Electromagnetic Fields Evidence Base

As part of the risk retirement process, OES-Environmental has developed "evidence bases" for several key stressors. The evidence bases are lists of key research papers and monitoring reports for each stressor that support risk retirement for small numbers of MRE devices. The evidence bases have been reviewed by international subject matter experts at conferences and online workshops as part of OES-Environmental's outreach and engagement strategy.

The evidence base for electromagnetic fields (EMF) was presented during workshops at EWTEC 2019 and in Australia in 2019. Additional information on EMF can be found on the Tethys Knowledge Base and in Chapter 5 of the 2020 State of the Science Report.

Title Author Date Content Type Technology Receptor
The effects of wind power on marine life - a synthesis Bergström, L.; Kautsky, L.; Malm, T.; Ohlsson, E.; Wahlberg, M.; Rosenberg, R.; Capetillo, N. 2012 Report Offshore Wind Fish, Marine Mammals
COWRIE 2.0 Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Phase 2: EMF sensitive fish response to EM emissions from sub-sea electricity cables of the type used by the offshore renewable energy industry Gill, A.; Huang, Y.; Gloyne-Philips, I.; Metcalfe, J.; Quayle, V.; Spencer, J.; Wearmouth, V. 2009 Report Offshore Wind, Marine Energy (General) Fish
Potential interactions between diadromous fishes of U.K. conservation importance and the electromagnetic fields and subsea noise from marine renewable energy developments Gill, A.; Bartlett, M.; Thomsen, F. 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Fish, Demersal Fish, Pelagic Fish
Electromagnetic fields emitted by high voltage alternating current offshore wind power cables and interactions with marine organisms Gill, A.; Huang, Y.; Spencer, J.; Gloyne-Philips, I. 2012 Workshop Article Offshore Wind  
Electromagnetic field (EMF) impacts on elasmobranch (shark, rays, and skates) and American Lobster movement and migration from direct current cables Hutchison, Z.; Sigray, P.; He, H.; Gill, A.; King, J.; Gibson, C. 2018 Report   Fish, Invertebrates
Assessment of potential impact of electromagnetic fields from undersea cable on migratory fish behavior Kavet, R.; Wyman, M.; Klimley, A.; Vergara, X. 2016 Report   Fish, Demersal Fish, Pelagic Fish
Effects of EMF emissions from undersea electric cables on coral reef fish Kilfoyle, A.; Jermain, R.; Dhanak, M.; Huston, J.; Spieler, R. 2017 Journal Article   Fish
The ability of a benthic elasmobranch to discriminate between biological and artificial electric fields Kimber, J.; Sims, D.; Bellamy, P.; Gill, A.  2011 Journal Article   Fish, Demersal Fish
Renewable energy in situ power cable observation Love, M.; Nishimoto, M.; Clark, S.; Bull, A. 2016 Report   Fish, Demersal Fish, Pelagic Fish, Invertebrates
Assessing potential impacts of energized submarine power cables on crab harvests Love, M.; Nishimoto, M.; Clark, S.; Bull, A. 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Effects of EMFs from undersea power cables on elasmobranchs and other marine species Normandeau Associates; Exponent; Tricas, T.; Gill, A. 2011 Report   Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Installation and operational effects of a HVDC submarine cable in a continental shelf setting: Bass Strait, Australia Sherwood, J.; Chidgey, S.; Crockett, P.; Gwyther, D.; Ho, P.; Stewart, S.; Strong, D.; Whitely, B.; Williams, A. 2016 Journal Article   Invertebrates
MaRVEN - Environmental Impacts of Noise, Vibrations and Electromagnetic Emissions from Marine Renewable Energy Thomsen, F.; Gill, A.; Kosecka, M.; Andersson, M.; André, M.; Degraer, S.; Folegot, T.; Gabriel, J.; Judd, A.; Neumann, T.; Norro, A.; Risch, D.; Sigray, P.; Wood, D.; Wilson, B. 2015 Report Marine Energy (General)  
Sub-sea power cables and the migration behaviour of the European Eel Westerberg, H.; Langenfelt, I. 2008 Journal Article   Fish, Demersal Fish, Pelagic Fish
Effects of electromagnetic fields on fish and invertebrates - FY2012 Progress Report Woodruff, D.; Cullinan, V.; Copping, A.; Marshall, K. 2013 Report Marine Energy (General) Fish, Demersal Fish, Invertebrates
Behavioral responses by migrating juvenile salmonids to a subsea high-voltage DC power cable Wyman, M.; Klimley, A.; Battleson, R.; Agosta, T.; Chapman, E.; Haverkamp, P.; Pagel, M.; Kavet, R.  2018 Journal Article   Fish, Pelagic Fish