Tidal

Capturing tidal fluctuations with turbines, reciprocating devices, kites, screws, barrages, or lagoons.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. Since seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. While tidal currents are very predictable, challenges arise due to the need for devices to collect flow from opposite directions and survive the harsh corrosive marine environment.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the seven most common approaches: axial flow turbine, cross flow turbine, reciprocating device, tidal kite, Archimedes screw, tidal lagoon, and tidal barrage.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are the most similar to traditional windmills, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale tidal energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem.

Cross Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are generally cylindrical on a horizontal axis, where kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades oriented transversely to the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water, depending on the design. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of axial flow turbines.

Reciprocating Device

 

Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components, but instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices.

 

Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Reciprocating devices often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages water flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction.

 

Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device.

 

The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies, and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with reversible low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir. Tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside of the walls, functioning very similar to a low-head conventional hydrokinetic dam that works in both direction.

 

The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection. The changes to the physical system are similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include altering water flow and shoreline processes partially due to energy removal. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and benthic invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow better recreation.

Tidal Barrage

 

Tidal barrages are dams built across the entrance to a bay or estuary that captures potential tidal energy, similar to tidal lagoons. Energy is collected when the height difference on either side of the dam is greatest, at low or high tide. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is required to justify the construction, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.

 

Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to the alteration of tidal flows and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation opportunities due to calmer waters.

Total Results: 670
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort descending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Value Proposition for Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia, Atlantic Canada and Canada Gardner, M., et al. April 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Environmental Effects Monitoring Program Annual Report 2017 FORCE January 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Effects Monitoring Report 2011-2013 FORCE January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
RITE Monitoring of Environmental Effects (RMEE) Reports (DRAFT ver. Mar 2016) RITE Project (FERC No. P-12611) Smith, R. March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Noise Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Modelling the Effects of Marine Energy Extraction on Non-Cohesive Sediment Transport and Morphological Change in the Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Fairley, I., Karunarathna, H., Chatzirodou, A. January 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Lessons Learnt from MeyGen Phase 1a: Design Phase MeyGen May 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Tidal Turbine Collision Detection: A review of the state-of-the-art sensors and imaging systems for detecting mammal collisions Jha, S. May 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Decommissioning of the SeaGen Tidal Turbine in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland: Environmental Statement MarineSpace September 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strangford Lough Marine Current Turbine: Environmental Statement Davison, A., Mallows, T. June 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1 Project Environmental Monitoring Programme Rollings, E., Donovan, C., Eastham, C. October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Behavioral Responses of Fish to a Current-Based Hydrokinetic Turbine Under Multiple Operational Conditions: Final Report Grippo, M., et al. February 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Interactions of Aquatic Animals with the ORPC OCGen in Cobscook Bay, Maine: Monitoring Behavior Change and Assessing the Probability of Encounter with a Deployed MHK Device Zydlewski, G., et al. October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish
Environmental Appraisal (EA) for the Argyll Tidal Demonstrator Project Nautricity December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2015 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
ORECCA European Offshore Renewable Energy Roadmap Jeffrey, H., Sedgwick, J. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Deep Green Holyhead Deep Project Phase I (0.5 MW) - Environmental Statement Minesto June 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Funding and Financial Supports for Tidal Energy Development in Nova Scotia MacDougall, S. September 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2016 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine April 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish, Nearfield Habitat
South Korea's Plans for Tidal Power: When a "Green" Solution Creates More Problems Ko, Y., Schubert, D. November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Implications of Tidal Energy Extraction on Sedimentary Processes within Shallow Intertidal Environments van Proosdij, D., et al. March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Fundy Ocean Research Centre for Energy (FORCE) Environmental Assessment Addendum to the Report: Environmental Assessment Registration Document - Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project, Volumes 1 and 2 AECOM July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Population Trends of Breeding Seabird Colonies in Scottish SPAs Malcolm, F., Lye, G., Lewis, M. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Request for advice on the populations of cetaceans that might be involved in significant interactions with marine renewable energy developments in Scottish marine waters Northridge, S. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Depth use and movements of homing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Scottish coastal waters in relation to marine renewable energy development Godfrey, J., et al. December 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Strategic Surveys of Seabirds off the West Coast of Lewis to Determine Use of Seaspace in Areas of Potential Marine Renewable Energy Developments Simpson, M., Woodward, R. July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals
Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon Adaptive Environmental Management Plan November 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Fishing, Recreation
Current state of knowledge of effects of offshore renewable energy generation devices on marine mammals & research requirements Thompson, D., et al. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Marine Mammal Behavioral Response to Tidal Turbine Sound Robertson, F., et al. June 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
TidGen Power System Commercialization Project Final Technical Report ORPC Maine December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Initial Consultation Document for the Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy Project Verdant Power October 2003 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
D2.16 Tidal Test Parameter Overview Germain, G. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
D2.7 Tidal Measurement Best Practice Manual Elsaesser, B., et al. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
D2.2 Collation of Tidal Test Options McCombes, T., et al. October 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
A Framework for Environmental Risk Assessment and Decision-Making for Tidal Energy Development in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G., Redden, A. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
A 1:8.7 Scale Water Tunnel Verification & Validation of an Axial Flow Water Turbine Fontaine, A., et al. August 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal
A Diving Bird Collision Risk Assessment Framework for Tidal Turbines Grant, M., Trinder, M., Harding, N. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Marine Spatial Plan Framework & Regional Locational Guidance for Marine Energy Marine Scotland January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Analysis of Bird and Marine Mammal Data for Fall of Warness Tidal Test Site, Orkney Robbins, A. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
EMEC Fall of Warness Tidal Test Site: Wildlife Observations Project Annual Report Marine Scotland May 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Admiralty Inlet Final License Application Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Final Report on the Acoustic, Marine Mammal and Bird Monitoring Studies During Phase 1 Pile Driving Activities ORPC Maine June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Birds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Community and Business Toolkit for Tidal Energy Development MacDougall, S., Colton, J. March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Assessment of the Potential of Tidal Power from Minas Passage and Minas Basin Karsten, R., et al. November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Environment Description for the EMEC Tidal Test Site Fall of Warness, Orkney Finn, M. December 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Nearfield Habitat
D2.18 Tidal Data Analysis Best Practice Grant, A., McCombes, T., Johnstone, C. October 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Tidal Energy Community Engagement Handbook Isaacman, L., Colton, J. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Socio-economics
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2013 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Guidance for Developers at EMEC Grid-Connected Sites: Supporting Environmental Documentation European Marine Energy Centre August 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1: Environmental Statement MeyGen January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guernsey Regional Environmental Assessment of Marine Energy Guernsey Renewable Energy Team July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies - Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects Kramer, S., et al. June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Fall of Warness Tidal Test Site: Additional Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Shapinsay Sound Tidal Test Site: Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Enabling Actions Report: Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Wave and Tidal Stream Projects and Migratory Salmonids Slaski, R., Hirst, D., Gray, S. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Fish
Scotrenewables Tidal Power Ltd SR250 Deployment Fall of Warness: Environmental Statement Volume II - Appendices Scotrenewables Tidal Power October 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
EMEC Fall of Warness Test Site: Environmental Appraisal European Marine Energy Centre August 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Monitoring Report - 2011 Installation of Monopile at Voith Hydro Test Berth, Fall of Warness, Orkney Aquatera November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Environmental Assessment Registration Document - Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project Volume I: Environmental Assessment AECOM June 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Scoping Study: Review of Current Knowledge of Underwater Noise Emissions from Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Robinson, S., Lepper, P. August 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
MR3 Methods for Tracking Fine Scale Movements of Marine Mammals around Marine Tidal Devices McConnell, B., et al. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The Use of Acoustic Devices to Warn Marine Mammals of Tidal-Stream Energy Devices Wilson, B., Carter, C. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Assessing the Far Field Effects of Tidal Power Extraction on the Bay of Fundy, Gulf of Maine and Scotian Shelf Sheng, J., et al. June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development around the World: Annex IV Final Report Copping, A., et al. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact EquiMar March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
First Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Renewable Energy (WGMRE) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Ecosystem
Environmental Scoping Report Westray South Tidal Array SSE Renewables October 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics
Near Field Effects of Tidal Power Extraction on Extreme Events and Coastline Integrity in the Bay of Fundy Watanabe, R. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of Tidal and Wave Energy Technology in Canada Isaacman, L., Lee, K. November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Impacts of Tidal Energy Extraction on Sediment Dynamics in Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy, NS Smith, P., et al. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array, Cable Route Environmental Information ScottishPower Renewables May 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
EMEC Tidal Test Facility Fall of Warness Eday, Orkney: Environmental Statement Foubister, L. June 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Effects Of Tidal Turbine Noise On Fish Hearing And Tissues Halvorsen, M., Carlson, T., Copping, A. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish
Admiralty Inlet Final Environmental Assessment Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 August 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Survey, Deploy and Monitor Licensing Policy Guidance Marine Scotland August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Socio-economics
Effects of Energy Extraction on Sediment Dynamics in Intertidal Ecosystems of the Minas Basin van Proosdij, D., et al. February 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Passive Acoustic Monitoring of Cetacean Activity Patterns and Movements in Minas Passage: Pre-Turbine Baseline Conditions Tollit, D., Redden, A. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Electromagnetic Field Study Slater, M., et al. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF
Maine Tidal Power Initiative: Environmental Impact Protocols for Tidal Power Peterson, M. February 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) Decommissioning Programme Low, D. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Appropriateness of Existing Monitoring Studies for the Fundy Tidal Energy Project and Considerations for Monitoring Commercial Scale Scenarios Fisheries and Oceans Canada June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Farfield Environment, Fish
Assessment Of Tidal Energy Removal Impacts On Physical Systems: Development Of MHK Module And Analysis Of Effects On Hydrodynamics Yang, Z., Wang, T. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Assessment of Strike of Adult Killer Whales by an OpenHydro Tidal Turbine Blade Carlson, T., et al. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Assessment of Tidal and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies in Canada Fisheries and Oceans Canada November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Birds and Wave & Tidal Stream Energy: An Ecological Review McCluskie, A., Langston, R., Wilkinson, N. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Sediment-Laden Ice Measurements and Observations, and Implications for Potential Interactions of Ice and Large Woody Debris with Tidal Turbines in Minas Passage Sanderson, B., Redden, A., Broome, J. February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2012 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Collision Risk of Fish with Wave and Tidal Devices ABP Marine Environmental Research July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Fish
Detection of Marine Mammals and Effects Monitoring at the NSPI (OpenHydro) Turbine Site in the Minas Passage during 2010 Tollit, D., et al. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Evaluation of Survival and Behavior of Fish Exposed to an Axial-Flow Hydrokinetic Turbine Amaral, S., Giza, D., McMahon, B. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Riverine, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Hydrodynamic Impacts of Power Generation by Tidal Lagoons in the Bay of Fundy Cornett, A., Cousineau, J. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
FORCE Environmental Effects Monitoring Report September 2009 to January 2011 FORCE January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Detection of Tidal Turbine Noise: A Pre-Installation Case Study for Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound Polagye, B., et al. February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Instream Tidal Power in North America: Environmental and Permitting Issues Devine Tarbell & Associates June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Cross Coupling between Device Level CFD and Oceanographic Models Applied to Multiple TISECs in Minas Passage Klaptocz, V., et al. February 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Tidal Technologies: Key Issues Across Planning and Development for Environmental Regulators Bell, M., Side, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
SNL-EFDC Model Application to Cobscook Bay, ME Roberts, J., James, S. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Stingray Tidal Steam Energy Device - Phase 3 The Engineering Business January 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Installation of Tidal Turbine Array at Kyle Rhea, Scotland: Scoping Study Bedford, G., Tarrant, D., Trendall, J. March 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategic Tidal Stream Assessment for Alderney Craig, J. January 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Subtidal Benthic Video and Benthic Infauna Survey and Intertidal Cable Crossing Survey MER Assessment Corporation January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat

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