United States of America



United States of America (USA) is located in North America, covering 9,833,517 km2 (3,796,742 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 324 Million (2016).  The USA’s primary energy production is 21,791 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 79 MWh (UN data, 2013). Natural gas is the largest source of primary energy production, while oil is the largest source of primary energy consumption (EIA, 2016). 1,299 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2015, excluding overseas territories).

 

As of 2017, the USA has 530 kW installed capacity of wave power, with an additional 335 kW capacity of MRE in the planning phase including wave, tidal, and riverine energy (OES). USA is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems and leads Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the USA has 82,143 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 30 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind, 2016). USA generated 226 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind).  The USA is currently a member of IEA Wind and leads the WREN initiative.

Total Results: 1188
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
FORCE Environmental Effects Monitoring Report September 2009 to January 2011 FORCE January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
The State of Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Program Goldman Law Offices December 2010 Report Socio-economics
Response of Raptors to a Windfarm Garvin, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Summary of Post-Construction Monitoring at Wind Projects Relevant to Minnesota, Identification of Data Gaps, and Recommendations for Further Research Regarding Wind-Energy Development in Minnesota Poulton, V. December 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Marine Hydrokinetic Turbine Technology and the Environment: Device-Biota Interactions Crevison, S., Li, Y., Thresher, R. December 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Dynamic Device
Reedsport OPT Environmental Assessment Ocean Power Technologies December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Final Pilot License Application: Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy Project Verdant Power December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Hydrokinetic Energy Projects and Recreation: A Guide to Assessing Impacts Bowers, R., et al. December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Riverine, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Recreation
Pre-Wind Energy Development Assessment of the Avian Community in the Central Texas Panhandle Wulf, S. December 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors
Power Availability in the Florida Current and Impact of its Extraction on the Gulf Stream Bozec, A., Hanson, H., Duerr, A. December 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general, Ocean Current Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Bringing OTEC Environmental Assessments of the 1980s Up To 21st Century Oceanographic Standards Sansone, F., Comfort, C., Weng, K. December 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Exploring the Impact of Technology Development and Adoption for Sustainable Hydroelectric Power and Storage Technologies in the Pacific Northwest United States Cowan, K., Daim, T., Anderson, T. December 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general Socio-economics
Night Migrant Fatalities And Obstruction Lighting At Wind Turbines In North America Kerlinger, P., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Lighting Birds
Multi-Scale Modeling of Puget Sound Using an Unstructured-Grid Coastal Ocean Model: From Tide Flats to Estuaries and Coastal Waters Yang, Z., Khangaonkar, T. December 2010 Journal Article Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Magnetic Intensity Study: Long Island Replacement Cables Ocean Surveys November 2010 Report EMF
Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modelling of Inland Marine Waters of Washington State, United States, for Tidal Resource and Environmental Impact Assessment Kawase, M., Thyng, K. November 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Arguments for Using Population Models in Incidental Take Assessments for Endangered Species McGowan, C., Ryan, M. November 2010 Journal Article Socio-economics
Avian and Bat Risk Assessment for the Montezuma II Wind Project, Solano County, California ICF International November 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Altering Turbine Speed Reduces Bat Mortality at Wind-Energy Facilities Arnett, E., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan: Ocean SAMP - Volume 1 Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council October 2010 Report Socio-economics
2010 Initial Bird Assessment of the Dennis Water District Wind Turbine Project Site Podolsky, R. October 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Temporal Patterns in Capture Rate and Sex Ratio of Forest Bats in Arkansas Perry, R., Carter, S., Thill, R. October 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Spring Valley Wind Energy Facility SWCA Environmental Consultants October 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors, Socio-economics
South Puget Sound Tidal Currents Pacific Northwest National Laboratory September 2010 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Radar Monitoring of Bird and Bat Movement Patterns on Block Island and its Coastal Waters Mizrahi, D., et al. September 2010 Report Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Limits to the Predictability of Tidal Current Energy Polagye, B., Epler, J., Thomson, J. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Characteristics of Underwater Ambient Noise at a Proposed Tidal Energy Site in Puget Sound Bassett, C., Thomson, J., Polagye, B. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Call and Component Evaluation for Improved Performance of Recognition of Killer Whale Individuals Nichols, N., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Observations Of Turbulent Flow Fields In The Chesapeake Bay Estuary For Tidal Energy Conversion Luznik, L., Flack, K. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Technical Manual for Evaluating Wildlife Impacts of Wind Turbines Requiring Coastal Permits NJ Department of Environmental Protection September 2010 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Marine Megavertebrates and Fishery Resources in the Nantucket Sound - Muskeget Channel Area Leeney, R., et al. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish, Marine Mammals
Wave Energy Technology - New Zealand Multi-Mode Wave Energy Converter Advancement Project (Oregon) September 2010 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Bayesian Integration for Marine Spatial Planning and Renewable Energy Siting September 2010 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Electromagnetic Field Study Slater, M., et al. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF
Use of an Autonomous Sensor to Evaluate the Biological Performance of the Advanced Turbine at Wanapum Dam Deng, Z., et al. September 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Tacoma Narrows Tidal Currents Pacific Northwest National Laboratory August 2010 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
San Juan Islands Tidal Currents Pacific Northwest National Laboratory August 2010 Video Marine Energy general, Tidal
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Fish National Marine Sanctuaries August 2010 Website Fish
Ocean Current Turbine Rotor Noise August 2010 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Developing an Instrumentation Package for in-Water Testing of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Devices Nelson, E. August 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Reedsport OPT Wave Park Settlement Agreement Ocean Power Technologies July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave
A crane movement model parameterized using portable radar for evaluating response to wind energy development Kirsch, E., Diehl, R., Suarez, M. July 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 3: Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Reptiles
Megabenthic Invertebrates on Shell Mounds Associated with Oil and Gas Platforms Off California Goddard, J., Love, M. July 2010 Journal Article Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 4: Fish and Fisheries Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 2: Avian Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Novel Scavenger Removal Trials Increase Wind Turbine - Caused Avian Fatality Estimates Smallwood, K., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Updated Summary of Knowledge: Selected Areas of the Pacific Coast Kaplan, B., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 1: Overview, Summary, and Application Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Assessing Potential Physical, Chemical and Biological Impacts and Risks Coastal Response Research Center June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Spatial Distribution, Abundance and Flight Ecology of Birds in Nearshore and Offshore Waters in Rhode Island Paton, P., et al. June 2010 Report Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Development of a Local Ocean Prediction Model of the Fort Lauderdale Region for Energy Extraction Purposes Bozec, A., Chassignet, E., Hanson, H. June 2010 Conference Paper Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies - Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects Kramer, S., et al. June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Open-Ocean Energy Production: The Environmental Context Hanson, H. June 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Reptiles
California Offshore Wind Energy Potential Dvorak, M., Archer, C., Jacobson, M. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Hydrodynamics of a Ship/Whale Collision Silber, G., Slutsky, J., Bettridge, S. May 2010 Journal Article Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Socio-economics, Navigation
Ocean Planning and the Gulf of Maine: Exploring Bi-National Policy Options Fanning, L., Heimes, R. May 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
A Net-Present Value Analysis for a Wind Turbine Purchase at a Small US College Johnson, N., Solomon, B. May 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics
Acoustic Effects of Tidal Energy May 2010 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities 2010 Arnett, E., et al. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
An Analysis of the Potential Acoustic Effects of Cape Wind's Offshore Wind Farm on Marine Mammal Populations Burgman, J. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Spatial Pattern of Summer Bat Mortality from Collisions with Wind Turbines in Mixed-Grass Prairie Piorkowski, M., O'Connell, T. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Final Report Bird and Bat Fatality Studies Fowler Ridge I Wind-Energy Facility Benton County, Indiana: April 6 - October 30, 2009 Johnson, G., et al. April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Fatality Studies Fowler Ridge III Wind-Energy Facility Benton County, Indiana: April 2 - June 10, 2009 Johnson, G., et al. April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Run of River Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Presentation: Clean, Domestic, Scalable, Continuous, Competative Power Free Flow Power April 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general, Riverine
Hydrodynamic and Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Restoration: A Modeling Study Yang, Z., et al. April 2010 Journal Article Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Screening for Biofouling and Corrosion of Tidal Energy Device Materials: In-Situ Results for Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington Polagye, B., Thomson, J. April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Chemicals Nearfield Habitat
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Existing Environmental Character, Trends, and Pressures Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: Data Atlas Parametrix, Aquatera April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Determination of Raptor Migratory Pathways over a Large Landscape Seeland, H. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Development of a Hydrodynamic and Transport Model of Bellingham Bay in Support of Nearshore Habitat Restoration Wang, T., Yang, Z., Khangaonkar, T. April 2010 Report Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Cumulative Impacts of Wave Energy In Oregon: A Literature and Research Review Aquatera, Parametrix April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Bats are not birds and other problems with Sovacool's (2009) analysis of animal fatalities due to electricity generation Willis, C., et al. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
The Application Of Observing System Data In California Current Ecosystem Assessments Brown, J., et al. March 2010 Report Marine Energy general Ecosystem
Bat Acoustic Studies for the Pleasant Ridge Wind Resource Area - Livingston County, Illinois - Final Report July 15 - October 21, 2009 Good, R., et al. February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Steel forests or smoke stacks: the politics of visualisation in the Cape Wind controversy Phadke, R. February 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Final Environmental Impact Report for the SMUD Solano Wind Project Phase 3 Sacramento Municipal Utility District February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Impacts Of Wind Farms On Surface Air Temperatures Traiteur, J., Roy, S. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Farfield Environment
The Role Of The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission In Authorizing Hydrokinetic Technology Projects Konnert, T. January 2010 Magazine Article Marine Energy general
Mandibular Fractures in Short-Finned Pilot Whales, Globicephala macrorhynchus Oremland, M., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Underwater Ambient Noise at a Proposed Tidal Energy Site in Puget Sound Bassett, C. January 2010 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Nearfield Habitat
Hydrographic and Sediment Field Surveys January 2010 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates
Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning: Legal Considerations Mengerink, K., Armsby, M., Diamond, J. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Benthic Cover Data NOAA Coastal Services Center January 2010 Website Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Potential OTEC Impacts in the Hawaiian Marine Environment Parke, M. January 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Use of forest edges by bats in a managed pine forest landscape Morris, A., Miller, D., Kalcounis-Rueppell, M. January 2010 Journal Article Bats
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Environmental Impacts NOAA Office of Ocean & Coastal Resource Management January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Development Technical Support and General Environmental Studies Copping, A., Geerlofs, S. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Best Management Practices for Bats in New Mexico Balistreri, M. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Assessment of Underwater Noise Generated by Wave Energy Devices Austin, M., et al. December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
Post‐Construction Bat and Bird Fatality Study at the Blue Sky Green Field Wind Energy Center, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin: July 21, 2008 – October 31, 2008 and March 15, 2009 – June 4, 2009 Gruver, J., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures Cool, R., et al. December 2009 Report Marine Energy general
Acoustic Masking In Marine Ecosystems: Intuitions, Analysis, And Implication Clark, C., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals
Coating Selection Process for Gulf Stream Hydroturbines Bak, A. December 2009 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wave
An Estimation Of Survival And Injury Of Fish Passed Through The Hydro Green Energy Hydrokinetic System, And A Characterization Of Fish Entrainment Potential At The Mississippi Lock And Dam No. 2 Hydroelectric Projects Normandeau Associates December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Sediment Transport Study: Baseline Observations and Modeling for the Reedsport Wave Energy Site Ozkan-Haller, H., et al. December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Report to Congress on the Potential Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies US Department of Energy December 2009 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Sediment Transport Study Phase 1 Oregon State University December 2009 Report Dynamic Device
2009 Spring, Summer, and Fall Avian and Bat Surveys Stantec Consulting December 2009 Report Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Advanced Anchoring and Mooring Study Sound and Sea Technologies November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Static Device

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