Wind Energy general

Generic term that applies to all wind energy.

Wind Energy

 

Temperature differentials around the world generate winds that can have substantial power around surface features such as mountains and water. These winds can be captured by several different turbine designs, though the most common is a three-bladed monopile. Within a project site, turbines are sited in locations that experience larger and more consistent winds for greater power generation. The magnitude of winds expected in an area may play a role in determining the turbine size and design. The wind energy can be classified in the following categories:

 

The primary environmental concern for the wind energy industry is preventing bird and bat collision with blades, which commonly results in fatalities.

 

Photo Credit: "South Point Wind Farm" by Harvey McDaniel from Naalehu, HI

Total Results: 2883
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Expansion of Hitra Wind-Power Plant - Consequences Related to Wildlife Except Birds Veiberg, V., Pedersen, H. February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Expected Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Mediterranean Marine Life Bray, L., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Experimental Analysis of the Wake of a Horizontal-Axis Wind-Turbine Model Lignarolo, L., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Experimental Chronic Noise Is Related to Elevated Fecal Corticosteroid Metabolites in Lekking Male Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) Blickley, J., et al. November 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Experimental Evidence for the Effect of Small Wind Turbine Proximity and Operation on Bird and Bat Activity Miderman, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Experimental Evidence for the Effects of Chronic Anthropogenic Noise on Abundance of Greater Sage-Grouse at Leks Blickley, J., Blackwood, D., Patricelli, G. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Experimental study of the impact of large-scale wind farms on land–atmosphere exchanges Zhang, W., Markfort, C., Porte-Agel, F. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Farfield Environment
Experimental Study on Influence of Pitch Motion on the Wake of a Floating Wind Turbine Model Rockel, S., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Exploitation of Offshore Wind Energy Lüdeke, J. January 2018 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources and Sustainable Management of the Territory: Wind Farms in Regione Liguria Solari, P., Minervini, G. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Exploring landowners' post-construction changes in perceptions of wind energy in Michigan Mills, S., Bessette, D., Smith, H. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Exploring technologically, temporally and geographically-sensitive life cycle inventories for wind turbines: A parameterized model for Denmark Sacchi, R., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan Kageyama, T., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Socio-economics
Extensive Open Ocean Aquaculture Development Within Wind Farms in Germany: The Prospect of Offshore Co-Management and Legal Constraints Buck, B., Krause, G., Rosenthal, H. January 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Socio-economics
External Effects of Renewable Energy Projects: Life Cycle Analysis-based Approach Salnikova, A., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Factors Associated with Bat Mortality at Wind Energy Facilities in the United States Thompson, M., et al. November 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Factors Influencing Bat Activity and Mortality at a Wind Farm in the Mediterranean Region Amorim, F., Rebelo, H., Rodrigues, L. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Factors influencing carcass removal at wind-farms, in mountain areas of the center-north region of Portugal Silva, B., Barreiro, S., Alves, P. August 2008 Presentation Wind Energy general Bats
Factors influencing citizens' acceptance and non-acceptance of wind energy in Germany Langer, K., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Factors Influencing Winter Mortality Risk for Pronghorn Exposed to Wind Energy Development Taylor, K., Beck, J., Huzurbazar, S. March 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Terrestrial Mammals
Fall 2004 Avian Migration Surveys at the Proposed Deerfield Wind/Searsburg Expansion Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Roy, R., Pelletier, S. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Fall 2006 Radar Surveys of Nighttime Migration Activity at the Proposed Windpark in Coos County, New Hampshire by Granite Reliable Power, LLC Stantec Consulting October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Fatalities at Wind Turbines may Threaten Population Viability of a Migratory Bat Frick, W., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
FatalityCMR - Capture-Recapture Software to Correct Raw Counts of Wildlife Fatalities using Trial Experiments for Carcass Detection Probability and Persistence Time Peron, G., Hines, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device
Fauna Collisions with Wind Turbines: Effects and Impacts, Individuals and Populations. What Are We Trying to Assess? Smales, I. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Feasibility and LCA for a Wave Dragon platform with wind turbines Soerensen, H.C., et al. June 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Feasibility Appraisal of an Offshore Wind Farm Located in Greece Soursou, P. October 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Feasibility Study for Meta-Analysis of Red-Throated Diver Displacement Dirksen, S., et al. July 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Feeding home ranges of pacific coast feeding group gray whales Lagerquist, B., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Female Agassizs Desert Tortoise Activity at a Wind Energy Facility in Southern California: The Influence of an El Nino Event Ennen, J., Meyer, K., Lovich, J. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Fencing in the bay? Place attachment, social representations of energy technologies and the protection of restorative environments Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Field Scale Experiments to Assess the Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Organisms Gill, A., et al. July 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Field Test Results of a Potential Acoustic Deterrent to Reduce Bat Mortality from Wind Turbines Szewczak, J., Arnett, E. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general Bats
Field Testing of Multiple Sensors in an Underwater Environment Monitoring System Chan, H., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Final Environmental Assessment LEEDCo Project Icebreaker Lake Erie, City of Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio Parker, R., et al. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Final Environmental Assessment of Maine's Deepwater Offshore Floating Wind Turbine Testing and Demonstration Project US Department of Energy September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Final Environmental Assessment, Burleigh County Wind Energy Center, Burleigh County, North Dakota FPL Energy Burleigh County Wind August 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Final Environmental Impact Report for the Hatchet Ridge Wind Project Shasta County Department of Resource Management June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Final Environmental Impact Report for the SMUD Solano Wind Project Phase 3 Sacramento Municipal Utility District February 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Final Environmental Impact Statement Klondike III/Biglow Canyon Wind Integration Project Bonneville Power Administration September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Final Environmental Impact Statement Na Pua Makani Wind Project and Habitat Conservation Plan Case, S., Tetra Tech Inc. June 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Final Environmental Impact Statement: Kenetech/Pacificorp Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming Mariah Associates August 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Final progress report of a 12 month pre - construction bat monitoring study for the Proposed Waaihoek Wind Energy Facility near Utrecht, KwaZulu-Natal Kruger, C. August 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Final Report Bird and Bat Fatality Studies Fowler Ridge I Wind-Energy Facility Benton County, Indiana: April 6 - October 30, 2009 Johnson, G., et al. April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Final Report on Aerial Monitoring of Seals near Nysted Offshore Wind Farm Teilmann, J., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Final Report on the Effect of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., et al. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Final Report: avian and bat mortality associated with the Vansycle wind project Erickson, W., et al. February 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Final Report: Wind-turbine related bat mortality in southwestern Minnesota Krenz, J., McMillan, B. December 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Final Results of Bird Studies at the Offshore Wind Farms at Nysted and Horns Rev, Denmark Petersen, I., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Final Site-Wide Environmental Assessment Department of Energy's National Wind Technology Center Golden, Colorado at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Renewable Energy Laboratory May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Final Underwater Noise Analysis of Cape Wind Energy Project ESS Group January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Finding out the Fate of Displaced Birds Searle, K., et al. February 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
First in situ evidence of wakes in the far field behind offshore wind farms Platis, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Farfield Environment
First records of dead bats (Chiroptera) from wind farms in Croatia Zagmajster, M., Jancar, T., Mlakar, J. July 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
First Report on Bat Mortalities on Wind Farms in Chile Escobar, L., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
First Year Post-Construction Monitoring of Bats and Birds at Wind Turbine Test Centre Østerild Therkildsen, O., Elmeros, M. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Fish and Benthos at Alpha Ventus Reichert, K., et al. May 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Fish And Sessile Assemblages Associated With Wind-turbine Constructions In The Baltic Sea Andersson, M., Öhman, M. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Fisheries Data Report South of Tuckernuck Area ESS Group September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Fishing
Fisheries, the environment and offshore wind farms: location, location, location Johnson, M., Rodmell, D. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Fishing
Fixed Point Raptor Migration Survey at the National Wind Technology Center: April 2010 Ryon, T., Brenda, B. June 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Fixing wind power's bat problem Kumagai, J. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Flatfish habitat use near North America's first offshore wind farm Wilber, D., Carey, D., Griffin, M. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Flight Call Rates of Migrating Thrushes: Effects of Wind Conditions, Humidity and Time of Day at an Illuminated Offshore Platform Hüppop, O., Hilgerloh, G. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Flight Height Distribution and Collision Risk of the Marbled Murrelet Brachyramphus Marmoratus: Methodology and Preliminary Results Stumpf, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Flight Paths of Migrating Golden Eagles and the Risk Associated with Wind Energy Development in the Rocky Mountains Johnson, N., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Flight Response to Spatial and Temporal Correlates Informs Risk from Wind Turbines to the California Condor Poessel, S., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Floating Offshore Turbines Tande, J., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Floating offshore wind - Economic and ecological challenges of a TLP solution Kausche, M., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Fly-and-Forage Strategy in the Bat Pipistrellus nathusii During Autumn Migration Suba, J., Petersons, G., Rydell, J. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Foraging Range and Habitat use by Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres from the Msikaba Colony, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa Pfeiffer, M., Venter, J., Downs, C. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Foraging Ranges of Northern Gannets in Relation to Proposed Offshore Wind Farms in the UK: 2010-2012 Langston, R., Teuten, E., Butler, A. December 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Wind Power Plants and Adjacent Substrata Wilhelmsson, D., Malm, T. September 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Found in the Wind: The Value of Early Consultation and Collaboration with Other Ocean Users for Successful Offshore Wind Development Frulla, D., Hagerman, G., Hallowell, M. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Foundation Damping and the Dynamics of Offshore Wind Turbine Monopiles Carswell, W., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Fragmented authorities, institutional misalignments, and challenges to renewable energy transition: A case study of wind power curtailment in China Cai, Y., Aoyama, Y. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms - Part A: Methods Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid) July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms - Part B: Description and Assessment of the Cumulative Effects of Implementing the Roadmap for Offshore Wind Power Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid) July 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms: A First Approach to Deal with Cumulative Effects on Birds and Bats of Offshore Wind Farms and Other Human Activities in the Southern North Sea Leopold, M., et al. January 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms: Cumulative Effects of Impulsive Underwater Sound on Marine Mammals Heinis, F., de Jong, C. April 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Framework for Assessing Impacts of Pile-Driving Noise from Offshore Wind Farm Construction on a Harbour Seal Population Thomson, P., et al. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Framework for Testing the Effectiveness of Bat and Eagle Impact-Reduction Strategies at Wind Energy Projects Sinclair, K., DeGeorge, E. April 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
From consultation to collaboration: A participatory framework for positive community engagement with wind energy projects in Ontario, Canada Jami, A., Walsh, P. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
From Ground to Above Canopy - Bat Activity in Mature Forests is Driven by Vegetation Density and Height Muller, J., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
From NIMBY to Acceptance: Toward a Novel Framework - VESPA - For Organizing and Interpreting Community Concerns Petrova, M. February 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
From Social 'Acceptance' to Social 'Acceptability' of Wind Energy Projects: Towards a Territorial Perspective Fournis, Y., Fotrin, M. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
From strategic marine planning to project licences – Striking a balance between predictability and adaptability in the management of aquaculture and offshore wind farms Schütz, S., Slater, A. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Full Scale Trial of High Definition Video Survey for Offshore Windfarm Sites Mellor, M., Maher, M. June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Waterfowl
Functional and structural responses to marine urbanisation Mayer-Pinto, M., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates
Further evidence of impacts of large-scale wind farms on land surface temperature Walsh-Thomas, J., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Further Use of Aerial Surveys to Detect Bird Displacement by Offshore Windfarms Maclean, I., Skov, H., Rehfisch, M. October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Future Offshore: A Strategic Framework for the Offshore Wind Industry UK Department of Trade and Industry November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Future Research Directions to Reconcile Wind Turbine - Wildlife Interactions May, R., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general
Fuzzy Clustering in Avian Infrared Imagery Application Mirzaei, G., et al. June 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Galloper Wind Farm Project: Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Galloper Wind Farm October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Galway Bay Test Site January 2006 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Game Birds do not Surrogate for Raptors in Trials to Calibrate Observed Raptor Collision Fatalities Urquhart, B., Hulka, S., Duffy, K. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
GE MOD-1 Noise Study Wells, R. May 1981 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise
General Models of the Spatial Distribution of Porpoises Require Representative Data and Parsimony: Comment on Skov & Thomsen (2008) Tougaard, J., Wisz, M. January 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Generic monitoring programme for monitoring watercourses in relation to onshore wind farm developments Marine Scotland Science April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind

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