Habitat Change

Changes to the physical habitat around the device.

Habitat Change

 

The introduction of wind or marine renewable energy devices to the environment can change the physical habitat. The development of land-based wind farms, for example, typically requires the addition of roads and infrastructure, which can lead to habitat degradation and/or fragmentation. Installation of offshore wind and marine renewable energy devices' associated subsea power cables will likely result in changes to seafloor habitats. The physical presence of one or many devices may cause animals to avoid the area, potentially resulting in loss of foraging, breeding, rearing, or resting habitats. Fish may be attracted to a device to feed on algae or to swim in an eddy, while bats may be attracted to a device to feed on insects that are attracted by the light, both of which may place them at higher risk for collision with dynamic portions of the device. Mooring lines that anchor floating devices to the seafloor could also confuse or entrap large marine animals like whales, causing panic and potential injury or increased predation.

 

Photo Credit: BALAO-SABELLA

Total Results: 761
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Decision Support Tools for Collaborative Marine Spatial Planning: Identifying Potential Sites for Tidal Energy Devices Around the Mull of Kintyre, Scotland Janssen, R., Arciniegas, G., Alexander, K. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Effects of an Offshore Oil Platform on the Distribution and Abundance of Commercially Important Crab Species Page, H., et al. August 1999 Journal Article Habitat Change Invertebrates
Colonization of an Artificial Hard Substrate by Mytilus edulis in the German Bight Joschko, T., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Invertebrates
Wind Power Plants and the Conservation of Birds and Bats in Spain: A Geographical Assessment Telleria, J. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Consistency Conflicts and Federalism Choice: Marine Spatial Planning Beyond the States' Territorial Seas Burger, M. July 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy (General) Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Habitat Use and Selection of Black Scoters in Southern New England and Siting of Offshore Wind Energy Facilities Loring, P., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Correlations Between Benthic Habitats and Demersal Fish Assemblages - A Case Study on the Dogger Bank (North Sea) Sell, A., Kröncke, I. July 2013 Journal Article Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish
Ecological Risk as a Tool for Evaluating the Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Construction in the North Sea Nunneri, C., et al. February 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Contextualizing Avian Mortality: A Preliminary Appraisal of Bird and Bat Fatalities from Wind, Fossil-Fuel, and Nuclear Electricity Sovacool, B. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Oil Platforms off California are Among the Most Productive Marine Fish Habitats Globally Claisse, J., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Habitat Change Fish
Diel Variation in Feeding and Movement Patterns of Juvenile Atlantic Cod at Offshore Wind Farms Reubens, J., et al. May 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish
Information Needs to Support Environmental Impact Assessments of the Effects of European Marine Offshore Wind Farms on Birds Fox, A., et al. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
On the Effect of Structure-Induced Resistance and Mixing on Inflows into the Baltic Sea: A Numerical Model Study Rennau, H., Schimmels, S., Burchard, H. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Effects Of Wave Energy Converters On The Surrounding Soft-bottom Macrofauna (west Coast Of Sweden) Langhamer, O. June 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Wave Habitat Change Invertebrates
ATOC/Pioneer Seamount Cable after 8 Years on the Seafloor: Observations, Environmental Impact Kogan, I., et al. April 2006 Journal Article Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Problematic Wildlife: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach Angelici, F. January 2016 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Renewable Energy From the Ocean: A Guide to OTEC Avery, W., Wu, C. January 1994 Book Marine Energy (General), OTEC Chemicals, Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Bird species of concern at wind farms in New Zealand Powlesland, R. September 2009 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
An Analytical Impact Assessment Framework for Wildlife to Inform the Siting and Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities Schwartz, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Environmental Impact of the ATOC/Pioneer Seamount Submarine Cable Kogan, I., et al. November 2003 Report Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Potential Impacts of the Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) cable on the seabed and benthic faunal assemblages Kuhnz, L., et al. December 2015 Report Habitat Change Fish, Physical Environment
Attraction To and Avoidance of Instream Hydrokinetic Turbines by Freshwater Aquatic Organisms Cada, G., Bevelhimer, M. May 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Riverine Attraction, Avoidance, Habitat Change Fish
Continuation Implementation Masterplan Wind at Sea Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid), Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (Rijkwaterstaat) September 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change, Noise
Prevention of the ecological effects of offshore windfarms in licensing and spatial planning - an overview Boon, A. July 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Avoidance Behaviour of Birds around Offshore Wind Farms: Overview of Knowledge Including Effects of Configuration Krijgsveld, K. July 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
A methodological update of the Framework for the Appropriate Assessment of the ecological effects of Offshore Windfarms at the Dutch Continental Shelf Boon, A., et al. July 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Repowing Draft Program Environmental Impact Report Alameda County Community Development Agency June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Human Dimensions
Investigations of Birds During Construction and Operation of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand Kahlert, J., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Attraction, Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Collision, EMF, Entrapment, Habitat Change, Noise Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Physical Environment, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States: Assessment of Opportunities and Barriers Musial, M., Ram, B. September 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Legal Authorities Relating to the Implementation of Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning National Ocean Council January 2011 Report Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Identification of Outer Continental Shelf Renewable Energy Space-Use Conflicts and Analysis of Potential Mitigation Measures Conway, F., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change
Infauna Monitoring Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm: Annual Status Report 2003 Bech, M., Leonhard, S., Pedersen, J. May 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Impacts on Biodiversity of Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources: The Example of Birds and Bats Hötker, H., Thomsen, K., Jeromin, H. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Impact of Windfarm OWEZ on the Local Macrobenthos Community Daan, R., Mulder, M., Bergman, M. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Are Flying Wildlife Attracted to (or do they Avoid) Wind Turbines? Larkin, R. March 2010 Report Wind Energy (General) Attraction, Avoidance, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Predicting the Displacement of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra from Benthic Feeding Areas Due to Offshore Windfarms Kaiser, M., et al. March 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Analysis of the Possible Displacement of Bird and Marine Mammal Species Related to the Installation and Operation of Marine Energy Conversion Systems Long, C. January 2017 Report Marine Energy (General) Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Marine Mammals
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Food Basis for Common Scoter Skov, H., et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes
Use of High Resolution Sonar for Near-Turbine Fish Observations (DIDSON) - WeSea 2007-002 Couperus, B., et al. November 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Fish
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Bird Migration Skov, H., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Migrating Waterbirds Piper, W., et al. October 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Interactions of Aquatic Animals with the ORPC OCGen in Cobscook Bay, Maine: Monitoring Behavior Change and Assessing the Probability of Encounter with a Deployed MHK Device Zydlewski, G., et al. October 2016 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Habitat Change Fish
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Resting Waterbirds Skov, H., Piper, W., Leonhard, S. September 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Hydro-Acoustic Monitoring of Fish Communities at Offshore Wind Farms Hvidt, C., et al. May 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Nearfield Habitat
A Review of the Impacts of Onshore Wind Energy Development on Biodiversity Tosh, D., Montgomery, W., Reid, N. January 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Ecosystem Processes
Use of Aerial Surveys to Detect Bird Displacement by Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., et al. October 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Impact Assessment of an Off-shore Wind Park on Sea Ducks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. March 1998 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Review Report 2005: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring DONG Energy, Vattenfall November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Maine Coastal Plan Maine State Planning Office May 2011 Report Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Argyll Array Offshore Windfarm Report to Inform a Shadow Appropriate Assessment - Great Northern Diver Potential SPAs NIRAS Consulting November 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Sørfjord Windpark, Tysfjord Municipality: Impact Assessment, Evaluation of Natural Environment Jacobsen, K., Arnesen, G., Johnsen, T. April 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dønnesfjord Windpark, Hasvik Municipality: Impact Assessment, Evaluation of Natural Environment Jacobsen, K., Borg, L., Johnsen, T. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment, Terrestrial Mammals
Expansion of Hitra Wind-Power Plant - Consequences Related to Wildlife Except Birds Veiberg, V., Pedersen, H. February 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway (Bird Wind): Progress Report 2009 Bevanger, K., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Wind Power and Birds at Smøla 2003-2006 Follestad, A., et al. June 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Eagle Owl and Wind Power development at Karmøy, Western Norway Rov, N., Jacobsen, K. March 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Snefjord vindpark: Vurdering av konsekvenser for landskap, flora, fauna, friluftsliv, kulturminner og reindriftsnæring Tombre, I., et al. February 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Terrestrial Mammals
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Biological Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment and Control of OTEC Ecological Impacts Wilde, P., Sandusky, J., Jassby, A. December 1978 Report Marine Energy (General), OTEC Chemicals, Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Physical Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Physical Environment
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Assessing Potential Physical, Chemical and Biological Impacts and Risks Coastal Response Research Center June 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RWE Group November 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm Bird Monitoring Program 2010-2012 Skov, H., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Strategic Impact Assessment of Offshore Windpower in Norway - Impacts on Seabirds Lorensten, S., et al. March 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Renewable Energy Respecting Nature: A Synthesis of Knowledge on Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Financed by the Research Council of Norway May, R., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Human Dimensions
Strategic Joint Industry Project No.1: Bird avoidance behavior and collision impact monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Marine Scotland, et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Biglow Canyon Wind Farm: Wildlife Monitoring and Mitigation Plan Portland General Electric Company, Oregon Department of Energy May 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: Iberdrola Renewables Iberdrola Renewables October 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Marine Renewable Energy: A Global Review of the Extent of Marine Renewable Energy Developments, the Developing Technologies and Possible Conservation Implications for Cetaceans James, V. November 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Marine Bird Distribution Along the Oregon Coast Suryan, R., et al. April 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Onshore Environmental Impact Statement for Lincs, Docking Shoal, and Race Bank OSW Farms Centrica Energy June 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management Policy Guide Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management October 2011 Report Habitat Change Human Dimensions
Modeling Wildlife Densities and Habitat Use Across Temporal and Spatial Scales on the Mid-Atlantic Continental Shelf: Annual Report for the First Budget Period Williams, K. April 2013 Report Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Navigational Safety Risk Assessment for the Wave Test Site at the European Marine Energy Centre Cantello, D. May 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Navigation
Ecological Survey and Impact Assessment for the Proposed Cable Route Corridor and Substation, Walpole, Lincolnshire, & Norfolk Lapwings Consultants September 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
Repowering Smøla Wind-Power Plant: An Assessment of Avian Conflicts Dahl, E., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Evaluating the Potential for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices to Act as Artificial Reefs or Fish Aggregating Devices, Based on Analysis of Surrogates in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate U.S. West Coast and Hawaiian Coastal Waters Kramer, S., et al. May 2015 Report Marine Energy (General) Habitat Change Fish
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment The University of Liverpool Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies September 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Final Environmental Impact Statement National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration July 1981 Report Marine Energy (General), OTEC Chemicals, Noise, Habitat Change Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Options and Opportunities for Marine Fisheries Mitigation Associated with Windfarms Blyth-Skyrme, R. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Human Dimensions
D4.17 Report on environmental monitoring protocols Magagna, D., et al. May 2014 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Advanced Anchoring and Mooring Study Sound and Sea Technologies November 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Habitat Change
Colonization of Blue Mussels (Mytilus Edulis) on Offshore Wave Power Installations Langhamer, O. July 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Wave Habitat Change Invertebrates
Seabirds & Offshore Wind Farms Monitoring Results 2011 Vanermen, N., et al. June 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Bird and Bat Impacts and Behaviors at Old Wind Turbines at Forebay, Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., Neher, L. November 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Collision Risks & Wind Energy Facilities Willmott, J., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Development of Underwater Flora and Fauna Communities on Hard Substrates of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Lengkeek, W., Bouma, S. December 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Ecosystem Processes
Energy Development Siting Recommendations for Playas Bartuszevige, A., et al. May 2017 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change
Development of Spatial Information Layers for Commercial Fishing and Shellfishing in UK Waters to Support Strategic Siting of Offshore Windfarms Dunstone, D. March 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Human Dimensions
Development of the Fouling Community on Turbine Foundations and Scour Protections in Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Birklund, J., Petersen, A June 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Review of the Reef Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Structures and their Potential for Enhancement and Mitigation UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Stenberg, C., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Fish, Nearfield Habitat
A Review of Flight Heights and Avoidance Rates of Birds in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Cook, A., et al. May 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds
Effects of Displacement from Marine Renewable Development on Seabirds Breeding at SPAs: A Proof of Concept Model of Common Guillemots Breeding on the Isle of May McDonald, C., et al. May 2012 Report Marine Energy (General) Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Effects of Marine Windfarms on the Distribution of Fish, Shellfish and Marine Mammals in the Horns Rev Area Hoffmann, E., et al. May 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, EMF, Habitat Change, Noise Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Assessment of Risk to Marine Mammals from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Marine Mammals and Risks from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters Wilson, B., Gordon, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Collision, Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Population Consequences of Displacement from Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Developments for Seabirds Breeding at Scottish SPAs Searle, K., et al. May 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
Investigations of the Bird Collision Risk and the Responses of Harbour Porpoises in the Offshore Wind Farms Horns Rev, North Sea, and Nysted, Baltic Sea, in Denmark - Part II: Harbour porpoises Diederichs,A., Hennig, V., Nehls, G. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Understanding the Role of Offshore Structures in Managing Potential Watersipora Invasions Page, H., et al. February 2019 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates

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