United States of America



United States of America (USA) is located in North America, covering 9,833,517 km2 (3,796,742 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 324 Million (2016).  The USA’s primary energy production is 21,791 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 79 MWh (UN data, 2013). Natural gas is the largest source of primary energy production, while oil is the largest source of primary energy consumption (EIA, 2016). 1,299 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2015, excluding overseas territories).

 

As of 2017, the USA has 530 kW installed capacity of wave power, with an additional 335 kW capacity of MRE in the planning phase including wave, tidal, and riverine energy (OES). USA is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems and leads Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the USA has 82,143 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 30 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind, 2016). USA generated 226 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind).  The USA is currently a member of IEA Wind and leads the WREN initiative.

Total Results: 1199
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
A Fall 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project: Draft Report Woodlot Alternatives November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Results of Wildlife Movement Monitoring Using an Infrared Sensing Remote Camera Located Under Wind Turbine 7, Searsburg Wind Project During October 2005 Wallin, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
Birds and Bats: Potential Impacts and Survey Techniques Global Energy Concepts October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Studies for the Proposed Dairy Hills Wind Project, Wyoming County, New York Young, D. Jr., et al. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Battered by harsh winds - must bats pay the price for wind energy? Tuttle, M. October 2005 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Fishing Gear Involved in Entanglements of Right and Humpback Whales Johnson, A., et al. October 2005 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A Conservation Plan for Bats in Wyoming Hester, S., Grenier, M. September 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
An Evaluation of the Wildlife Impacts of Offshore Wind Development Relative to Fossil Fuel Power Production Jarvis, C. September 2005 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Socio-economics
Impacts on Wildlife and Government Responsibilities for Regulating Development and Protecting Wildlife Office, United States Government Accountability September 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
A Spring 2005 Radar, Visual, and Acoustic Survey of Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Clayton Wind Project in Clayton, New York Stantec Consulting September 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
Bird Mortality at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: March 1998 - September 2001 Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. August 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the San Gorgonio Wind Resource Area Anderson, R., et al. August 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds
Final Environmental Assessment, Burleigh County Wind Energy Center, Burleigh County, North Dakota FPL Energy Burleigh County Wind August 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Magnetic Orientation and Magnetoreception in Birds and Other Animals Wiltschko, R., Wiltschko, W. August 2005 Journal Article EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Reptiles
Avian Collision and Electrocution Risk Reduction Adaptive Management Plan for the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Western Ecosystems Technology Inc (WEST) August 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
A comparison of the fish assemblages associated with an oil/gas pipeline and adjacent seafloor in the Santa Barbara Channel, Southern California Bight Love, M., York, A. July 2005 Journal Article Static Device Fish
Relationships between Bats and Wind Turbines in Pennsylvania and West Virginia: An Assessment of Fatality Search Protocols, Patterns of Fatality, and Behavioral Interactions with Wind Turbines Arnett, E., et al. June 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Searsburg Wind Tower Expansion Project Bat Habitat Assessment and Mapping Final Report Prepared Arrowwood Environmental May 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Landscape Classification System: Addressing Environmental Issues Associated with Utility-Scale Wind Energy Development in Virginia Boone, D., et al. May 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Factors Influencing the Diving Behaviour of Fish Eating Killer Whales: Sex Differences and Diel and Interannual Variation in Diving Rates Baird, R., Hanson, M., Dill, L. April 2005 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment: Herkimer Wind Farm Herkimer County, New York Kerlinger, P., Guarnaccia, J. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment: Clayton Wind Farm Jefferson County, New York Kerlinger, P., Guarnaccia, J. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Fall 2004 Avian Migration Surveys at the Proposed Deerfield Wind/Searsburg Expansion Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Roy, R., Pelletier, S. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Partial Re-Assessment of an Adaptive management Plan for the APWRA: Accounting for Turbine Size Smallwood, S., Spiegel, L. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
A Radar and Visual Study of Nocturnal Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Flat Rock Wind Power Project, New York, Fall 2004 Mabee, T., Plissner, J., Cooper, B. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines
The Environmental Case for Wind Power in New Jersey Ridlington, E., Rusch, E. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Climate Change
A radar and visual study of nocturnal bird and bat migration at the proposed Prattsburgh-Italy wind power project, New York, spring 2005 Mabee, T., Plissner, J., Cooper, B. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
The Offshore Wind Power Debate: Views from Cape Cod Kempton, W., et al. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Behavior of Red-Tailed Hawks in a Wind Turbine Development Hoover, S., Morrison, M. January 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Seabed Morphology Off Southern Long Island: Studies of Artificial Reefs and Implications for Wind Farms Flood, R. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Bird and Bat Behavior and Mortality at a Northern Iowa Windfarm Jain, A. January 2005 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Waterfowl
Assessment And Prediction Of Bird And Bat Mortality At Wind Energy Facilities In The Southeastern United States Nicholson, C., et al. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Offshore Wave Power in the US: Environmental Issues Hagerman, G., Bedard, R. December 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Sharks can Detect Changes in the Geomagnetic Field Meyer, C., Holland, K., Papastamatiou, Y. December 2004 Journal Article EMF Fish
Repowering the APWRA: Forecasting and Minimizing Avian Mortality without Significant Loss of Power Generation Smallwood, K., Neher, L. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Bat Activity, Composition, and Collision Mortality At a Large Wind Plant in Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. December 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Ecology and Demography of Bicknell's Thrush on East Mountain, East Haven, Vermont: Evaluating Potential Impacts of Wind Turbine Construction Rimmer, C., Faccio, S. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Final Report: July 2001 - December 2003 Erickson, W., et al. December 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Nocturnal Bird Migration in Northeastern Oregon and Southeastern Washington Mabee, T., Cooper, B. October 2004 Journal Article Birds, Passerines, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Can Large Wind Farms Affect Local Meteorology? Baidya Roy, S., Pacala, S., Walko, R. October 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general Nearfield Habitat
Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the Tehachapi Pass Wind Resource Area: Period of Performance: October 2, 1996 - May 27, 1998 Anderson, R., et al. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds
Assessment of Bat Mortality and Activity at Buffalo Mountain Windfarm, Eastern Tennessee Fiedler, J. August 2004 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Analysis of Potential Wildlife/Wind Plant Interactions Bighorn Site, Klickitat County, Washington Johnson, G., Erickson, W. August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
A Preliminary Assessment of Potential Avian Interactions at Four Proposed Wind Energy Facilities on Vandenberg Air Force Base, California: Period of Performance: November 2001 - May 2002 BioResource Consultants August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Marine Mammals List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Seabirds List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Invertebrates List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website Benthic Invertebrates
Whale-call response to masking boat noise Foote, A., Osborne, R., Hoelzel, R. April 2004 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Baseline Avian Studies Mount Storm Wind Power Project, Grant County, West Virginia Young, D. Jr., et al. April 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines, Shorebirds
Proceedings: Bats and Wind Power Generation Technical Workshop Energetics April 2004 Workshop Article Wind Energy general Bats
An Assessment of Potential Collision Mortality of Migrating Indiana Bats (Myotis sodalis) and Virginia Big-eared Bats (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) Traversing Between Caves Johnson, G., Strickland, M. April 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Comparison of Blade-Strike Modeling Results with Empirical Data Ploskey, G., Carlson, T. March 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
A Radar Study of Nocturnal Bird Migration at the Proposed Mount Storm Wind Power Development, West Virginia, Fall 2003 Mabee, T., Cooper, B., Plissner, J. March 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Avian mortality associated with the Top of Iowa Wind Farm: Progress Report, Calendar Year 2003 Koford, R., et al. February 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
A Study of Bird and Bat Collision Fatalities at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center, Tucker County, West Virginia: Annual Report for 2003 Kerns, J., Kerlinger, P. February 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
When Blade Meets Bat Williams, W. February 2004 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Marine Mammal Monitoring Plan: San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge East Span Seismic Safety Project Caltrans February 2004 Report Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
A Comparison of Nocturnal Call Counts of Migrating Birds and Reflectivity Measurements on Doppler Radar Farnsworth, A., Gauthreaux, S. Jr., Blaricom, D. January 2004 Journal Article Birds
Managing Offshore Wind Developments in the United States: Legal, Environmental and Social Considerations using a Case Study in Nantucket Sound Santora, C., Hade, N., Odell, J. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Developing Methods To Reduce Bird Mortality In The Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Estimating Enhancement of Fish Production by Offshore Artificial Reefs: Uncertainty Exhibited by Divergent Scenarios Powers, S., et al. December 2003 Journal Article Static Device Fish
Report to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory on Southwest Alaska Small Wind Wildlife Site Investigations at Kodiak Island and Bristol Bay October 3-10, 2003 Sharp, L., Kronner, K. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Bird Risk Behaviors and Fatalities at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Period of Performance: March 1998 - December 2000 Thelander, C., Smallwood, K., Rugge, L. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Bat Interactions With Wind Turbines at the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Wind Resource Area: An Assessment of Bat Activity, Species Composition, and Collision Mortality Johnson, G., et al. November 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Environmental Impact of the ATOC/Pioneer Seamount Submarine Cable Kogan, I., et al. November 2003 Report Static Device Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Wildlife Baseline Study for the Wild Horse Wind Project- Summary of Results from 2002-2003 Wildlife Surveys Erickson, W., et al. November 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Initial Consultation Document for the Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy Project Verdant Power October 2003 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Biological Assessment for the Federally Endangered Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) and Virginia Big-eared Bat (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus): NedPower Mount Storm Wind Project, Grant County, West Virginia Johnson, G., Strickland, M. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Cumulative Impacts Analysis for Avian and Other Wildlife Resources from Proposed Wind Projects in Kittitas County, Washington Young, D. Jr., Erickson, W. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Nine Canyon Wind Power Project Avian and Bat Monitoring Report: September 2002 - August 2003 Erickson, W., Kronner, K., Gritski, B. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Breeding Bird Survey for the Flat Rock Wind Power Project, Lewis County, New York, Fall 2004 Kerlinger, P., Dowdell, J. September 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Auditory and Behavioral Responses of California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) to Single Underwater Impulses from an Arc-Gap Transducer Finneran, J., et al. August 2003 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Use of Multiple Orientation Cues by Juvenile Loggerhead Sea Turtles, Caretta caretta Avens, L., Lohmann, K. August 2003 Journal Article EMF Reptiles
Breeding Bird Survey for the Searsburg/Readsboro Expansion Wind Project, Bennington County, Vermont Kerlinger, P., Dowdell, J. August 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Cape Wind Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Diver Survey Woods Hole Group, Inc. July 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Adaptive Management and Ecological Restoration Murray, C., Marmorek, D. May 2003 Book Chapter Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Interim Guidelines to Avoid and Minimize Wildlife Impacts from Wind Turbines US Fish and Wildlife Service May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Stateline Wind Project Wildlife Monitoring Annual Report: Results for the Period July 2001 - December 2002 Erickson, W., et al. May 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Baseline Avian Studies for the Proposed Hopkins Ridge Wind Project, Columbia County, Washington: Final Report Young, D. Jr., et al. April 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Environmental Assessment: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project North Dakota Western Area Power Administration April 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Addendum to the Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Flat Rock Wind Power Project, Lewis County, New York: Phase One and Phase Two Kerlinger, P. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Avian Interactions with Wind Power Structures Electric Power Research Institute March 2003 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Avian and Bat Mortality During the First Year of Operation at the Klondike Phase I Wind Project, Sherman County, Oregon Johnson, G., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Windmar Project, Guyanilla, Puerto Rico Kerlinger, P. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Collision Potential of Eiders and Other Birds Near a Proposed Windfarm at St. Lawrence Island, October-November 2002 Day, R., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Effects of offshore wind farms on birds: "Cuisinarts of the sky" or just tilting at windmills? Tingley, M. March 2003 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Avian and Sensitive Species Baseline Study Final Report: Eurus Combine Hills Turbine Ranch Umatilla County, Oregon Young, D. Jr., et al. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Avian Bat Mortality Associated with the Initial Phase of the Foote Creek Rim Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming Young, D. Jr., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
True Navigation and Magnetic Maps in Spiny Lobsters Boles, L., Lohmann, K. January 2003 Journal Article EMF Benthic Invertebrates
Wildlife Baseline Study for the Kittitas Valley Wind Project: Summary of Results from 2002 Wildlife Surveys Erickson, W., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Offshore Wind Farms in the Western Great Lakes: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of their Potential Hingtgen, J. January 2003 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
National Wind Technology Center Site Environmental Assessment: Bird and Bat Use and Fatalities - Final Report Schmidt, E., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Assessment for Proposed Wave Energy Technology Project in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii Office of Naval Research January 2003 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
Comparison of Avian Responses to UV-Light-Reflective Paint on Wind Turbines Young, D., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Lighting Birds, Raptors
Mortality of Bats at a Large-Scale Wind Power Development at Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Guidelines for Wind Power and Wildlife in Washington State, USA Ling, S., Linehan, A. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Synthesis and Comparison of Baseline Avian and Bat Use, Raptor Nesting and Mortality Information from Proposed and Existing Wind Developments Erickson, W., et al. December 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors, Waterfowl
A Roadmap for PIER Research on Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines in California Sterner, D. December 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Effects of Wind Turbines on Birds and Bats in Northeastern Wisconsin Howe, R., Evans, W., Wolf, A. November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Baseline Avian Studies for the Proposed Maiden Wind Farm, Yakima and Benton Counties, Washington Young, D., et al. November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds

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