individual-based model Warwick-Evans, V., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Wind Farm Le Peuchapatte: Analysis of Bat Recordings and Evaluation of Mitigation Measures Brossard, C., et al. March 2018 Report Wind Energy (General) Bats
Numerical modelling of the flight behaviour of bats to estimate the collision risk with wind turbines Muller, C. February 2018 Thesis Bats
Impacts of onshore wind energy production on birds and bats: recommendations for future life cycle impact assessment developments Laranjeiro, T., May, R., Verones, F. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) around an operational tidal turbine in Strangford Narrows: No barrier effect but small changes in transit behaviour Sparling, C., Lonergan, M., McConnell, B. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Dodging the blades: new insights into three-dimensional space use of offshore wind farms by lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus Thaxter, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Comparing Field Methods Used to Determine Bird and Bat Fatalities Paula, J., et al. January 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Bats
Biodiversity and Wind Farms in Portugal: Current Knowledge and Insights for an Integrated Impact Assessment Process Mascarenhas, M., et al. January 2018 Book Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats, Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Scale-dependent habitat selection by wintering geese: implications for landscape management Harrison, A., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Waterfowl
Avian Monitoring and Mortality Report at the National Wind Technology Center: January 2010 - February 2011 Tetra Tech Inc. January 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
The energy landscape predicts flight height and wind turbine collision hazard in three species of large soaring raptor Peron, G., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Turning of the tides: Assessing the international implementation of tidal current turbines Sangiuliano, S. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Do birds in flight respond to (ultra)violet lighting? May, R., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Birds
A Tool for Simulating Collision Probabilities of Animals with Marine Renewable Energy Devices Schmitt, P., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision
Bat flight height monitored from wind masts predicts mortality risk at wind farms Roemer, C., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Scavenger removal of bird carcasses at simulated wind turbines: Does carcass type matter? DeVault, T., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
An Overview on Methods to Assess Bird and Bat Collision Risk in Wind Farms Rodrigues, S., Rosa, L., Mascarenhas, M. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Species' Global Vulnerability to Collision Mortality at Wind Farms Revealed Through a Trait-Based Assessment Thaxter, C., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats, Birds
Acoustic mirrors as sensory traps for bats Greif, S., Zsebok, S. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Habitat Change Bats
Testing for errors in estimating bird mortality rates at wind farms and power lines Farfan, M., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Birds
Understanding the Potential Risk to Marine Mammals from Collision with Tidal Turbines Copping, A., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
Optimising multiple multibeam sonars to assess marine life interactions with an underwater kite Lieber, L., et al. September 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current Collision Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Turbine Induced Bird and Bat Fatalities at Wind Projects: Statistical Methods for Mortality Estimation Using Road and Pad Carcass Surveys Maurer, J. August 2017 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Hydroacoustic Assessment of Behavioral Responses by Fish Passing Near an Operating Tidal Turbine in the East River, New York Bevelhimer, M., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Downstream migration of Atlantic salmon smolts past a low head hydropower station equippped with Archimedes screw and Francis turbines Havn, T., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Riverine Collision Fish
Performance Test and Verification of an Off the Shelf Automated Avian Radar Tracking System May, R., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Birds
Seabird Ecology in High-Energy Environments: Approaches to Assessing Impacts of Marine Renewables Robbins, A. July 2017 Thesis Marine Energy (General) Collision Birds, Seabirds
Risk analysis of maintenance ship collisions with offshore wind turbines Presencia, C., Shafiee, M. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Risk analysis of maintenance ship collisions with offshore wind turbines Presencia, C., Shafiee, M. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Navigation
Bat fatalities at wind farms in Taiwan Chou, C., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Operational Noise from Tidal Turbine Arrays and the Assessment of Collision Risk with Marine Mammals Marmo, B. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Noise Marine Mammals
Fatalities at Wind Turbines may Threaten Population Viability of a Migratory Bat Frick, W., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats

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