Wind energy, being one source of renewable energy, is one of the fastest increasing sectors worldwide, but it can have negative impacts on wildlife. Wind power plants have been mainly built in open landscapes in the past, but are recently increasingly planned and constructed in shrub- and woodlands. However, while there is a growing body of literature analyzing and discussing the impacts of wind power plants on wildlife in open landscapes, little has been done to date on that issue in shrub- and woodland environments. Therefore, we explored the effects of wind power plants in shrub- and woodland areas on woodland-dwelling wildlife species in the continents Europe and North America. Our systematic literature review was based on peer-reviewed journal articles. Out of 825 peer-reviewed articles, we synthesized detailed information from 27 articles. Reviewing scientific literature indicated that there is still very limited knowledge on effects of wind power plants on shrub- and woodland-dwelling wildlife species. Literature yielded evidence that construction, operation and maintenance of wind facilities affect mortality and behavior of mammals and birds as well as habitat suitability. However, the extent to which wind power plants affect shrub- and woodland-dwelling wildlife species highly depends on species-specific habitat requirements and distance thresholds, thereby indicating the urgent need of further studies, which reach beyond the scale of a single case study. Systematical assessments and monitoring based on a before-after control-impact design over several years are urgently required to fill knowledge gaps and better support concrete planning decisions in practical contexts.