United States of America



United States of America (USA) is located in North America, covering 9,833,517 km2 (3,796,742 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 324 Million (2016).  The USA’s primary energy production is 21,791 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 79 MWh (UN data, 2013). Natural gas is the largest source of primary energy production, while oil is the largest source of primary energy consumption (EIA, 2016). 1,299 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2015, excluding overseas territories).

 

As of 2017, the USA has 530 kW installed capacity of wave power, with an additional 335 kW capacity of MRE in the planning phase including wave, tidal, and riverine energy (OES). USA is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems and leads Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the USA has 82,143 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 30 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind, 2016). USA generated 226 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind).  The USA is currently a member of IEA Wind and leads the WREN initiative.

Total Results: 1162
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis 1994-1997 Hunt, W., et al. June 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
An Evaluation of the Impact of the Alameda County/Land Owner Ground Squirrel Management Program on Squirrel Abundance, Raptor Use, and Raptor Fatalities: A status report Kerlinger, P., Curry, R. June 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Variability in Reactions of Pacific Harbor Seals, Phoca vitulina richardsi, to Disturbance Suryan, R., Harvey, J. May 1999 Journal Article Marine Mammals
Using Marine Surveillance Radar to Study Bird Movements and Impact Assessment Harmata, A., et al. April 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Declining Survival Probability Threatens the North Atlantic Right Whale Caswell, H., Fujiwara, M., Brault, S. March 1999 Journal Article Marine Mammals
Environmental Assessment: Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project, Weld County, Colorado US Department of Energy February 1999 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Studying wind energy/bird interactions: A guidance document. Metrics and methods for determining or monitoring potential impacts on birds at existing and proposed wind energy sites Anderson, R., et al. January 1999 Book Wind Energy general Birds
Avian Use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana Harmata, A., Podruzny, K., Zelenak, J. July 1998 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Applications of Acoustic Bird Monitoring for the Wind Power Industry Evans, W. May 1998 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
US National Ocean Service's Estuarine Bathymetry NOAA’s National Ocean Service Special Projects January 1998 Website Benthic Invertebrates
Bird Flight Characteristics Near Wind Turbines in Minnesota Osborn, R., et al. January 1998 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines, Waterfowl
Diet of the Endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) on the Northern Edge of Its Range Kurta, A., Whitaker, J. Jr. January 1998 Journal Article Bats
Altamont Avian Plan: Status Report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service By the Consortium of Altamont Owners Richard Curry Associates December 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
The Influence of High Ground Squirrel Densities on the Occurrence of Golden Eagles on Altamont Ownership Consortium Property Hunt, G., Culp, L. November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Addendum to Final: Seawest/KENETECH Windfarm Development Comparison, Carbon County, Wyoming TRC Mariah Associates November 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Second-Year Progress Report Predatory Bird Research Group July 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Assessing Impacts to Birds from the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Windplant Development Erickson, W., et al. June 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Avian Mortality at Rotor Swept Area Equivalents, Altamont Pass and Montezuma Hills, California Howell, J. January 1997 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Bird Mortality at Rotor Swept Area Equivalents, Altamont Pass and Montezuma Hills, California Howell, J. January 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Nesting Raptors at Buffalo Ridge in Southwestern Minnesota Usgaard, R., et al. January 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
A Continued Examination of Avian Mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Orloff, S., Flannery, A. June 1996 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Bat Collisions with Wind Turbines in Southwestern Minnesota Osborn, R., et al. January 1996 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Avian interactions with wind energy facilities: A summary Colson, E. December 1995 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Birds
Final Environmental Impact Statement: Kenetech/Pacificorp Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming Mariah Associates August 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Noise Impact Analysis of Wind Turbines, Searsburg, Vermont Resource Systems Group July 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
A Pilot Golden Eagle Population Study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area California Predatory Bird Research Group May 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Whirly Birds Linn, A. March 1995 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Avian use of proposed KENETECH and CARES wind farm sites in Klickitat County, Washington: Technical report Jones & Stokes Associates January 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Monitoring of Seasonal Bird Activity and Mortality on Unit 2 at the Buffalo Ridge Windplant, Minnesota Higgins, K., Dieter, C., Usgaard, R. January 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
A Pilot Study of the Distribution and Abundances of Rockfishes in Relation to Natural Environmental Factors and an Offshore Oil and Gas Production Platform off the Coast of Southern California Love, M., et al. September 1994 Journal Article Static Device Fish
Modified Cave Entrances: Thermal Effect on Body Mass and Resulting Decline of Endangered Indiana Bats (Myotis sodalis) Richter, A., et al. June 1993 Journal Article Bats
Red and White Muscle Activity and Kinematics of the Escape Response of the Bluegill Sunfish during Swimming Jayne, B., Lauder, G. April 1993 Journal Article Fish
Evidence that Fin Whales Respond to the Geomagnetic Field During Migration Walker, M., et al. July 1992 Journal Article EMF Marine Mammals
Wind Turbine Effects on Avian Activity, Habitat Use, and Mortality in the Altamont Pass and Solano County Wind Resource Areas, 1989-1991 Orloff, S., Flannery, A. March 1992 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Assessment of Avian Use and Mortality Related to Wind Turbine Operations, Altamont Pass, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California, September 1988 through August 1989, Final Report Howell, J., Didonato, J. November 1991 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
An improved marine radar system for studies of bird migration Cooper, B., et al. January 1991 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
The 40 MWe OTEC Plant at Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii: A Case Study of Potential Biological Impacts Harrison, J. February 1987 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC
Wind Energy Development in California, USA Wilshire, H., Prose, D. January 1987 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Altamont: Public Perceptions of a Wind Energy Landscape Thayer, R., Freeman, C. January 1987 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
The Potential Impact of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) on Fisheries Myers, E., et al. June 1986 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Energy Removal Fish
Cape Blanco Wind Farm Feasibility Study Technical Report No. 11: Terrestrial Ecology Portland General Electric Company April 1986 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Potential Environmental Impacts of Open-Cycle Thermal Energy Conversion Quinby-Hunt, M., Wilde, P., Dengler, A. January 1986 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Energy Removal
Potential Impacts from OTEC-Generated Underwater Sounds Rucker, J., Friedl, W. November 1985 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, OTEC Noise
Preliminary Study of the Feeding Habits of Pelagic Fish around Hawaiian Fish Aggregation Devices or can Fish Aggregation Devices Enhance Local Fisheries Productivity? Brock, R. July 1985 Journal Article Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Acoustic Noise Associated with the MOD-1 Wind Turbine: Its Source, Impact, and Control Kelley, N., et al. February 1985 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise
Reconnaissance Geology and Geologic Hazards of the Offshore Coos Bay Basin, Oregon Clarke, S., Field, M., Hirozawa, C. January 1985 Report Nearfield Habitat
Comparison of Ship and Aerial Surveys of Birds at Sea Briggs, K., Tyler, W., Lewis, D. September 1984 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
Optimal Avoidance and Evasion Tactics in Predator-Prey Interactions Weihs, D., Webb, P. January 1984 Journal Article Ecosystem
Bird Movements and Collision Mortality at a Large Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Byrne, S. January 1983 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Environmental Effects Assessment Program Plan, 1981-85 NOAA Office of Ocean Minerals and Energy June 1982 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Energy Removal, Static Device
Man-Made Structures on Marine Sediments: Effects on Adjacent Benthic Communities Davis, N., VanBlaricom, G., Dayton, P. January 1982 Journal Article Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
San Gorgonio Pass Wind Energy Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement Bureau of Land Management January 1982 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Assessment of Electromagnetic Interference Effects of the Solano Windfarm: Final Report Sengupta, D., Ferris, J., Senior, T. November 1981 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Navigation
A Characterization of Marine Mammals and Turtles in the Mid and North Atlantic Areas of the US Outer Continental Shelf Cetacean and Turtle Assessment Program June 1981 Report Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
A Workshop on Raptors and Energy Development Howard, R., Gore, J. January 1980 Workshop Article Wind Energy general Birds, Raptors
A Field Study on the Aesthetics of Small Wind Machines: A Preliminary Report Strojan, C., Lawrence, K., O'Donnell, D. January 1980 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Assessment and Control of OTEC Ecological Impacts Wilde, P., Sandusky, J., Jassby, A. December 1978 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Static Device Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Environmental Studies Related to the Operation of Wind Energy Conversion Systems Rogers, S., et al. December 1977 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
The Efficacy of Midwater Artificial Structures for Attracting Pelagic Sport Fish Wickham, D., Watson, J. Jr., Ogren, L. January 1973 Journal Article Static Device Fish
Gray Whales, Eschrichtius robustus, Avoid the Underwater Sounds of Killer Whales, Orcinus orca Cummings, W., Thompson, P. March 1971 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals
Admiralty Inlet Pilot Tidal Project Planned Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Western Passage Tidal Energy Project Planned Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal

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