Spain



Spain is located in Southern Europe, covering 505,944 km2 (195,346 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 46.4 Million (2017).  Spain’s primary energy production is 397 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 28 MWh (UN data, 2017). Nuclear is the largest source of primary energy production, while oil is the largest source of primary energy consumption (The Shift Project, 2014). 617 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2017).

 

As of 2016, Spain has 526 kW installed capacity of wave energy (OES). Spain is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems, participating in Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, Spain has 23,026 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 5 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind). Spain generated 48 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind). Spain is currently a member of IEA Wind, participating in WREN.

Total Results: 78
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Effectiveness of a mitigation measure for the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) in wind farms in Spain Pescador, M., Ramírez, J., Peris, S. February 2019 Journal Article Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Wind farms affect the occurrence, abundance and population trends of small passerine birds: The case of the Dupont's lark Gomez-Catasus, J., Garza, V., Traba, J. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines
Impact of wind farms on soaring bird populations at a migratory bottleneck Martin, B., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
The Role of Wave Energy Converter Farms on Coastal Protection in Eroding Deltas, Guadalfeo, Southern Spain Bergillos, R., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Differential Recovery of Habitat Use by Birds after Wind Farm Installation: A Multi-Year Comparison Farfan, M., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Impact on seabirds of new offshore wind energy test and demonstration projects in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP, N. Spain) Bald, J., et al. March 2017 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Impact of Climate Change on Wave Energy Resource: The Case of Menorca (Spain) Sierra, J., Casas-Prat, M., Campins, E. February 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics, Climate Change
OCEANTEC Wave Energy Converter December 2016 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Achieving Blue Growth through Maritime Spatial Planning: Offshore Wind Energy Optimization and Biodiversity Conservation in Spain Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Effects of Wind Farms on Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus) in Southern Spain Hernández-Pliego, J., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Action on Multiple Fronts, Illegal Poisoning and Wind Farm Planning, is Required to Reverse the Decline of the Egyptian Vulture in Southern Spain Sanz-Aguilar, A., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Environmental impacts over the seabed and benthic communities of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Monitoring Plan of the pre-operational phase of the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) project Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave
Environmental impacts over fish communities of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Fish
Acoustic characterization of submarine cable installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (bimep) Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave Noise
The Environmental Impact Study of the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP) project Bald, J., et al. April 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wave
Public Perceptions and Externalities in Tidal Stream Energy: A Valuation for Policy Making Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Characterization of the Ultrasonic Acoustic Field of a Wind Turbine Pereira, M., Fonseca, C., Inácio, O. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Bats
Wave Farm Impact: The Role of Farm-to-Coast Distance Iglesias, G., Carballo, R. September 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Guidelines for Assessing the Impact of Wind Farms on Birds and Bats Atienza, J., et al. September 2014 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds
Floating Vs. Bottom-Fixed Turbines for Tidal Stream Energy: A Comparative Impact Assessment Sanchez, M., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Energy of Marine Currents in the Strait of Gibraltar and its Potential as a Renewable Energy Resource Quesada, M., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
A Wave Farm for an Island: Detailed Effects on the Nearshore Wave Climate Veigas, M., Ramos, V., Iglesias, G. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Impacts over the Seabed and Benthic Communities of Underwater Cable Installation in the Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BIMEP) Bald, J., et al. May 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
First Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Renewable Energy (WGMRE) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Ecosystem
Assessment of Basic Audiometric Functions in Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) at Loro Parque, Tenerife, Spain Lucke, K., Finneran, J., Houser, D. March 2013 Report Noise Marine Mammals
Measuring the Insecurity Index of species in networks of protected areas using species distribution modeling and fuzzy logic: The case of raptors in Andalusia Diaz-Gomez, D., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Environmental Reporting in the Spanish Wind Energy Sector: An Institutional View Mosene, J., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics
Seabird Aggregative Patterns: A New Tool for Offshore Wind Energy Risk Assessment Christel, I., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Interannual Home Range Variation, Territoriality and Overlap in Breeding Bonelli's Eagles (Aquila fasciata) Tracked by GPS Satellite Telemetry Perez-Garcia, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
International importance of Extremadura, Spain, for overwintering migratory dabbling ducks: a role for reservoirs Navedo, J., et al. September 2012 Journal Article Static Device Birds
Some Clouds Have a Silver Lining: Paradoxes of Anthropogenic Perturbations from Study Cases on Long-Lived Social Birds Oro, D., Jimenez, J., Curco, A. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bat Fatalities at Wind Farms in Northern Spain - Lessons to be Learned Camina, A. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Griffon Vulture Mortality at Wind Farms in Southern Spain: Distribution of Fatalities and Active Mitigation Measures de Lucas, M., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
The Development and Use of a Method to Fill Time Gaps in Migration Counts Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Thomas, L., Arroyo, G. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Weak Relationship Between Risk Assessment Studies and Recorded Mortality in Wind Farms Ferrer, M., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Birds and Needs to Plan their Future Development in Spain Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Muñoz, A., Arroyo, G. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Mortality at wind-farms is positively related to large-scale distribution and aggregation in griffon vultures Carrete, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
The Spanish approach to marine spatial planning. Marine Strategy Framework Directive vs. EU Integrated Maritime Policy Suárez de Vivero, J., Rodríguez Mateos, M. January 2012 Journal Article Socio-economics
Overview of raptor monitoring in Spain Zapata, J. January 2012 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Effects of wind farms and food scarcity on a large scavenging bird species following an epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy Martinez-Abrain, A., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem
Mutriku Wave Power Plant July 2011 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Modelling Seabird Collision Risk with Off-Shore Wind Farms Mateos, M., Arroyo, G., Rosario, J. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Integrating Effects of Supplementary Feeding, Poisoning, Pollutant Ingestion and Wind Farms of Two Vulture Species in Spain using a Population Viability Analysis Garcia-Ripolles, C., Lopez, P. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Chemicals Birds, Raptors
Developing and Applying a GIS-Assisted Approach to Evaluate Visual Impact in Wind Farms Molina-Ruiz, J., et al. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Cantabrian Capercaillie signs disappeared after a wind farm construction Gonzalez, M., Ena, V. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Potential impact of wind farms on territories of large eagles in southeastern Spain Martinez, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
The precautionary principle and wind-farm planning: data scarcity does not imply absence of effects Carrete, M., et al. August 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Impact of Terrestrial Wind Farms on Diurnal Raptors: Developing a Spatial Vulnerability Index and Potential Vulnerability Maps Noguera, J., Pérez, I., Mínguez, E. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Large Scale Risk-Assessment of Wind-Farms on Population Viability of a Globally Endangered Long-Lived Raptor Carrete, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
What is the Impact of Wind Farms on Birds? A Case Study in Southern Spain Farfan, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Combining Vessel-Based Surveys and Tracking Data to Identify Key Marine Areas for Seabirds Louzao, M., et al. September 2009 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
Mutriku Wave Power Plant: From the Thinking out to the Reality Torre-Enciso, Y., et al. September 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Wind Power Plants and the Conservation of Birds and Bats in Spain: A Geographical Assessment Telleria, J. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Potential Impacts of Wind Farms on Migratory Birds Crossing Spain Telleria, J. June 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Overlap Between Wind Power Plants and Griffon Vultures Gyps fulvus in Spain Telleria, J. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Life Cycle Assessment of a Multi-Megawatt Wind Turbine Martínez, E., et al. March 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Using probability of occurrence to assess potential interaction between wind farms and a residual population of golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos in NW Spain Tapia, L., Dominguez, J., Rodriguez, L. January 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Vessel Noise Effects On Delphinid Communication Jensen, F., et al. January 2009 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Navigation
OCEANTEC: Sea Trials of a Quarter Scale Prototype Salcedo, F., et al. January 2009 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave
Collision Fatality of Raptors in Wind Farms does not Depend on Raptor Abundance de Lucas, M., et al. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Wind Farms and Mires in the Basque Country and North-West Navarra, Spain Heras, P., Infante, M. July 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Effects of Wind Farm Construction and Operation on Mire and Wet Heath Vegetation in the Monte Maior SCI, North-West Spain Fagúndez, J. July 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind
Sediment Transport Patterns at Trafalgar Offshore Windfarm Besio, G., Losada, M. May 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Assessing the Impact of Wind Farms on the Plant Diversity of Blanket Bogs in the Xistral Mountains (NW Spain) Fraga, M., et al. April 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Ecosystem
PLOCAN Marine Test Site for Ocean Energy Converters April 2008 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Biscay Marine Energy Platform (BiMEP) January 2008 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
OCEANTEC Wave Energy Converter 1:4 prototype January 2008 Project Site Annex IV Marine Energy general, Wave
Minimal Sampling Requirements for a Precise Assessment of Soft-Bottom Macrobenthic Communities, using AMBI Muxika, I., et al. October 2007 Journal Article Benthic Invertebrates
Geographic Assignment of Seabirds to their Origin: Combining Morphologic, Genetic, and Biogeochemical Analyses Gomez-Diaz, E., Gonzalez-Solis, J. July 2007 Journal Article Birds, Seabirds
Fate of Unproductive and Unattractive Habitats: Recent Changes in Iberian Steppes and their Effects on Endangered Avifauna Laiolo, P., Tella, J. October 2006 Journal Article Birds, Passerines, Nearfield Habitat
Deriving Collision Avoidance Rates for Red Kites Milvus milvus Whitfield, D., Madders, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
A Bird and Small Mammal BACI and IG Design Studies in a Wind Farm in Malpica (Spain) de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
A Review Of The Records Of Giant Squid In The North-Eastern Atlantic And Severe Injuries In Architeuthis Dux Stranded After Acoustic Explorations Guerra, A., González, A., Rocha, F. September 2004 Conference Paper Noise Benthic Invertebrates
Behavioural and Environmental Correlates of Soaring-Bird Mortality at On-Shore Wind Turbines Barrios, L., Rodríguez, A. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
The Effects of a Wind Farm on Birds in a Migration Point: The Strait of Gibraltar de Lucas, M., Janss, G., Ferrer, M. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Birds, Passerines
Birds and Windfarms - Critical Analysis of 4 Reports on Bird Mortality at Windfarm Sites Durchamp, M. December 2003 Website Wind Energy general Birds
Artificial Reefs as a Tool to Aid Rehabilitation of Coastal Ecosystems: Investigating the Potential Pickering, H., Whitmarsh, D., Jensen, A. December 1999 Journal Article Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
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