Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Offshore wind energy technologies harness kinetic energy from the wind to generate energy and transport that energy back to shore via a subsea export cable. The main advantage of offshore wind energy is access to stronger and more consistent winds, allowing for the use of larger turbines. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world; however, several projects in the United States are currently underway. There are different types of offshore wind turbine foundation on which the turbine can be installed, depending on the depth and substrate.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile that is driven into the seabed. Monopiles are typically less costly than other foundation types and are the most commonly used. 

Tripod Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depths (20-80m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed, which creates a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed than monopile foundations. 

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are also used at shallow depths (0-30m) and consist of large, steel or concrete bases that rest on the seabed.  

Jacket Foundation

 

Jacket foundations are also used at transitional depths (20-80m) and feature a lattice framework that comprises three to four anchoring points driven into the seafloor. 

Floating Foundation

 

Floating foundations are used at deep depths (40->1000m) and consist of a balanced floating substructure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The substructure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast.

 

The environmental concerns associated with offshore wind farms vary with foundation type. Monopiles, for example, require pile-driving, which produces incredibly loud noises that tend to propagate far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. Alternatively, floating foundation’s mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision or entrapment, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms. More generally, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify offshore because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring and changes to sediment transport. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates and fish.

Total Results: 1392
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Impact Assessment of an Off-shore Wind Park on Sea Ducks Guillemette, M., Larsen, J., Clausager, I. March 1998 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Impact of Windfarm OWEZ on the Local Macrobenthos Community Daan, R., Mulder, M., Bergman, M. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates
Infauna Monitoring Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm: Annual Status Report 2003 Bech, M., Leonhard, S., Pedersen, J. May 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Information Synthesis on the Potential for Bat Interactions with Offshore Wind Facilities - Final Report Pelletier, S., et al. June 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Bats
Intersectoral Assessment of Impacts on Seabirds: Baseline Report for a Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan for the Norwegian Sea Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Human Dimensions
Investigations of Birds During Construction and Operation of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand Kahlert, J., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Investigations of the Bird Collision Risk and the Responses of Harbour Porpoises in the Offshore Wind Farms Horns Rev, North Sea, and Nysted, Baltic Sea, in Denmark - Part I: Birds Blew, J., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States: Assessment of Opportunities and Barriers Musial, M., Ram, B. September 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Maine Deepwater Offshore Wind Report University of Maine, Rockefeller Brothers Fund September 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Noise Human Dimensions
Marine Renewable Energy: A Global Review of the Extent of Marine Renewable Energy Developments, the Developing Technologies and Possible Conservation Implications for Cetaceans James, V. November 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Marine Renewable Energy Legislation for Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Department of Energy January 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Marine Wind Farms: Seabirds, White-Tailed Eagles, Eurasian Eagle-Owl and Waders - A Screening of Potential Conflict Areas Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Marine Bird Distribution Along the Oregon Coast Suryan, R., et al. April 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds
Measurement and Interpretation of Underwater Noise During Construction and Operation of Offshore Windfarms in UK Waters Nedwell, J., et al. December 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Measurement of Underwater Noise During Piling at the Red Funnel Terminal, Southampton, and Observation of its Affect on Caged Fish Nedwell, J., et al. October 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Measurements of Construction Noise During Pile Driving of Offshore Research Platforms and Wind Farms Matuschek, R., Betke, K. January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Measurements of Underwater Noise During Construction of Offshore Wind Farms and Comparison with Background Noise Nedwell, J., Langworthy, J., Howell, D. November 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Modelling Total Numbers and Distribution of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra at Horns Rev Petersen, I. November 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Modelling of Noise Effects of Operational Offshore Wind Turbines Including Noise Transmission Through Various Foundation Types Marmo, B., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Nature Conservation Guidance on Offshore Windfarm Development - A Guidance Note on the Implications of the EC Wild Birds and Habitats Directives for Developers Undertaking Offshore Windfarm Developments UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
New Insights and New Tools Regarding Risk to Roseate Terns, Piping Plovers, and Red Knots from Wind Facility Operations on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Gordon, C. October 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Noise Measurements and Analysis: Offshore Pile-Driving Underwater and Above-Water Ødegaard and Danneskiold-Samsøe October 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
North Sea Wind Farms NSW Lot 1 Benthic Fauna Jarvis, S., et al. February 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ireland Offshore Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan 2012 - 2020 UK Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment March 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Offshore Renewables - Guidance on Assessing the Impact on Coastal Landscape and Seascape: Guidance for Scoping an Environmental Statement Scottish Natural Heritage March 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategic Joint Industry Project No.1: Bird avoidance behavior and collision impact monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Marine Scotland, et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Offshore Wind Farms and Birds: Round 3 Zones, Extensions to Round 1 & Round 2 Sites & Scottish Territorial Waters Langston, R. February 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Offshore Wind Farms and the Environment: Danish Experiences from Horns Rev and Nysted Danish Energy Authority November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Early Environmental Impact Assessment and Spatio-Temporal Variability Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Heading for an Understanding of Environmental Impacts Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis Navigant Consulting February 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Options and Opportunities for Marine Fisheries Mitigation Associated with Windfarms Blyth-Skyrme, R. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Human Dimensions
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Lighting, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Permitting and Leasing for Marine Offshore Wind Energy Projects Thaler, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Population Sizes of Seabirds Breeding in Scottish SPAs Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Porpoises North of Sprogø Before, During and After Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. February 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Effects of Offshore Wind Developments on Coastal Processes Beiboer, F., Cooper, B. January 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Impacts of Ocean Energy Development on Marine Mammals in Oregon Davis, A. December 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Preliminary Investigations of Bird-Turbine Collisions at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and Final Quality Control of Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS) Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Proposed Approach for the Screening and Assessment of the Short and Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Report to Congress on the Potential Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies US Department of Energy December 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Residence Time and Behaviour of Sole and Cod in the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee Winter, H., Aarts, G., van Keeken, O. September 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Review of Migratory Routes and Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel in Scotland's Coastal Environment: Implications for the Development of Marine Renewables Malcolm, I., Godfrey, J., Youngson, A. January 2010 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Review of Cabling Techniques and Environmental Effects Applicable to the Offshore Wind Farm Industry UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Review of the Reef Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Structures and their Potential for Enhancement and Mitigation UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Revised Best Practice Guidance for the Use of Remote Techniques for Ornithological Monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Walls, R., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Birds
Sandeels in the Wind Farm Area at Horns Reef Jensen, H., Kristensen, P., Hoffmann, E. August 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Scoping Study for Offshore Wind Farm Development in Scottish Waters Davies, I., Watret, R. November 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
Scotland's Renewables Routemap Short Life Task Force On Streamlining Energy Development Licensing and Consents The Scottish Government February 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Copping, A., Hanna, L. September 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Chemicals, Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm - Coastal Processes Monitoring Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) July 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Physical Environment
Scroby Sands Seal Monitoring: Analysis of the 2005 Post-Construction Aerial Surveys Skeate, E., Perrow, M. November 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Seabed Morphology Off Southern Long Island: Studies of Artificial Reefs and Implications for Wind Farms Flood, R. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
COWRIE 2.0 Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Phase 2: EMF Sensitive Fish Response to EM Emissions from Sub-sea Electricity Cables of the Type used by the Offshore Renewable Energy Industry Gill, A., et al. March 2009 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF Fish
Short-Term Effects of the Construction of Wind Turbines on Harbour Porpoises at Horns Reef Tougaard, J., et al. April 2003 Report Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals
South West Marine Energy Park Prospectus Southwest Marine Energy Park Coalition January 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Standard Investigation of the Impacts of Offshore Wind Turbines on the Marine Environment (StUK3) Bellebaum, J., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Statutory Nature Conservation Agency Protocol for Minimising the Risk of Injury to Marine Mammals from Piling Noise Joint Nature Conservation Committee August 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Strategic Review of Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring Data Associated with FEPA Licence Conditions: Fish Walker, R., et al. July 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Strategy of Approach Demersal Fish Fauna Grift, R., Tien, N. May 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Fish
Summary on Harbour Porpoise Monitoring 1999-2006 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., Tougaard, J., Carstensen, J. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Summary on Seal Monitoring 1999-2005 around Nysted and Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farms Teilmann, J., et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Symposium Sound Solutions Report The North Sea Foundation February 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
TADS Investigations of Avian Collision Risk at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
The Development of Marine Based Wind Energy Generation and Inshore Fisheries in UK Waters: Are They Compatible? Rodmell, D., Johnson, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Fish, Human Dimensions
The European Offshore Wind Industry Key 2011 Trends and Statistics European Wind Energy Association January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind
The Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Bird Life in Southern Kalmar Sound, Sweden Pettersson, J. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
The Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters Pre-Screening for Appropriate Assessment Halcrow Group June 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
COWRIE 1.5 The Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated by Sub-Sea Power Cables Associated with Offshore Wind Farm Developments on Electrically and Magnetically Sensitive Marine Organisms - A Review Gill, A., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
The Shipping Industry and Marine Spatial Planning Patraiko, D., Holthus, P. November 2013 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
The Turning Point for Atlantic Offshore Wind Energy: Time for Action to Create Jobs, Reduce Pollution, Protect Wildlife, and Secure America's Energy Future Bowes, C., Allegro, J. September 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS): Development of a Method for Estimating Collision Frequency of Migrating Birds at Offshore Wind Turbines Desholm, M. January 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Tiree Onshore Scenario Mapping Ironside Farrar March 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
U.S. Offshore Wind Manufacturing and Supply Chain Development Navigant Consulting February 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Underwater Noise Measurements, Analysis, and Predictions Degn, U. March 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Utgrunden Offshore Wind Farm Measurements of Underwater Noise Ingemansson Technology June 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise
Visual and Radar Observations of Birds in Relation to Collision Risk at the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm Christensen, T., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds, Seabirds
Vulnerability of Scottish Seabirds to Offshore Wind Turbines Furness, B., Wade, H. February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Wake Effects on Middelgrund Windfarm Jørgensen, H., Frandsen, S., Vølund, P. July 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow Nearfield Habitat
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy (General), Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Wind in our Sails - The Coming of Europe's Offshore Wind Energy Industry European Wind Energy Association November 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Interactions Between Seals and Offshore Wind Farms McConnell, B., Lonergan, M., Dietz, R. January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The Relative Vulnerability of Migratory Bird Species to Offshore Wind Energy Projects on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf: An Assessment Method and Database Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Kent, A. August 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Greater Gabbard Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement Greater Gabbard Offshore Winds January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Noise, Habitat Change Birds, Physical Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Marine Ecology Technical Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Climate Change, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement GE Wind Energy January 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Gunfleet Sands 2 Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RPS Group June 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Lynn and Inner Dowsing Hydrographic Monitoring Survey Emu December 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm Environmental Statement RWE Group November 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Physical Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Physical Environment
Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm: Offshore ES Description of the Biological Baseline Environment Humber Gateway Offshore Wind Farm January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Fish, Marine Mammals
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Construction Phase Environmental Monitoring Report Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies April 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind EMF, Changes in Flow, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish
Burbo Offshore Wind Farm Volume 2: ES Biological Environment The University of Liverpool Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies September 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Ecological Survey and Impact Assessment for the Proposed Cable Route Corridor and Substation, Walpole, Lincolnshire, & Norfolk Lapwings Consultants September 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
A Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Fish & Shellfish Resources with Respect to Proposed Offshore Wind Farms in the Eastern Irish Sea Lockwood, S. March 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Fish, Human Dimensions
Ormonde Offshore Wind Farm 2010 Construction Environmental Monitoring Report Saunders, S. January 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Noise Birds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Onshore Environmental Impact Statement for Lincs, Docking Shoal, and Race Bank OSW Farms Centrica Energy June 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat
Ormonde Project Scoping Study for Coastal and Seabed Processes Coates, T., Skipper, C., Cranmer, G. November 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Changes in Flow, Habitat Change Nearfield Habitat

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