Tidal

Capturing tidal fluctuations with turbines, reciprocating devices, kites, screws, barrages, or lagoons.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. Since seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. While tidal currents are very predictable, challenges arise due to the need for devices to collect flow from opposite directions and survive the harsh corrosive marine environment.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the seven most common approaches: axial flow turbine, cross flow turbine, reciprocating device, tidal kite, Archimedes screw, tidal lagoon, and tidal barrage.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are the most similar to traditional windmills, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale tidal energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem.

Cross Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are generally cylindrical on a horizontal axis, where kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades oriented transversely to the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water, depending on the design. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of axial flow turbines.

Reciprocating Device

 

Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components, but instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices.

 

Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Reciprocating devices often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages water flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction.

 

Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device.

 

The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies, and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with reversible low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir. Tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside of the walls, functioning very similar to a low-head conventional hydrokinetic dam that works in both direction.

 

The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection. The changes to the physical system are similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include altering water flow and shoreline processes partially due to energy removal. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and benthic invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow better recreation.

Tidal Barrage

 

Tidal barrages are dams built across the entrance to a bay or estuary that captures potential tidal energy, similar to tidal lagoons. Energy is collected when the height difference on either side of the dam is greatest, at low or high tide. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is required to justify the construction, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.

 

Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to the alteration of tidal flows and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation opportunities due to calmer waters.

Total Results: 677
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptorsort descending
EMEC Scale Site Consenting Process: Guidance for Developers European Marine Energy Centre August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Navigation Risk Assessment Update: Fall of Warness Anatec November 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Navigation
Shapinsay Sound Scale Site: Environmental Description European Marine Energy Centre April 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Informing a Tidal Turbine Strike Probability Model through Characterization of Fish Behavioral Response using Multibeam Sonar Output Bevelhimer, M., et al. July 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Data Based Estimates of Collision Risk: An Example Based on Harbour Seal Tracking Data around a Proposed Tidal Turbine Array in the Pentland Firth Thompson, D., et al. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
A Quality Management Review of Scotland's Sectoral Marine Plan for Tidal Energy Sangiuliano, S. August 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
Assessing the Environmental Impact of the Annapolis Tidal Power Project Tidmarsh, W. January 1984 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Identifying Relevant Scales of Variability for Monitoring Epifaunal Reef Communities at a Tidal Energy Extraction Site O'Carroll, J., Kennedy, R., Savidge, G. February 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Hydrokinetic Energy Projects and Recreation: A Guide to Assessing Impacts Bowers, R., et al. December 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Riverine, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions, Recreation
Computational Prediction of Pressure Change in the Vicinity of Tidal Stream Turbines and the Consequences for Fish Survival Rate Zangiabadi, E., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish
Refining Estimates of Collision Risk for Harbour Seals and Tidal Turbines Band, B., et al. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Brims Tidal Array Collision Risk Modelling - Atlantic Salmon Xodus Group March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Offshore Renewable Energy and Nature Conservation: The Case of Marine Tidal Turbines in Northern Ireland Haslett, J., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem
Visualising the Aspect-Dependent Radar Cross Section of Seabirds over a Tidal Energy Test Site Using a Commercial Marine Radar System McCann, D., Bell, P. April 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
The Role of Tidal Lagoons Hendry, C. December 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1 Electromagnetic Fields Best Practice Report Rollings, E. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF
Multisensor Acoustic Tracking of Fish and Seabird Behavior Around Tidal Turbine Structures in Scotland Williamson, B., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Fish
Morphological Process of a Restored Estuary Downstream of a Tidal Barrier Kuang, C., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Geomorphological Analogues for Large Estuarine Engineering Projects: A Case Study of Barrages, Causeways and Tidal Energy Projects Morris, R. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Environmental Appraisal (EA) for the Argyll Tidal Demonstrator Project Nautricity December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Interactions of Aquatic Animals with the ORPC OCGen in Cobscook Bay, Maine: Monitoring Behavior Change and Assessing the Probability of Encounter with a Deployed MHK Device Zydlewski, G., et al. October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish
Hydroacoustic Analysis of the Effects of a Tidal Power Turbine on Fishes Viehman, H. December 2016 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Fish
Marine Energy Research and Innovation Centre (MERIC) October 2015 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal, Wave
Effects of Hydrokinetic Energy Turbine Arrays on Sediment Transport at São Marcos Bay, Brazil González-Gorbeña, E., et al. August 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Community Energy and Emissions Planning for Tidal Current Turbines: A Case Study of the Municipalities of the Southern Gulf Islands Region, British Columbia Sangiuliano, S. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Life Cycle Assessment
A Modeling Study of Tidal Energy Extraction and the Associated Impact on Tidal Circulation in a Multi-Inlet Bay System of Puget Sound Wang, T., Yang, Z. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Behavioral Responses of Fish to a Current-Based Hydrokinetic Turbine Under Multiple Operational Conditions: Final Report Grippo, M., et al. February 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Nautricity at EMEC April 2017 Project Site OES-Environmental Tidal
ScotRenewables SR2000 at EMEC October 2016 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Pentland Firth Meygen AR1500 Multi-beam Echosounder Data: SGDS Project February 2017 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Pentland Firth Meygen AR1500 Passive Acoustic Monitoring Data: SGDS Project February 2017 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Pentland Firth MeyGen Harbour Seal Telemetry Data October 2016 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Pentland Firth Meygen AR1500 FLOWBEC Platform Multi-beam and Echosounder Data October 2015 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Pentland Firth Meygen AR1500 FLOWBEC Platform Fluorometer Data October 2015 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem
Pentland Firth Meygen AR1500 FLOWBEC Platform ADVOcean 5MHz Data October 2015 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device
Pentland Firth MeyGen AR1500 and HS1500 Video Camera Data November 2016 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Pentland Firth MeyGen AR1500 and HS1500 Strain Gauge Data November 2016 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Learning from Early Commercial Tidal Energy Projects in the Puget Sound, Washington and the Pentland Firth, Scotland McMillin, N. January 2016 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1 Project Environmental Monitoring Programme Rollings, E., Donovan, C., Eastham, C. October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Swansea Tidal Lagoon Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Strangford Lough Marine Current Turbine: Environmental Statement Davison, A., Mallows, T. June 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Decommissioning of the SeaGen Tidal Turbine in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland: Environmental Statement MarineSpace September 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Cumulative Impact Assessment of Tidal Stream Energy Extraction in the Irish Sea Haverson, D., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Changing Tides: Acceptability, Support, and Perceptions of Tidal Energy in the United States Dreyer, S., Polis, H., Jenkins, L. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Lessons Learnt from MeyGen Phase 1a: Design Phase MeyGen May 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Modelling the Effects of Marine Energy Extraction on Non-Cohesive Sediment Transport and Morphological Change in the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Fairley, I., Karunarathna, H., Chatzirodou, A. January 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Impact assessment of marine current turbines on fish behavior using an experimental approach based on the similarity law Zhang, J., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
ORECCA European Offshore Renewable Energy Roadmap Jeffrey, H., Sedgwick, J. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions
Minesto Holyhead Deep - Non-grid connected DG500 June 2018 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Deep Green Holyhead Deep Project Phase I (0.5 MW) - Environmental Statement Minesto June 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Aesthetics, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Review of the Current Understanding of the Hydro-Environmental Impacts of Energy Removal by Tidal Turbines Nash, S., Phoenix, A. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
The Ebb and Flow of Tidal Barrage Development in Zhejiang Province, China Li, Y., Pan, D. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Remote Sensor Platforms for Environmental Monitoring at FORCE, Canada Anna Redden, Haley Viehman, and Melissa Oldreive June 2017 Blog Article Tidal
Outer Bay of Fundy Tidal Energy Development: Where the Leviathans Live Trowse, G., Malinka, C. October 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal
Turning of the tides: Assessing the international implementation of tidal current turbines Sangiuliano, S. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Multi-Scale Temporal Patterns in Fish Presence in a High-Velocity Tidal Channel Viehman, H., Zydlewski, G. May 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Numerical Models as Enabling Tools for Tidal-Stream Energy Extraction and Environmental Impact Assessment Yang, Z., Wang, T. June 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
A Holistic Method for Selecting Tidal Stream Energy Hotspots Under Technical, Economic and Functional Constraints Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. June 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon Adaptive Environmental Management Plan November 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions, Fishing, Recreation
Habitat characterization of a tidal energy site using an ROV: Overcoming difficulties in a harsh environment Greene, H. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates
A French Application Case of Tidal Turbine Certification Paboeuf, S., Macadre, L., Sun, P. June 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Application of Tidal Energy for Purification in Fresh Water Lake Jung, R., Isshiki, H. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Variability in Suspended Sediment Concentration in the Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy, and Implications for Changes due to Tidal Power Extraction Ashall, L., Mulligan, R., Law, B. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Modelling Seabed Shear Stress, Sediment Mobility, and Sediment Transport in the Bay of Fundy Li, M., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
The Impact of Marine Renewable Energy Extraction on Sediment Dynamics Neill, S., Robins, P., Fairley, I. April 2017 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Biodiversity Characterisation and Hydrodynamic Consequences of Marine Fouling Communities on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the Orkney Islands Archipelago, Scotland, UK Want, A., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Invertebrates
Voith HyTide at EMEC September 2013 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Fall of Warness HyTide 1000 Video Monitoring Data of Wildlife Interactions May 2014 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Fall of Warness HyTide 1000 Video Monitoring Data of Biofouling May 2014 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Invertebrates
Fall of Warness HyTide 1000 Observational Data Informing Video Analysis June 2014 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Fall of Warness HyTide 1000 Observational Data of Seal Haul-Outs During the Breeding Season June 2010 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Fundy Ocean Research Centre for Energy (FORCE) Environmental Assessment Addendum to the Report: Environmental Assessment Registration Document - Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project, Volumes 1 and 2 AECOM July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Implications of Tidal Energy Extraction on Sedimentary Processes within Shallow Intertidal Environments van Proosdij, D., et al. March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Nova Scotia Tidal Energy Atlas Acadia Tidal Energy Institute, TEKMap Consulting, FORCE January 2017 Website Marine Energy general, Tidal
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2015 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Understanding the Potential Risk to Marine Mammals from Collision with Tidal Turbines Copping, A., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
South Korea's Plans for Tidal Power: When a "Green" Solution Creates More Problems Ko, Y., Schubert, D. November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Ecosystem, Human Dimensions
A Conflict of Greens: Green Development Versus Habitat Preservation - The Case of Incheon, South Korea Ko, Y., Schubert, D., Hester, R. June 2011 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Ecosystem, Human Dimensions
The Value of Delay in Tidal Energy Development MacDonald, S. December 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Confronting the Financing Impasse: Risk Management through Internationally Staged Investments in Tidal Energy Development MacDougall, S. June 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Funding and Financial Supports for Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia MacDougall, S. September 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Value Proposition for Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia, Atlantic Canada and Canada Gardner, M., et al. April 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Legal and Policy
EMEC Fall of Warness FLOWBEC Platform Multi-Beam Sonar and Echosounder Data June 2012 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
EMEC Fall of Warness High-Intensity Wildlife Observation Data June 2012 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Marine Mammals
EMEC Fall of Warness FLOWBEC Platform Fluorometer Monitoring Data June 2012 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem
EMEC Fall of Warness FLOWBEC Platform Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter Data June 2013 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device
EMEC Fall of Warness Wildlife Observation Data July 2005 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Marine Mammals
EMEC Fall of Warness Boat-Based Wildlife Surveys (RESPONSE Project) May 2012 Dataset Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds
Regional-Scale Patterns in Harbour Porpoise Occupancy of Tidal Stream Environments Waggitt, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Hydrodynamic Impacts of a Marine Renewable Energy Installation on the Benthic Boundary Layer in a Tidal Channel Fraser, S., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Challenges and Opportunities in Monitoring the Impacts of Tidal-Stream Energy Devices on Marine Vertebrates Fox, C., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals
Hydroacoustic Assessment of Behavioral Responses by Fish Passing Near an Operating Tidal Turbine in the East River, New York Bevelhimer, M., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Comparative Studies Reveal Variability in the use of Tidal Stream Environments by Seabirds Waggitt, J., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
D4.17 Report on environmental monitoring protocols Magagna, D., et al. May 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Paimpol-Brehat Tidal Demonstration Project August 2011 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Developing Methodologies for Large Scale Wave and Tidal Stream Marine Renewable Energy Extraction and its Environmental Impact: An Overview of the TeraWatt Project Side, J., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Tidal Energy: The Benthic Effects of an Operational Tidal Stream Turbine O'Carroll, J., et al. August 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Invertebrates
Evaluating Statistical Models to Measure Environmental Change: A Tidal Turbine Case Study Linder, H., Horne, J. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Farfield Environment
Large Scale Three-Dimensional Modelling for Wave and Tidal Energy Resource and Environmental Impact: Methodologies for Quantifying Acceptable Thresholds for Sustainable Exploitation Gallego, A., et al. October 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Multi-Scale Ocean Response to a Large Tidal Stream Turbine Array De Dominicis, M., Murray, R., Wolf, J. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment

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