Tidal

Capturing tidal fluctuations with turbines, reciprocating devices, kites, screws, barrages, or lagoons.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. Since seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. While tidal currents are very predictable, challenges arise due to the need for devices to collect flow from opposite directions and survive the harsh corrosive marine environment.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the seven most common approaches: axial flow turbine, cross flow turbine, reciprocating device, tidal kite, Archimedes screw, tidal lagoon, and tidal barrage.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are the most similar to traditional windmills, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale tidal energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem.

Cross Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are generally cylindrical on a horizontal axis, where kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades oriented transversely to the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water, depending on the design. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of axial flow turbines.

Reciprocating Device

 

Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components, but instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices.

 

Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Reciprocating devices often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages water flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction.

 

Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device.

 

The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies, and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with reversible low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir. Tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside of the walls, functioning very similar to a low-head conventional hydrokinetic dam that works in both direction.

 

The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection. The changes to the physical system are similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include altering water flow and shoreline processes partially due to energy removal. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and benthic invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow better recreation.

Tidal Barrage

 

Tidal barrages are dams built across the entrance to a bay or estuary that captures potential tidal energy, similar to tidal lagoons. Energy is collected when the height difference on either side of the dam is greatest, at low or high tide. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is required to justify the construction, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.

 

Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to the alteration of tidal flows and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation opportunities due to calmer waters.

Total Results: 527
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Evaluating Statistical Models to Measure Environmental Change: A Tidal Turbine Case Study N/A January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Farfield Environment
A Modeling Study of Tidal Energy Extraction and the Associated Impact on Tidal Circulation in a Multi-Inlet Bay System of Puget Sound Wang, T., Yang, Z. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
A Review of the Current Understanding of the Hydro-Environmental Impacts of Energy Removal by Tidal Turbines N/A December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
The Ebb and Flow of Tidal Barrage Development in Zhejiang Province, China N/A December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Turning of the tides: Assessing the international implementation of tidal current turbines N/A December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Multi-Scale Ocean Response to a Large Tidal Stream Turbine Array N/A December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Developing Methodologies for Large Scale Wave and Tidal Stream Marine Renewable Energy Extraction and its Environmental Impact: An Overview of the TeraWatt Project N/A October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Large Scale Three-Dimensional Modelling for Wave and Tidal Energy Resource and Environmental Impact: Methodologies for Quantifying Acceptable Thresholds for Sustainable Exploitation N/A October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Harbour Seals Avoid Tidal Turbine Noise: Implications for Collision Risk N/A September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Community Energy and Emissions Planning for Tidal Current Turbines: A Case Study of the Municipalities of the Southern Gulf Islands Region, British Columbia Sangiuliano, S. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Hydrodynamic Impacts of a Marine Renewable Energy Installation on the Benthic Boundary Layer in a Tidal Channel N/A September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Understanding the Potential Risk to Marine Mammals from Collision with Tidal Turbines N/A September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Regional-Scale Patterns in Harbour Porpoise Occupancy of Tidal Stream Environments N/A August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Hydroacoustic Assessment of Behavioral Responses by Fish Passing Near an Operating Tidal Turbine in the East River, New York N/A August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Tidal Energy: The Benthic Effects of an Operational Tidal Stream Turbine N/A August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Biodiversity Characterisation and Hydrodynamic Consequences of Marine Fouling Communities on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the Orkney Islands Archipelago, Scotland, UK N/A July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Comparative Studies Reveal Variability in the use of Tidal Stream Environments by Seabirds N/A July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Harbour Porpoise Distribution can Vary at Small Spatiotemporal Scales in Energetic Habitats Benjamins, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Changing Tides: Acceptability, Support, and Perceptions of Tidal Energy in the United States N/A July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Challenges and Opportunities in Monitoring the Impacts of Tidal-Stream Energy Devices on Marine Vertebrates N/A June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Impact assessment of marine current turbines on fish behavior using an experimental approach based on the similarity law N/A June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Effects of Hydrokinetic Turbine Sound on the Behavior of Four Species of Fish Within an Experimental Mesocosm Schramm, M., Bevelhimer, M., Scherelis, C. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish
Cumulative Impact Assessment of Tidal Stream Energy Extraction in the Irish Sea N/A June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Confronting the Financing Impasse: Risk Management through Internationally Staged Investments in Tidal Energy Development N/A June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Multi-Scale Temporal Patterns in Fish Presence in a High-Velocity Tidal Channel N/A May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Lessons Learnt from MeyGen Phase 1a: Design Phase N/A May 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
The Impact of Marine Renewable Energy Extraction on Sediment Dynamics N/A April 2017 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Visualising the Aspect-Dependent Radar Cross Section of Seabirds over a Tidal Energy Test Site Using a Commercial Marine Radar System McCann, D., Bell, P. April 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Morphological Process of a Restored Estuary Downstream of a Tidal Barrier Kuang, C., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Nautricity at EMEC Nautricity Ltd March 2017 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Identifying Relevant Scales of Variability for Monitoring Epifaunal Reef Communities at a Tidal Energy Extraction Site O'Carroll, J., Kennedy, R., Savidge, G. February 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Computational Prediction of Pressure Change in the Vicinity of Tidal Stream Turbines and the Consequences for Fish Survival Rate Zangiabadi, E., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish
Behavioral Responses of Fish to a Current-Based Hydrokinetic Turbine Under Multiple Operational Conditions: Final Report Grippo, M., et al. February 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Multisensor Acoustic Tracking of Fish and Seabird Behavior Around Tidal Turbine Structures in Scotland Williamson, B., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Fish
Modelling the Effects of Marine Energy Extraction on Non-Cohesive Sediment Transport and Morphological Change in the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters N/A January 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Nova Scotia Tidal Energy Atlas N/A January 2017 Website Marine Energy general, Tidal
The Role of Tidal Lagoons Hendry, Charles December 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem
Offshore Renewable Energy and Nature Conservation: The Case of Marine Tidal Turbines in Northern Ireland Haslett, J., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem
Quantifying Pursuit-Diving Seabirds' Associations with Fine-Scale Physical Features in Tidal Stream Environments Waggitt, J., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Hydroacoustic Analysis of the Effects of a Tidal Power Turbine on Fishes Viehman, H. December 2016 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Fish
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project - Phase I Andritz-Hydro Hammerfest, Atlantis Resources November 2016 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Estimating the Probability of Fish Encountering a Marine Hydrokinetic Device Shen, H., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1 Project Environmental Monitoring Programme Rollings, E., Donovan, C., Eastham, C. October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Interactions of Aquatic Animals with the ORPC OCGen in Cobscook Bay, Maine: Monitoring Behavior Change and Assessing the Probability of Encounter with a Deployed MHK Device Zydlewski, G., et al. October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish
ScotRenewables SR2000 at EMEC Scotrenewables Tidal Power Ltd October 2016 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Decommissioning of the SeaGen Tidal Turbine in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland: Environmental Statement N/A September 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Funding and Financial Supports for Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia N/A September 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Do Changes in Current Flow as a Result of Arrays of Tidal Turbines Have an Effect on Benthic Communities? Kregting, L., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates
A Quality Management Review of Scotland's Sectoral Marine Plan for Tidal Energy Sangiuliano, S. August 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
A Coordinated Action Plan for Addressing Collision Risk for Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines Hutchison, I., Copping, A. August 2016 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction Stokesbury, M., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Predictable Hydrodynamic Conditions Explain Temporal Variations in the Density of Benthic Foraging Seabirds in a Tidal Stream Environment Waggitt, J., et al. July 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Informing a Tidal Turbine Strike Probability Model through Characterization of Fish Behavioral Response using Multibeam Sonar Output Bevelhimer, M., et al. July 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
A French Application Case of Tidal Turbine Certification N/A June 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Numerical Models as Enabling Tools for Tidal-Stream Energy Extraction and Environmental Impact Assessment N/A June 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Deep Green Holyhead Deep Project Phase I (0.5 MW) - Environmental Statement N/A June 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Aesthetics
A Holistic Method for Selecting Tidal Stream Energy Hotspots Under Technical, Economic and Functional Constraints N/A June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Potential Environmental Impact of Tidal Energy Extraction in the Pentland Firth at Large Spatial Scales: Results of a Biogeochemical Model van der Molen, J., Ruardij, P., Greenwood, N. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Wave and Tidal Current Energy - A Review of the Current State of Research Beyond Technology Uihlein, A., Magagna, D. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave
Current tidal power technologies and their suitability for applications in coastal and marine areas Roberts, A., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Assessing collision risk between underwater turbines and marine wildlife Scottish Natural Heritage May 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device
Integrating a Multibeam and a Multifrequency Echosounder on the Flowbec Seabed Platform to Track Fish and Seabird Behavior around Tidal Turbine Structures Williamson, B., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Fish
Numerical Evaluation of Marine Current Turbine: Impact on Environment and its Potential of Renewable Energy Utilization Kitazawa, D., Zhang, J. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Ecosystem, Farfield Environment
A World First: Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon in Review Waters, S., Aggidis, G. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2015 Environmental Monitoring Report N/A March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Seal Telemetry Inventory Sparling, C. March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Harbor Seal - Tidal Turbine Collision Risk Models. An Assessment of Sensitivities. Wood, J., Joy, R., Sparling, C. March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Brims Tidal Array Collision Risk Modelling - Atlantic Salmon Xodus Group March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Environmental Monitoring of the Paimpol-Brehat Tidal Project Barillier, A., Carlier, A. February 2016 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
What Should a Condition Monitoring System Look like for a Tidal Turbine? Marnoch, J. February 2016 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal
Paimpol-Brehat Tidal Demonstration Project OpenHydro January 2016 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
Measurement of Underwater Operational Noise Emitted by Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Lepper, P., Robinson, S. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
Variability in Suspended Sediment Concentration in the Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy, and Implications for Changes due to Tidal Power Extraction N/A January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Effects of Underwater Turbine Noise on Crab Larval Metamorphosis Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Refining Estimates of Collision Risk for Harbour Seals and Tidal Turbines Band, B., et al. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
A Self-Contained Subsea Platform for Acoustic Monitoring of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices - Field Deployments at Wave and Tidal Energy Sites in Orkney, Scotland Williamson, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Learning from Early Commercial Tidal Energy Projects in the Puget Sound, Washington and the Pentland Firth, Scotland McMillin, N. January 2016 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Data Based Estimates of Collision Risk: An Example Based on Harbour Seal Tracking Data around a Proposed Tidal Turbine Array in the Pentland Firth Thompson, D., et al. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Ramsey Sound Tidal Energy Limited December 2015 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal
The Value of Delay in Tidal Energy Development N/A December 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
A Scenario-Based Approach to Evaluating Potential Environmental Impacts Following a Tidal Barrage Installation Kidd, I., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Ecosystem
NERC Knowledge Exchange: An Autonomous Device to Track Porpoise Movements in Tidal Rapids Macaulay, J., et al. November 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Marine Energy Research and Innovation Centre (MERIC) Chilean Ministry of Energy, et al. October 2015 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Hydrodynamic Response to Large Scale Tidal Energy Extraction Brown, A., Neill, S. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Field Testing a Full-Scale Tidal Turbine Part 2: In-Line Wake Effects Schmitt, P., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Field Testing a Full-Scale Tidal Turbine Part 3: Acoustic Characteristics Schmitt, P., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Numerical Modeling of the Impact Response of Tidal Devices and Marine Mammals Grear, M., Motley, M. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Sediment Transport in the Pentland Firth and Impacts of Tidal Stream Energy Extraction Fairley, I., Masters, I., Karunarathna, H. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Impact of Scaled Tidal Stream Turbine over Mobile Sediment Beds Ramírez-Mendoza, R., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Remote Detection of Sea Surface Roughness Signatures Related to Subsurface Bathymetry, Structures and Tidal Stream Turbine Wakes Bell, P., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Towards Acoustic Monitoring of Marine Mammals at a Tidal Turbine Site: Grand Passage, NS, Canada Malinka, C., Hay, A., Cheel, R. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
An Integrated Solution to Real Time Marine Mammal Monitoring for Tidal Turbines Bromley, P., Boake, C., Broudic, M. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Marine Mammals
Surveying Marine Mammals in Nearby Tidal Energy Development Sites: a Comparison Benjamins, S., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Farfield Environment, Marine Mammals
Modelling Seabed Shear Stress, Sediment Mobility, and Sediment Transport in the Bay of Fundy N/A September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Habitat characterization of a tidal energy site using an ROV: Overcoming difficulties in a harsh environment N/A September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates
Confusion Reigns? A Review of Marine Megafauna Interactions with Tidal-Stream Environments Benjamins, S., et al. August 2015 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Marine Mammals
Effects of Hydrokinetic Energy Turbine Arrays on Sediment Transport at São Marcos Bay, Brazil González-Gorbeña, E., et al. August 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The Cumulative Impact of Tidal Stream Turbine Arrays on Sediment Transport in the Pentland Firth Fairley, I., Masters, I., Karunarathna, H. August 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
TeraWatt Position Papers: A "Toolbox" of Methods to Better Understand and Assess the Effects of Tidal and Wave Energy Arrays on the Marine Environment Murray, R., et al. August 2015 Book Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat

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