Tidal

Capturing tidal fluctuations with turbines, reciprocating devices, kites, screws, barrages, or lagoons.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. Since seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. While tidal currents are very predictable, challenges arise due to the need for devices to collect flow from opposite directions and survive the harsh corrosive marine environment.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the seven most common approaches: axial flow turbine, cross flow turbine, reciprocating device, tidal kite, Archimedes screw, tidal lagoon, and tidal barrage.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are the most similar to traditional windmills, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale tidal energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem.

Cross Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are generally cylindrical on a horizontal axis, where kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades oriented transversely to the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water, depending on the design. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of axial flow turbines.

Reciprocating Device

 

Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components, but instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices.

 

Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Reciprocating devices often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages water flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction.

 

Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device.

 

The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies, and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with reversible low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir. Tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside of the walls, functioning very similar to a low-head conventional hydrokinetic dam that works in both direction.

 

The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection. The changes to the physical system are similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include altering water flow and shoreline processes partially due to energy removal. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and benthic invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow better recreation.

Tidal Barrage

 

Tidal barrages are dams built across the entrance to a bay or estuary that captures potential tidal energy, similar to tidal lagoons. Energy is collected when the height difference on either side of the dam is greatest, at low or high tide. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is required to justify the construction, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.

 

Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to the alteration of tidal flows and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation opportunities due to calmer waters.

Total Results: 470
Title Author Research Start Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Community Energy and Emissions Planning for Tidal Current Turbines: A Case Study of the Municipalities of the Southern Gulf Islands Region, British Columbia Sangiuliano, S. September 2017 Journal Article Tidal Life Cycle Assessment
Morphological Process of a Restored Estuary Downstream of a Tidal Barrier Kuang, C., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Identifying Relevant Scales of Variability for Monitoring Epifaunal Reef Communities at a Tidal Energy Extraction Site O'Carroll, J., Kennedy, R., Savidge, G. February 2017 Journal Article Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Computational Prediction of Pressure Change in the Vicinity of Tidal Stream Turbines and the Consequences for Fish Survival Rate Zangiabadi, E., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish
Multisensor Acoustic Tracking of Fish and Seabird Behavior Around Tidal Turbine Structures in Scotland Williamson, B., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Tidal Seabirds, Fish
Visualising the Aspect-Dependent Radar Cross Section of Seabirds over a Tidal Energy Test Site Using a Commercial Marine Radar System McCann, D., Bell, P. January 2017 Journal Article Tidal Seabirds
The Role of Tidal Lagoons Hendry, Charles December 2016 Report Tidal Ecosystem
Offshore Renewable Energy and Nature Conservation: The Case of Marine Tidal Turbines in Northern Ireland Haslett, J., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Tidal Ecosystem
Hydroacoustic Analysis of the Effects of a Tidal Power Turbine on Fishes Viehman, H. December 2016 Thesis Tidal Static Device Fish
Estimating the Probability of Fish Encountering a Marine Hydrokinetic Device Shen, H., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Tidal Fish
Interactions of Aquatic Animals with the ORPC OCGen in Cobscook Bay, Maine: Monitoring Behavior Change and Assessing the Probability of Encounter with a Deployed MHK Device Zydlewski, G., et al. October 2016 Report Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish
Do Changes in Current Flow as a Result of Arrays of Tidal Turbines Have an Effect on Benthic Communities? Kregting, L., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Tidal Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates
A Quality Management Review of Scotland's Sectoral Marine Plan for Tidal Energy Sangiuliano, S. August 2016 Report Tidal Legal and Policy
A Coordinated Action Plan for Addressing Collision Risk for Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines Hutchison, I., Copping, A. August 2016 Workshop Article Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Harbour Porpoise Distribution can Vary at Small Spatiotemporal Scales in Energetic Habitats Benjamins, S., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Tidal Marine Mammals
Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction Stokesbury, M., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Tidal Fish
Informing a Tidal Turbine Strike Probability Model through Characterization of Fish Behavioral Response using Multibeam Sonar Output Bevelhimer, M., et al. July 2016 Report Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Predictable Hydrodynamic Conditions Explain Temporal Variations in the Density of Benthic Foraging Seabirds in a Tidal Stream Environment Waggitt, J., et al. July 2016 Conference Paper Tidal Seabirds
Potential Environmental Impact of Tidal Energy Extraction in the Pentland Firth at Large Spatial Scales: Results of a Biogeochemical Model van der Molen, J., Ruardij, P., Greenwood, N. May 2016 Journal Article Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Wave and Tidal Current Energy - A Review of the Current State of Research Beyond Technology Uihlein, A., Magagna, D. May 2016 Journal Article Tidal, Wave
Current tidal power technologies and their suitability for applications in coastal and marine areas Roberts, A., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Tidal Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Assessing collision risk between underwater turbines and marine wildlife Scottish Natural Heritage May 2016 Report Tidal Dynamic Device
Assessing Collision Risk between Underwater Turbines and Marine Wildlife Band, W. May 2016 Report Tidal Dynamic Device
Parameter Updates to a Probabilistic Kinetic Hydropower System – Fish Interaction Model (KFIM) Tomichek, C., et al. April 2016 Presentation Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Integrating a Multibeam and a Multifrequency Echosounder on the Flowbec Seabed Platform to Track Fish and Seabird Behavior around Tidal Turbine Structures Williamson, B., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Tidal Seabirds, Fish
Numerical Evaluation of Marine Current Turbine: Impact on Environment and its Potential of Renewable Energy Utilization Kitazawa, D., Zhang, J. April 2016 Conference Paper Tidal Energy Removal Ecosystem, Farfield Environment
A World First: Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon in Review Waters, S., Aggidis, G. April 2016 Journal Article Tidal
Quantifying pursuit-diving seabirds' associations with fine-scale physical features in tidal stream environments Waggitt, J., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Tidal Seabirds
Seal Telemetry Inventory Sparling, C. March 2016 Report Tidal Marine Mammals
Harbor Seal - Tidal Turbine Collision Risk Models. An Assessment of Sensitivities. Wood, J., Joy, R., Sparling, C. March 2016 Report Tidal Marine Mammals
Brims Tidal Array Collision Risk Modelling - Atlantic Salmon Xodus Group March 2016 Report Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Environmental Monitoring of the Paimpol-Brehat Tidal Project Barillier, A., Carlier, A. February 2016 Presentation Tidal Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
What Should a Condition Monitoring System Look like for a Tidal Turbine? Marnoch, J. February 2016 Presentation Tidal
A Self-Contained Subsea Platform for Acoustic Monitoring of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices - Field Deployments at Wave and Tidal Energy Sites in Orkney, Scotland Williamson, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Data Based Estimates of Collision Risk: An Example Based on Harbour Seal Tracking Data around a Proposed Tidal Turbine Array in the Pentland Firth Thompson, D., et al. January 2016 Report Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Measurement of Underwater Operational Noise Emitted by Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Lepper, P., Robinson, S. January 2016 Book Chapter Tidal, Wave Noise
Effects of Underwater Turbine Noise on Crab Larval Metamorphosis Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. January 2016 Book Chapter Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Refining Estimates of Collision Risk for Harbour Seals and Tidal Turbines Band, B., et al. January 2016 Report Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
A Scenario-Based Approach to Evaluating Potential Environmental Impacts Following a Tidal Barrage Installation Kidd, I., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Tidal Energy Removal Ecosystem
NERC Knowledge Exchange: An Autonomous Device to Track Porpoise Movements in Tidal Rapids Macaulay, J., et al. November 2015 Report Tidal Marine Mammals
Marine Energy Research and Innovation Centre (MERIC) Chilean Ministry of Energy, et al. October 2015 Project Site Annex IV Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Wave, Tidal, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Hydrodynamic Response to Large Scale Tidal Energy Extraction Brown, A., Neill, S. September 2015 Conference Paper Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Field Testing a Full-Scale Tidal Turbine Part 2: In-Line Wake Effects Schmitt, P., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Tidal
Field Testing a Full-Scale Tidal Turbine Part 3: Acoustic Characteristics Schmitt, P., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Tidal Noise
Numerical Modeling of the Impact Response of Tidal Devices and Marine Mammals Grear, M., Motley, M. September 2015 Conference Paper Tidal Marine Mammals
Sediment Transport in the Pentland Firth and Impacts of Tidal Stream Energy Extraction Fairley, I., Masters, I., Karunarathna, H. September 2015 Conference Paper Tidal Energy Removal
Impact of Scaled Tidal Stream Turbine over Mobile Sediment Beds Ramírez-Mendoza, R., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Tidal Energy Removal
Remote Detection of Sea Surface Roughness Signatures Related to Subsurface Bathymetry, Structures and Tidal Stream Turbine Wakes Bell, P., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Tidal
An Integrated Solution to Real Time Marine Mammal Monitoring for Tidal Turbines Bromley, P., Boake, C., Broudic, M. September 2015 Conference Paper Tidal Static Device Marine Mammals
Surveying Marine Mammals in Nearby Tidal Energy Development Sites: a Comparison Benjamins, S., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Tidal Static Device Farfield Environment, Marine Mammals
Towards Acoustic Monitoring of Marine Mammals at a Tidal Turbine Site: Grand Passage, NS, Canada Malinka, C., Hay, A., Cheel, R. September 2015 Conference Paper Tidal Marine Mammals
Confusion Reigns? A Review of Marine Megafauna Interactions with Tidal-Stream Environments Benjamins, S., et al. August 2015 Book Chapter Tidal Birds, Marine Mammals
The Cumulative Impact of Tidal Stream Turbine Arrays on Sediment Transport in the Pentland Firth Fairley, I., Masters, I., Karunarathna, H. August 2015 Journal Article Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
TeraWatt Position Papers: A "Toolbox" of Methods to Better Understand and Assess the Effects of Tidal and Wave Energy Arrays on the Marine Environment Murray, R., et al. August 2015 Book Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Effects of Hydrokinetic Energy Turbine Arrays on Sediment Transport at São Marcos Bay, Brazil González-Gorbeña, E., et al. August 2015 Conference Paper Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
A Comparison of Numerical Modelling Techniques for Tidal Stream Turbine Analysis Masters, I., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Tidal
Guidance to Inform Marine Mammal Site Characterisation Requirements at Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Sites in Wales Sparling, C., et al. July 2015 Report Wave, Tidal Marine Mammals
High-Resolution Velocimetry in Energetic Tidal Currents using a Convergent-Beam Acoustic Doppler Profiler Sellar, B., Harding, S., Richmond, M. July 2015 Journal Article Tidal Energy Removal
Improving Assessments of Tidal Power Potential using Grid Refinement in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Model Yang, X., Haas, K. July 2015 Journal Article Tidal Energy Removal
Hydrokinetic Turbine Models in Complex Channel Topography: Local Scour, Sediment Transport and Device Performance Hill, C., et al. July 2015 Conference Paper Tidal Energy Removal
MR7.2.1 Collision Risk: A Brief Review of Available Information on Behaviour of Mammals and Birds in High Tidal Energy Areas Onoufriou, J., Thompson, D. July 2015 Report Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Marine Mammals
MR7.2.2 Collision Risk and Impact Study: Examination of Models for Estimating the Risk of Collisions Between Seals and Tidal Turbines Lonergan, M., Thompson, D. July 2015 Report Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
MR7.2.3 Collision Risk and Impact Study: Field Tests of Turbine Blade-Seal Carcass Collisions Thompson, D., et al. July 2015 Report Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Modelling the Response of Sandbank Dynamics to Tidal Energy Extraction Chatzirodou, A., Karunarathna, H., Reeve, D. June 2015 Conference Paper Tidal Energy Removal
OCGen Module Mooring Design Marnagh, C., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Tidal
Advancing a Key Consenting Risk for Tidal Energy: The Risk of Marine Mammal Collision for In-Stream Tidal Energy Devices Booth, C., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Understanding the Risk to Marine Mammals from Collision with a Tidal Turbine Copping, A., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Improvements to Probabilistic Tidal Turbine-Fish Interaction Model Parameters Tomechik, C., Colby, J., Adonizio, M. April 2015 Conference Paper Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Tidal Resource Extraction in the Pentland Firth, UK: Potential Impacts on Flow Regime and Sediment Transport in the Inner Sound of Stroma Martin-Short, R., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Proceedings of the 4th Oxford Tidal Energy Workshop University of Oxford March 2015 Workshop Article Tidal
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1 Electromagnetic Fields Best Practice Report Rollings, E. March 2015 Report Tidal EMF
Public Perceptions and Externalities in Tidal Stream Energy: A Valuation for Policy Making Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. March 2015 Journal Article Tidal Socio-economics
Numerical Modeling of the Effect of Tidal Stream Turbines on the Hydrodynamics and the Sediment Transport - Application to the Alderney Race (Raz Blanchard), France Thiébot, J., de Bois, P., Guillou, S. March 2015 Journal Article Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Attitudes towards Marine Energy: Understanding the Values de Groot, J. March 2015 Thesis Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Stakeholder Engagement
Evaluation of Behavior and Survival of Fish Exposed to an Axial-Flow Hydrokinetic Turbine Amaral, S., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Tidal Power Development in Maine: Stakeholder Identification and Perceptions of Engagement Johnson, T., Jansujwicz, J., Zydlewski, G. January 2015 Journal Article Tidal Stakeholder Engagement
Fish Interactions with a Commercial-Scale Tidal Energy Device in the Natural Environment Viehman, H., Zydlewski, G. January 2015 Journal Article Tidal Fish
Consenting Guidance for Developers at the EMEC Fall of Warness Test Site European Marine Energy Centre January 2015 Report Tidal Legal and Policy
The Maine Tidal Power Initiative: Transdisciplinary Sustainability Science Research for the Responsible Development of Tidal Power Jansujwicz, J., Johnson, T. January 2015 Journal Article Tidal Socio-economics
Assessing Marine Mammal Presence in and Near the FORCE Lease Area During Winter and Early Spring - Addressing Baseline Data Gaps and Sensor Performance Redden, A., Porskamp, P. January 2015 Report Tidal Marine Mammals
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Understanding and Informing Permitting Decisions for Tidal Energy Development Using an Adaptive Management Framework Jansujwicz, J., Johnson, T. January 2015 Journal Article Tidal Socio-economics
A Modeling Study of the Potential Water Quality Impacts from In-Stream Tidal Energy Extraction Wang, T., Yang, Z., Copping, A. January 2015 Journal Article Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Using Hydroacoustics to Understand Fish Presence and Vertical Distribution in a Tidally Dynamic Region Targeted for Energy Extraction Viehman, H., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Tidal Fish
Examining the Impacts of Tidal Energy Capture from an Ecosystem Services Perspective Leslie, H., Palmer, M. January 2015 Journal Article Tidal Ecosystem
Hydrodynamic Interactions of a Tidal Stream Turbine and Support Structure Walker, S. December 2014 Thesis Tidal Energy Removal
Impact of Tidal-Stream Arrays in Relation to the Natural Variability of Sedimentary Processes Robins, P., Neill, S., Lewis, M. December 2014 Journal Article Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
An Evaluation of the Use of Shore-Based Surveys for Estimating Spatial Overlap between Deep-Diving Seabirds and Tidal Stream Turbines Waggitt, J., Bell, P., Scott, B. December 2014 Journal Article Tidal Birds
Detecting Potential and Actual Turbine-Marine Life Interactions: A Call for the Development of Best Practices Redden, A. November 2014 Presentation Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals
Estimates of Collision Risk of Harbour Porpoises and Marine Renewable Energy Devices at Sites of High Tidal-Stream Energy Wilson, B., et al. November 2014 Report Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
GHYDRO: Methodology Guide for Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Tidal Stream Energy Technologies at Sea Lejart, M. November 2014 Presentation Tidal Legal and Policy
Assessing the Influence of Inflow Turbulence on Noise and Performance of a Tidal Turbine using Large Eddy Simulations Lloyd, T., Turnock, S., Humphrey, V. November 2014 Journal Article Tidal Noise
Simulating Blade-Strike on Fish Passing Through Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines Romero-Gomez, P., Richmond, M. November 2014 Journal Article Riverine, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
In-Situ Ecological Interactions with a Deployed Tidal Energy Device; An Observational Pilot Study Broadhurst, M., Barr, S., Orme, D. October 2014 Journal Article Tidal Static Device Fish
Modelling the Far Field Hydro-Environmental Impacts of Tidal Farms - A Focus on Tidal Regime, Intertidal Zones and Flushing Nash, S., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Tidal Farfield Environment
Modeling of In-Stream Tidal Energy Development and its Potential Effects in Tacoma Narrows Washington USA Yang, Z., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Insights from Archaeological Analysis and Interpretation of Marine Data Sets to Inform Marine Cultural Heritage Management and Planning of Wave and Tidal Energy Development for Orkney Waters and the Pentland Firth, NE Scotland Pollard, E., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Spatial and Temporal Benthic Species Assemblage Responses with a Deployed Marine Tidal Energy Device: A Small Scaled Study Broadhurst, M., Orme, C. August 2014 Journal Article Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Experimental Study of the Turbulence Intensity Effects on Marine Current Turbines Behaviour. Part II: Two Interacting Turbines Mycek, P., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat

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