Fine‐scale movement data has transformed our knowledge of ungulate migration ecology and now provides accurate, spatially explicit maps of migratory routes that can inform planning and management at local, state, and federal levels. Among the most challenging land use planning issues has been developing energy resources on public lands that overlap with important ungulate habitat, including the migratory routes of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). We generally know that less development is better for minimizing negative effects and maintaining habitat function, but we lack information on the amount of disturbance that animals can tolerate before reducing use of or abandoning migratory habitat. We used global positioning system data from 56 deer across 15 years to evaluate how surface disturbance from natural gas well pads and access roads in western Wyoming, USA, affected habitat selection of mule deer during migration and whether any disturbance threshold(s) existed beyond which use of migratory habitat declined. We used resource and step selection functions to examine disturbance thresholds at 3 different spatial scales. Overall, migratory use by mule deer declined as surface disturbance increased. Based on the weight of evidence from our 3 independent but complementary metrics, declines in migratory use related to surface disturbance were non‐linear, where migratory use sharply declined when surface disturbance from energy development exceeded 3%. Disturbance thresholds may vary across regions, species, or migratory habitats (e.g., stopover sites). Such information can help with management and land use decisions related to mineral leasing and energy development that overlap with the migratory routes of ungulates.