Tidal

Capturing energy from tidal fluctuations.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. As seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. Modern tidal power generating turbines operate on the same principles as wind turbines. While the moving water passes the turbine’s blades, the kinetic energy of moving water is converted into mechanical energy as the rotating blades spin a drive shaft. The mechanical energy in the drive shaft is then converted to electrical energy using a generator, often through a gearbox. Power may also be produced by extracting potential energy from the rise and fall of the tides in a manner similar to conventional hydropower.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

  • These turbines are the most similar to traditional wind turbines, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common. Turbines may use active or passive measures to yaw or vane in the direction of flow. They can have pitching blades allowing them to change their hydrodynamic performance based on flow conditions or control settings.
  • The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts of the turbines may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication, and affect water quality. Large-scale tidal changes in flow (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting ecosystem processes

Photo Credit: BALAO-SABELLA

Cross Flow Turbine

 

  • These turbines capture kinetic energy of moving water with spinning blades oriented perpendicular to the direction of flow. They can be mounted in either vertical or horizontal orientations. When mounted vertically, these devices can operate regardless of the direction of flow. They typically have cylindrical cross-sections amenable to placement in confined channels or allowing tight array spacing. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common. The electricity production mechanism is similar to axial-flow turbines.
  • There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because, depending on the design, blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, changes in flow, and impacts on water quality are similar to that of axial flow turbines. 

Photo Credit: Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC)

Reciprocating Device

 

  • Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components and instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices. Oscillating hydrofoils operate via passive or active manipulation of one or more foils to induce hydrodynamic lift and drag forces due to pressure differences on the foils. They may be oriented horizontally or vertically, though like axial-flow turbines, they must face the direction of flow for maximum energy extraction. Linear motion of the foils may be converted to rotary motion for electricity generation, or linear generators may be used.
  • Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Depending on the design and generator, reciprocating devices often produce little noise. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

  • A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction. Electricity production is by means of a generator coupled to the turbine. Power is transferred through a cable coupled to or as part of the tether.
  • Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites can emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines depending on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

  • Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device. The slow rotation implies coupling to a generator through a gearbox.
  • The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, impacts on water quality, and changes in flow are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

  • Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir of water. Functioning similar to a hydroelectric dam, tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside the walls of tidal lagoons. The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection.
  • Changes to the physical environment are expected to be similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include changes in flow and ecosystem processes. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through the turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow for new recreation and tourism opportunities.

Tidal Barrage

 

  • Tidal barrages capture water in a holding area, making use of the difference in water height from one side of the barrage to the other. Water is then released through a large turbine or turbines as it flows out with the ebb of the tide. They are typically built across the entrance to a bay or estuary and generate electricity using the difference in water height inside and outside of the structure. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is typically required to justify the construction of tidal barrages, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.
  • Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to changes in flow and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and marine mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation and tourism opportunities due to calmer waters.
Total Results: 686
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
A Comparison of Numerical Modelling Techniques for Tidal Stream Turbine Analysis Masters, I., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Quantifying Pursuit-Diving Seabirds' Associations with Fine-Scale Physical Features in Tidal Stream Environments Waggitt, J., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Wave and Tidal Current Energy - A Review of the Current State of Research Beyond Technology Uihlein, A., Magagna, D. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Current tidal power technologies and their suitability for applications in coastal and marine areas Roberts, A., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions
Estimating the Probability of Fish Encountering a Marine Hydrokinetic Device Shen, H., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Harbour Porpoise Distribution can Vary at Small Spatiotemporal Scales in Energetic Habitats Benjamins, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Do Changes in Current Flow as a Result of Arrays of Tidal Turbines Have an Effect on Benthic Communities? Kregting, L., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Invertebrates
Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction Stokesbury, M., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
Assessing the Environmental Impact of the Annapolis Tidal Power Project Tidmarsh, W. January 1984 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Identifying Relevant Scales of Variability for Monitoring Epifaunal Reef Communities at a Tidal Energy Extraction Site O'Carroll, J., Kennedy, R., Savidge, G. February 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Computational Prediction of Pressure Change in the Vicinity of Tidal Stream Turbines and the Consequences for Fish Survival Rate Zangiabadi, E., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Habitat Change Fish
Offshore Renewable Energy and Nature Conservation: The Case of Marine Tidal Turbines in Northern Ireland Haslett, J., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Ecosystem Processes
Visualising the Aspect-Dependent Radar Cross Section of Seabirds over a Tidal Energy Test Site Using a Commercial Marine Radar System McCann, D., Bell, P. April 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Multisensor Acoustic Tracking of Fish and Seabird Behavior Around Tidal Turbine Structures in Scotland Williamson, B., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Fish
Morphological Process of a Restored Estuary Downstream of a Tidal Barrier Kuang, C., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Geomorphological Analogues for Large Estuarine Engineering Projects: A Case Study of Barrages, Causeways and Tidal Energy Projects Morris, R. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Community Energy and Emissions Planning for Tidal Current Turbines: A Case Study of the Municipalities of the Southern Gulf Islands Region, British Columbia Sangiuliano, S. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
A Modeling Study of Tidal Energy Extraction and the Associated Impact on Tidal Circulation in a Multi-Inlet Bay System of Puget Sound Wang, T., Yang, Z. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Cumulative Impact Assessment of Tidal Stream Energy Extraction in the Irish Sea Haverson, D., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Changing Tides: Acceptability, Support, and Perceptions of Tidal Energy in the United States Dreyer, S., Polis, H., Jenkins, L. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Impact assessment of marine current turbines on fish behavior using an experimental approach based on the similarity law Zhang, J., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
A Review of the Current Understanding of the Hydro-Environmental Impacts of Energy Removal by Tidal Turbines Nash, S., Phoenix, A. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
The Ebb and Flow of Tidal Barrage Development in Zhejiang Province, China Li, Y., Pan, D. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Turning of the tides: Assessing the international implementation of tidal current turbines Sangiuliano, S. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Multi-Scale Temporal Patterns in Fish Presence in a High-Velocity Tidal Channel Viehman, H., Zydlewski, G. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Fish
A Holistic Method for Selecting Tidal Stream Energy Hotspots Under Technical, Economic and Functional Constraints Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Habitat characterization of a tidal energy site using an ROV: Overcoming difficulties in a harsh environment Greene, H. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Invertebrates
Application of Tidal Energy for Purification in Fresh Water Lake Jung, R., Isshiki, H. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Variability in Suspended Sediment Concentration in the Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy, and Implications for Changes due to Tidal Power Extraction Ashall, L., Mulligan, R., Law, B. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Modelling Seabed Shear Stress, Sediment Mobility, and Sediment Transport in the Bay of Fundy Li, M., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Biodiversity Characterisation and Hydrodynamic Consequences of Marine Fouling Communities on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the Orkney Islands Archipelago, Scotland, UK Want, A., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Habitat Change Invertebrates
Understanding the Potential Risk to Marine Mammals from Collision with Tidal Turbines Copping, A., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
The Value of Delay in Tidal Energy Development MacDonald, S. December 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Confronting the Financing Impasse: Risk Management through Internationally Staged Investments in Tidal Energy Development MacDougall, S. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Regional-Scale Patterns in Harbour Porpoise Occupancy of Tidal Stream Environments Waggitt, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Hydrodynamic Impacts of a Marine Renewable Energy Installation on the Benthic Boundary Layer in a Tidal Channel Fraser, S., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow
Challenges and Opportunities in Monitoring the Impacts of Tidal-Stream Energy Devices on Marine Vertebrates Fox, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals
Hydroacoustic Assessment of Behavioral Responses by Fish Passing Near an Operating Tidal Turbine in the East River, New York Bevelhimer, M., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Comparative Studies Reveal Variability in the use of Tidal Stream Environments by Seabirds Waggitt, J., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Developing Methodologies for Large Scale Wave and Tidal Stream Marine Renewable Energy Extraction and its Environmental Impact: An Overview of the TeraWatt Project Side, J., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Tidal Energy: The Benthic Effects of an Operational Tidal Stream Turbine O'Carroll, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Habitat Change Invertebrates
Evaluating Statistical Models to Measure Environmental Change: A Tidal Turbine Case Study Linder, H., Horne, J. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Physical Environment
Large Scale Three-Dimensional Modelling for Wave and Tidal Energy Resource and Environmental Impact: Methodologies for Quantifying Acceptable Thresholds for Sustainable Exploitation Gallego, A., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Multi-Scale Ocean Response to a Large Tidal Stream Turbine Array De Dominicis, M., Murray, R., Wolf, J. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Harbour Seals Avoid Tidal Turbine Noise: Implications for Collision Risk Hastie, G., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Adjusting the Financial Risk of Tidal Current Projects by Optimising the 'Installed Capacity/Capacity Factor'-Ratio Already During the Feasibility Stage Bucher, R., Couch, S. June 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Measuring Underwater Background Noise in High Tidal Flow Environments Willis, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Tidal Noise
A Tool for Simulating Collision Probabilities of Animals with Marine Renewable Energy Devices Schmitt, P., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision
Operational Noise from Tidal Turbine Arrays and the Assessment of Collision Risk with Marine Mammals Marmo, B. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision, Noise Marine Mammals
Characterisation of Tidal Flows at the European Marine Energy Centre in the Absence of Ocean Waves Sellar, B., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Environmental Interactions of Tidal Lagoons: A Comparison of Industry Perspectives Mackinnon, K., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Multi-Dimensional Optimisation of Tidal Energy Converters Array Layouts Considering Geometric, Economic and Environmental Constraints González-Gorbeña, E., Qassim, R., Rosman, P. February 2018 Journal Article Tidal
Underwater operational noise level emitted by a tidal current turbine and its potential impact on marine fauna Lossent, J., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) around an operational tidal turbine in Strangford Narrows: No barrier effect but small changes in transit behaviour Sparling, C., Lonergan, M., McConnell, B. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Modelling Study of the Effects of Suspended Aquaculture Installations on Tidal Stream Generation in Cobscook Bay O'Donncha, F., James, S., Ragnoli, E. March 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Human Dimensions, Fisheries
Simulating Current-Energy Converters: SNL-EFDC Model Development, Verification, and Parameter Estimation James, S., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Fish Distributions in a Tidal Channel Indicate the Behavioural Impact of a Marine Renewable Energy Installation Fraser, S., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Habitat Change Fish
Black Guillemot Ecology in Relation to Tidal Stream Energy Generation: An Evaluation of Current Knowledge and Information Gaps Johnston, D., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Birds, Seabirds
First in situ Passive Acoustic Monitoring for Marine Mammals during Operation of a Tidal Turbine in Ramsey Sound, Wales Malinka, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
Modelling the Hydrodynamic and Morphological Impacts of a Tidal Stream Development in Ramsey Sound Haverson, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
From Scotland to New Scotland: Constructing a Sectoral Marine Plan for Tidal Energy for Nova Scotia Sangiuliano, S., Mastrantonis, S. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Legal and Policy
Development and the Environmental Impact Analysis of Tidal Current Energy Turbines in China Liu, Y., Ma, C., Jiang, B. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Using Coupled Hydrodynamic Biogeochemical Models to Predict the Effects of Tidal Turbine Arrays on Phytoplankton Dynamics Schuchert, P., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Ecosystem Processes
Fine-Scale Hydrodynamic Metrics Underlying Predator Occupancy Patterns in Tidal Stream Environments Lieber, L., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Marine Mammals
Deployment characterization of a floatable tidal energy converter on a tidal channel, Ria Formosa, Portugal Pacheco, A., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Impact of different tidal renewable energy projects on the hydrodynamic processes in the Severn Estuary, UK Xia, J., Falconer, R., Lin, B. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
Comparative Effects of Climate Change and Tidal Stream Energy Extraction in a Shelf Sea De Demonicis, M., Wolf, J., Murray, R. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Predictive model for local scour downstream of hydrokinetic turbines in erodible channels Musa, M., Heisel, M., Guala, M. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision
Local scour around a model hydrokinetic turbine in an erodible channel Hill, C., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision
Laboratory study on the effects of hydro kinetic turbines on hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics Ramírez-Mendoza, R., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision
Human dimensions of tidal energy: A review of theories and frameworks Jenkins, L., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Tidal barrages in the UK: Ecological and social impacts, potential mitigation, and tools to support barrage planning Hooper, T., Austen, M. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Ecosystem Processes
Sensitivity of tidal lagoon and barrage hydrodynamic impacts and energy outputs to operational characteristics Angeloudis, A., Falconer, R. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Ecosystem Processes
Applying a simple model for estimating the likelihood of collision of marine mammals with tidal turbines Copping, A., Grear, M. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals
Marine Energy Exploitation in the Mediterranean Region: Steps Forward and Challenges Pisacane, G., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave
Efficient unstructured mesh generation for marine renewable energy applications Avdis, A., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision
The effects of array configuration on the hydro-environmental impacts of tidal turbines Fallon, D., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Nearfield Habitat
Noise characterization of a subsea tidal kite Schmitt, P., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise
Long‐term effect of a tidal, hydroelectric propeller turbine on the populations of three anadromous fish species Dadswell, M., et al. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Fish
Tidal Current Power Resources and Influence of Sea-Level Rise in the Coastal Waters of Kinmen Island, Taiwan Chen, W., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
An assessment of the impacts of a tidal renewable energy scheme on the eutrophication potential of the Severn Estuary, UK Kadiri, M., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Comparison of hydro-environmental impacts for ebb-only and two-way generation for a Severn Barrage Ahmadian, R., Falconer, R., Bockelmann-Evans, B. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Nearfield Habitat
Multi-Criteria Decision-Making on Assessment of Proposed Tidal Barrage Schemes in Terms of Environmental Impacts Wu, Y., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Perspectives on a way forward for ocean renewable energy in Australia Hemer, M., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Tidal range energy resource and optimization - Past perspectives and future challenges Neill, S., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Tidal range technologies and state of the art in review Waters, S., Aggidis, G. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) systems: Using systems thinking in resource characterization and estimating costs for the practical harvest of electricity from tidal currents Domenech, J., Eveleigh, T., Tanju, B. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Oil and gas infrastructure decommissioning in marine protected areas: System complexity, analysis and challenges Burdon, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Providing ecological context to anthropogenic subsea noise: Assessing listening space reductions of marine mammals from tidal energy devices Pine, M., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Empirical measures of harbor seal behavior and avoidance of an operational tidal turbine Joy, R., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Collision Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
A systematic review of transferable solution options for the environmental impacts of tidal lagoons Elliott, K., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Effects of hydrokinetic turbine sound on the behavior of four species of fish within an experimental mesocosm Schramm, M., Bevelhimer, M., Scherelis, C. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Noise Fish
Environmental impacts of tidal power schemes Wolf, J., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Tidal Habitat Change Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Public Willingness to Pay and Policy Preferences for Tidal Energy Research and Development: A Study of Households in Washington State Polis, H., Dreyer, S., Jenkins, L. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
A high-resolution hindcast of sea level and 3D currents for marine renewable energy applications: A case study in the Bay of Biscay Chiri, H., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
Estimating the optimum size of a tidal array at a multi-inlet system considering environmental and performance constraints González-Gorbeña, E., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal
A strategic policy framework for promoting the marine energy sector in Spain Vazquez, S., Astariz, S., Iglesias, G. December 2015 Journal Article Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Legal and Policy
A comprehensive insight into tidal stream energy farms in Iran Radfar, S., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions
Localised anthropogenic wake generates a predictable foraging hotspot for top predators Lieber, L., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Changes in Flow Birds, Seabirds
Fish, finances, and feasibility: Concerns about tidal energy development in the United States Dreyer, S., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy (General), Tidal Human Dimensions

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