Tidal

Capturing tidal fluctuations with turbines, reciprocating devices, kites, screws, barrages, or lagoons.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. Since seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. While tidal currents are very predictable, challenges arise due to the need for devices to collect flow from opposite directions and survive the harsh corrosive marine environment.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the seven most common approaches: axial flow turbine, cross flow turbine, reciprocating device, tidal kite, Archimedes screw, tidal lagoon, and tidal barrage.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are the most similar to traditional windmills, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale tidal energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem.

Cross Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are generally cylindrical on a horizontal axis, where kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades oriented transversely to the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water, depending on the design. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of axial flow turbines.

Reciprocating Device

 

Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components, but instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices.

 

Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Reciprocating devices often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages water flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction.

 

Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device.

 

The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies, and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with reversible low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir. Tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside of the walls, functioning very similar to a low-head conventional hydrokinetic dam that works in both direction.

 

The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection. The changes to the physical system are similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include altering water flow and shoreline processes partially due to energy removal. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and benthic invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow better recreation.

Tidal Barrage

 

Tidal barrages are dams built across the entrance to a bay or estuary that captures potential tidal energy, similar to tidal lagoons. Energy is collected when the height difference on either side of the dam is greatest, at low or high tide. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is required to justify the construction, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.

 

Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to the alteration of tidal flows and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation opportunities due to calmer waters.

Total Results: 669
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Multi-Criteria Decision-Making on Assessment of Proposed Tidal Barrage Schemes in Terms of Environmental Impacts Wu, Y., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Multi-Dimensional Optimisation of Tidal Energy Converters Array Layouts Considering Geometric, Economic and Environmental Constraints González-Gorbeña, E., Qassim, R., Rosman, P. February 2018 Journal Article Tidal
Multi-Disciplinary Risk Identification and Evaluation for the Tidal Industry Kolios, A., Read, G., Loannou, A. April 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal
Multi-Scale Ocean Response to a Large Tidal Stream Turbine Array De Dominicis, M., Murray, R., Wolf, J. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Multi-Scale Temporal Patterns in Fish Presence in a High-Velocity Tidal Channel Viehman, H., Zydlewski, G. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Multibeam Imaging of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices Williamson, B., Blondel, P. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Fish
Multisensor Acoustic Tracking of Fish and Seabird Behavior Around Tidal Turbine Structures in Scotland Williamson, B., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Fish
Nature Conservation Implications of a Severn Tidal Barrage - A Preliminary Assessment of Geomorphological Change Pethick, J., Morris, R., Evans, D. December 2009 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Nautricity at EMEC April 2017 Project Site OES-Environmental Tidal
Navigation Risk Assessment Update: Fall of Warness Anatec November 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Navigation
Near Field Effects of Tidal Power Extraction on Extreme Events and Coastline Integrity in the Bay of Fundy Watanabe, R. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
NERC Knowledge Exchange: An Autonomous Device to Track Porpoise Movements in Tidal Rapids Macaulay, J., et al. November 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Noise characterization of a subsea tidal kite Schmitt, P., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Noise Measurements Of A Prototype Tidal Energy Turbine Deveau, D., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Nova Bluemull Sound - Appropriate Assessment Marine Scotland January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Nova Innovation - Shetland Tiday Array (Bluemull Sound) March 2016 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Nova Scotia Tidal Energy Atlas Acadia Tidal Energy Institute, TEKMap Consulting, FORCE January 2017 Website Marine Energy general, Tidal
Numerical Evaluation of Marine Current Turbine: Impact on Environment and its Potential of Renewable Energy Utilization Kitazawa, D., Zhang, J. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Ecosystem, Farfield Environment
Numerical Modeling of the Effect of Tidal Stream Turbines on the Hydrodynamics and the Sediment Transport - Application to the Alderney Race (Raz Blanchard), France Thiébot, J., de Bois, P., Guillou, S. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Numerical Modeling of the Impact Response of Tidal Devices and Marine Mammals Grear, M., Motley, M. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Numerical Modeling of Tidal Currents and the Effects of Power Extraction on Estuarine Hydrodynamics Along the Georgia Coast, USA Defne, Z., Haas, K., Fritz, H. December 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Numerical Modelling of the Effect of Turbines on Currents in a Tidal Channel - Tory Channel, New Zealand Plew, D., Stevens, C. September 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Numerical Modelling Study of the Effects of Suspended Aquaculture Farms on Tidal Stream Energy Generation O'Donncha, F., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Socio-economics, Fishing
Numerical Models as Enabling Tools for Tidal-Stream Energy Extraction and Environmental Impact Assessment Yang, Z., Wang, T. June 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Numerical Simulations of the Effects of a Tidal Turbine Array on Near-Bed Velocity and Local Bed Shear Stress Gillibrand, P., Walters, R., McIlvenny, J. October 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Nearfield Habitat
Observations Of Turbulent Flow Fields In The Chesapeake Bay Estuary For Tidal Energy Conversion Luznik, L., Flack, K. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Ocean Flow Energy - Sanda Sound August 2014 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
OCGen Module Mooring Design Marnagh, C., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
OERA Webinar Series: Finite Element Analysis to Assess Fish Mortality from Interactions with Tidal Turbine Blades Fyffe, N. May 2018 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Offshore Renewable Energy and Nature Conservation: The Case of Marine Tidal Turbines in Northern Ireland Haslett, J., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem
Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) For Ireland: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA): Volume 1: Non - Technical Summary (NTS) Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland October 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Oil and gas infrastructure decommissioning in marine protected areas: System complexity, analysis and challenges Burdon, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
OpenHydro Alderney Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
OpenHydro at EMEC May 2008 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Operational Noise from Tidal Turbine Arrays and the Assessment of Collision Risk with Marine Mammals Marmo, B. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Noise Marine Mammals
ORECCA European Offshore Renewable Energy Roadmap Jeffrey, H., Sedgwick, J. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Outer Bay of Fundy Tidal Energy Development: Where the Leviathans Live Trowse, G., Malinka, C. October 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal
Paimpol-Brehat Tidal Demonstration Project August 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Passive Acoustic Monitoring of Cetacean Activity Patterns and Movements in Minas Passage: Pre-Turbine Baseline Conditions Tollit, D., Redden, A. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Enabling Actions Report: Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Wave and Tidal Stream Projects and Migratory Salmonids Slaski, R., Hirst, D., Gray, S. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Fish
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Marine Spatial Plan Framework & Regional Locational Guidance for Marine Energy Marine Scotland January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Pentland Firth MeyGen AR1500 and HS1500 Strain Gauge Data November 2016 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Pentland Firth MeyGen AR1500 and HS1500 Video Camera Data November 2016 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Pentland Firth Meygen AR1500 FLOWBEC Platform ADVOcean 5MHz Data October 2015 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device
Pentland Firth Meygen AR1500 FLOWBEC Platform Fluorometer Data October 2015 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem
Pentland Firth Meygen AR1500 FLOWBEC Platform Multi-beam and Echosounder Data October 2015 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Pentland Firth Meygen AR1500 Multi-beam Echosounder Data: SGDS Project February 2017 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Pentland Firth Meygen AR1500 Passive Acoustic Monitoring Data: SGDS Project February 2017 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Pentland Firth MeyGen Harbour Seal Telemetry Data October 2016 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Perpetuus Tidal Energy Centre (PTEC) Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Perspectives on a way forward for ocean renewable energy in Australia Hemer, M., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Phase 1 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, G. August 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Phase 2 - Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia including the Outer Bay of Fundy Tidal Energy Project Site - Mi’kmaq Ecological Knowledge Study Moore, D., Hodder, C. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Pilot Installation of Tidal Current Turbine in Kvalsundet, Tromsø County, Norway - Status and Possible Consequences for the Environment Systad, G., et al. December 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Planned Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon Jonathan Whiting May 2013 Blog Article Tidal
PLAT-O at EMEC September 2019 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Population Sizes of Seabirds breeding in Scottish Special Protection Areas Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Population Trends of Breeding Seabird Colonies in Scottish SPAs Malcolm, F., Lye, G., Lewis, M. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Potential Effects of the Interaction Between Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines - An Engineering and Biomechanical Analysis Carlson, T., Jepsen, R., Copping, A. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Potential Environmental Effects of Leading Edge Hydrokinetic Energy Technology Sudderth, E., et al. May 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Potential Environmental Impact of Tidal Energy Extraction in the Pentland Firth at Large Spatial Scales: Results of a Biogeochemical Model van der Molen, J., Ruardij, P., Greenwood, N. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Potential Impact of Large-Scale Tidal Power Developments in the Upper Bay of Fundy on Fisheries Resources of the Northwest Atlantic Dadswell, M., Rulifson, R., Daborn, G. July 1986 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Static Device Fish
Potential Impacts of, and Mitigation Strategies for, Small-Scale Tidal Generation Projects on Coastal Marine Ecosystems in the Bay of Fundy Fisheries and Oceans Canada December 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Scour for Marine Current Turbines Based on Experience of Offshore Wind Turbine Chen, L., Lam, W., Shamsuddin, A. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Predictable changes in fish school characteristics due to a tidal turbine support structure Williamson, B., et al. October 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Predictable Hydrodynamic Conditions Explain Temporal Variations in the Density of Benthic Foraging Seabirds in a Tidal Stream Environment Waggitt, J., et al. July 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Predictive model for local scour downstream of hydrokinetic turbines in erodible channels Musa, M., Heisel, M., Guala, M. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device
Proceedings of the 2nd Oxford Tidal Energy Workshop University of Oxford March 2013 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Proceedings of the 3rd Oxford Tidal Energy Workshop University of Oxford April 2014 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Proceedings of the 4th Oxford Tidal Energy Workshop University of Oxford March 2015 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Proceedings of the Oxford Tidal Energy Workshop University of Oxford March 2012 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Progress in Renewable Energies Offshore Soares, C. October 2016 Book Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Proposed Torr Head Tidal Scheme Environmental Scoping Report THETIS Energy September 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Providing ecological context to anthropogenic subsea noise: Assessing listening space reductions of marine mammals from tidal energy devices Pine, M., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Public Perceptions and Externalities in Tidal Stream Energy: A Valuation for Policy Making Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Public Willingness to Pay and Policy Preferences for Tidal Energy Research and Development: A Study of Households in Washington State Polis, H., Dreyer, S., Jenkins, L. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Public Willingness to Pay and Policy Preferences for Tidal Energy Research and Development: A Study of Households in Washington State Polis, H., Dreyer, S., Jenkins, L. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Public Willingness to Pay and Policy Preferences for Tidal Energy Research and Development: A Study of Households in Washington State Polis, H., Dreyer, S., Jenkins, L. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Quantifying Pursuit-Diving Seabirds' Associations with Fine-Scale Physical Features in Tidal Stream Environments Waggitt, J., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Quantifying Turbulence for Tidal Power Applications Thompson, J., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Race Rocks Tidal Energy Project September 2006 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Ramsey Sound December 2015 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Ramsey Sound Tidal Energy Limited Non-Technical Summary of the Environmental Statement Tidal Energy October 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Ramsey Sound Tidal Energy Limited Scoping Report Tidal Energy November 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Refinements to the EFDC model for predicting the hydro-environmental impacts of a barrage across the Severn Estuary Zhou, J., Falconer, R., Lin, B. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Refining Estimates of Collision Risk for Harbour Seals and Tidal Turbines Band, B., et al. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Regional Locational Guidance for Wave and Tidal Energy in the Shetland Islands Tweddle, J., et al. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Regional-Scale Patterns in Harbour Porpoise Occupancy of Tidal Stream Environments Waggitt, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Regulating wave and tidal energy: An industry perspective on the Scottish marine governance framework Wright, G. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy
Remote Detection of Sea Surface Roughness Signatures Related to Subsurface Bathymetry, Structures and Tidal Stream Turbine Wakes Bell, P., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Remote Sensor Platforms for Environmental Monitoring at FORCE, Canada Anna Redden, Haley Viehman, and Melissa Oldreive June 2017 Blog Article Tidal
Renewable Energy Resources: Environmental Impact Chapter Tiwari, G., Ghosal, M. January 2005 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device
Request for advice on the populations of cetaceans that might be involved in significant interactions with marine renewable energy developments in Scottish marine waters Northridge, S. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Research for the Sustainable Development of Tidal Power in Maine Johnson, T., Zydlewski, G. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Rethinking Underwater Sound-Recording Methods to Work at Tidal-Stream and Wave-Energy Sites Wilson, B., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
Review and Analysis of Ocean Energy Systems Development and Supporting Policies AEA Energy & Environment June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Review of Cetacean Monitoring Guidelines for Welsh Wave and Tidal Energy Developments Nuuttila, H. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
RITE Monitoring of Environmental Effects (RMEE) Reports (DRAFT ver. Mar 2016) RITE Project (FERC No. P-12611) Smith, R. March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Noise Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) Environmental Assessment Project Adonizio, M., Smith, R. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish
Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) Project Demonstration December 2006 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal

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