Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1389
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Oil and gas platforms as artificial substrates for epibenthic North Sea fauna: Effects of location and depth Schutter, M., et al. November 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Invertebrates
Evaluation of the near future wave energy resources in the Black Sea under two climate scenarios Rusu, L. November 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Climate Change
Ecology of the brown crab (Cancer pagurus) and production potential for passive fisheries in Dutch offshore windfarms Tonk, L., Rozemeijer, M. October 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Impacts to Wildlife of Wind Energy Siting and Operation in the United States Allison, T., et al. September 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
A 30-year projection of the future wind energy resources in the coastal environment of the Black Sea Rusu, E. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Climate Change
Measuring responses of harbour seals to potential aversive acoustic mitigation signals using controlled exposure behavioural response studies Gordon, J., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Local support for renewable energy technologies? Attitudes towards local near-shore wind farms among second home owners and permanent area residents on the Danish coast Johansen, K. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-Economics, Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Effect of low frequency electromagnetic field on the behavior and bioenergetics of the polychaete Hediste diversicolor Jakubowska, M., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Invertebrates
Improving visual biodiversity assessments of motile fauna in turbid aquatic environments Jones, R., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
Endangered Atlantic Sturgeon in the New York Wind Energy Area: implications of future development in an offshore wind energy site Ingram, E., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Placing Green Energy in the Sea: Offshore Wind Farms, Dolphins, Oysters, and the Territorial Politics of the Intertidal Zone in Taiwan Hung, P. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Modelling flight heights of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Great Skuas from GPS: a Bayesian approach Ross-Smith, V., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Sustainability and tourism: the effect of the United States’ first offshore wind farm on the vacation rental market Carr-Harris, A., Lang, C. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Aesthetics
Assessing use-use interactions at sea: A theoretical framework for spatial decision support tools facilitating co-location in maritime spatial planning Bonnevie, I., Hansen, H., Schrøder, L. August 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Seabed morphodynamics due to offshore wind farms van der Veen, H., Hulscher, S., Lapeña, B. July 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Development of cumulative impact assessment guidelines for offshore wind farms and evaluation of use in project making Durning, B., Broderick, M. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics
Effect of Pile-Driving Playback Sound Level on Fish-Catching Efficiency in Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Kastelein, R., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Determining the dependence of marine pile driving sound levels on strike energy, pile penetration, and propagation effects using a linear mixed model based on damped cylindrical spreading Martin, S., Barclay, D. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines, version 2 van Kooten, T., et al. July 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Europe, China and the United States: Three different approaches to the development of offshore wind energy deCastro, M., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy
Harnessing the Wind: How to Advance Wind Power Offshore NRDC July 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise
The post-normal politics and science of wind power planning: Evidence from a Danish near-shore wind farm tender Johansen, K., Upham, P. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Harbour porpoise responses to pile-driving diminish over time Graham, I., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
A path planning approach based on multi-direction A* algorithm for ships navigating within wind farm waters Xie, L., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Navigation
Evaluating Changes in the Marine Soundscape of an Offshore Wind Farm via the Machine Learning-Based Source Separation Lin, T., et al. June 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
A framework to evaluate the environmental impact of OCEAN energy devices Mendoza, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Environmental Impact Assessment
Refusal of planning consent for the Docking Shoal offshore wind farm: Stakeholder perspectives and lessons learned Broadbent, I., Nixon, C. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Potential effects of electrical energy transmission - the case study from the Polish Marine Areas (southern Baltic Sea) Otremba, Z., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
From strategic marine planning to project licences – Striking a balance between predictability and adaptability in the management of aquaculture and offshore wind farms Schütz, S., Slater, A. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
The integrated offshore grid in Europe: Exploring challenges for regional energy governance Dedecca, J., Hakvoort, R., Herder, P. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy
Why does the offshore wind industry need standardized HSE management systems? An evidence from Denmark Ahsan, D., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Effects of noise-mitigated offshore pile driving on harbour porpoise abundance in the German Bight 2014-2016 (Gescha 2) Rose, A., et al. June 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
A modelling approach for offshore wind farm feasibility with respect to ecosystem-based marine spatial planning Pınarbaşı, K., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Recycling offshore wind farms at decommissioning stage Topham, E., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics
External Effects of Renewable Energy Projects: Life Cycle Analysis-based Approach Salnikova, A., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Challenges of decommissioning offshore wind farms: Overview of the European experience Topham, E., et al. May 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Stakeholder Engagement
Overview of ocean power technology Wilberforce, T., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Vitamine ENA: A framework for the development of ecosystem-based indicators for decision makers Safi, G., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Minimizing wildlife impacts for offshore wind energy development: Winning tradeoffs for seabirds in space and cetaceans in time Best, B., Halpin, P. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Installing Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations Quieter: A Performance Overview of the First Full-Scale Demonstration of the AdBm Underwater Noise Abatement System Elzinga, J., et al. May 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Assessing the Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Seabird Foraging Guilds Along the East Coast of the United States Goodale, M,, Milman, A., Griffin, C. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Environmental Sensitivity Modeling and Site Characterization Guttenplan, K., Koopman, M., Belin, D. May 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
A three-dimensional underwater sound propagation model for offshore wind farm noise prediction Lin, Y., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Characterizing the benthic community in Maryland’s offshore wind energy areas using a towed camera sled: Developing a method to reduce the effort of image analysis and community description Cruz-Marrero, W., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Impact of pile-driving on Hector's dolphin in Lyttelton Harbour, New Zealand Leunissen, E., Rayment, W., Dawson, S. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Three-dimensional mapping of the benthic invertebrates biophony with a compact four-hydrophones array Gervaise, C., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates
Renewable energy from the high seas: Geo-spatial modelling of resource potential and legal implications for developing offshore wind projects beyond the national jurisdiction of coastal States Elsner, P., Suarez, S. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy
Attraction of nocturnally migrating birds to artificial light: The influence of colour, intensity and blinking mode under different cloud cover conditions Rebke, M., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
Combined Exploitation of Offshore Wind and Wave Energy in the Italian Seas: A Spatial Planning Approach Azzellino, A., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Low genetic connectivity in a fouling amphipod among man-made structures in the southern North Sea Luttikhuizen, P., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates
Benthic Conservation Features and Species Associated With Subsea Pipelines: Considerations for Decommissioning Rouse, S., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Invertebrates, Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy
Effects of impulsive noise on marine mammals: investigating range‐dependent risk Hastie, G., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Stakeholder Perspectives on the Value of Marine Spatial Planning Towards Advancing Offshore Wind in the U.S. Ryan, K., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Stakeholder Perspectives on the Value of Marine Spatial Planning Towards Advancing Offshore Wind in the U.S. Ryan, K., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Marine Spatial Planning
Multi-use of the sea: A wide array of opportunities from site-specific cases across Europe Bocci, M., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
The proportion of flatfish recruitment in the North Sea potentially affected by offshore windfarms Barbut, L., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
OSPAR request to advise on the current state and knowledge of studies into the deployment and environmental impacts of wet renewable technologies and marine energy storage systems April 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-Economics, Aesthetics
Effects of established offshore wind farms on energy flow of coastal ecosystems: A case study of the Rudong offshore wind farms in China Wang, J., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
An analysis of the state of impact assessment research for low carbon power production: Building a better understanding of information and knowledge gaps Hanna, K., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessing the cumulative exposure of wildlife to offshore wind energy development Wing Goodale, M., Milman, A. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Practical Approaches and Advances in Spatial Tools to Achieve Multi-Objective Marine Spatial Planning Lombard, A., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Offshore gas production infrastructure reutilisation for blue energy production Sedlar, D., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Automatic Bird Identification for Offshore Wind Farms Niemi, J., Tanttu, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Birds
Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Assess the Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Pezy, J., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Impact of the establishment of US offshore wind power on neodymium flows Fishman, T., Graedel, T. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Meta-Analysis of Finfish Abundance at Offshore Wind Farms Methratta, E., Dardick, W. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Future Directions in Conservation Research on Petrels and Shearwaters Rodríguez, A., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Soundscape of an Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) hotspot before windfarm construction in the Pearl River Estuary, China: Do dolphin engage in noise avoidance and passive eavesdropping behavior? Wang, Z., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Avoidance Behaviour of Migrating Raptors Approaching an Offshore Wind Farm Jacobsen, E., Jensen, F., Blew, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Raptors
Consideration of scales in offshore wind environmental impact assessments Ryan, K., Danylchuk, A., Jordaan, A. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The First Large-Scale Offshore Aerial Survey Using a High-Resolution Camera System McGovern, S., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind
Wind and Energy Wildlife Impacts Bispo, R., et al. March 2019 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind
Best Management Practices for North Atlantic Right Whales During Offshore Wind Energy Construction and Operations Along the U.S. East Coast NRDC March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Resource selection and wintering phenology of White-winged Scoters in southern New England: Implications for offshore wind energy development Meattey, D., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
The interplay between economics, legislative power and social influence examined through a social-ecological framework for marine ecosystems services Martino, S., Tett, P., Kenter, J. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics
Adaptive marine spatial planning in the Netherlands sector of the North Sea de Vrees, L. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning
On the Potential Impact of Lake Erie Wind Farms on Water Temperatures and Mixed‐Layer Depths: Some Preliminary 1‐D Modeling Using COHERENS Afsharian, S., Taylor, P. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Life-cycle green-house gas emissions of onshore and offshore wind turbines Wang, S., Wang, S., Jinxiang, L. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Feeding home ranges of pacific coast feeding group gray whales Lagerquist, B., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Winds of change – Predicting water-based recreationists' support and opposition for offshore wind energy development in the Great Lakes Ferguson, M., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Recreation
Operational offshore wind farms and associated ship traffic cause profound changes in distribution patterns of Loons (Gavia spp.) Mendel, B., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Offshore Wind Birds
Understanding the Role of Offshore Structures in Managing Potential Watersipora Invasions Page, H., et al. February 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates
Comparing offshore and onshore wind development considering acceptance costs Hevia-Koch, P., Jacobsen, H. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Floating Offshore Wind Energy in California Bang, J., et al. January 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Site selection process for floating offshore wind farms in Madeira Islands Díaz, H., Fonseca, R., Soares, C. January 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Nonmarket Valuation of Marine Resources in the Northeast: Implications for Recreational Fisheries Management and Offshore Wind Energy Development Carr-Harris, A. January 2019 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-Economics, Aesthetics, Fishing
International good practices for facilitating transboundary collaboration in Marine Spatial Planning Kull, M., et al. January 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning
A review of noise abatement systems for offshore wind farm construction noise, and the potential for their application in Scottish waters Verfuss, U., Sinclair, R., Sparling, C. January 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Upscaling positive effects of scour protection in offshore wind farms Coolen, J., et al. January 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
The politics of Estonia's offshore wind energy programme: Discourse, power and marine spatial planning Tafon, R., Howarth, D., Griggs, S. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Life cycle cost-benefit analysis of offshore wind energy under the climatic conditions in Southeast Asia – Setting the bottom-line for deployment Nian, V., Liu, Y., Zhong, S. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Uncertainty analysis of soil-pile interactions of monopile offshore wind turbine support structures Yeter, B., Garbatov, Y., Soares, C. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Chains of trust: Energy justice, public engagement, and the first offshore wind farm in the United States Dwyer, J., Bidwell, D. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Public Acceptance of Offshore Wind Farms in the Netherlands: Testing and Adjusting the Public Acceptance Models for a Better Wind of Change Dion, A. January 2019 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Retrospective and Outlook for an Environmentally Sound Development of Offshore Wind Energy Lüdeke, J. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Reconversion of offshore oil and gas platforms into renewable energy sites production: Assessment of different scenarios Leporini, M., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Life Cycle Assessment
Biodiversity Characterisation of Fouling Communities and Their Hydrodynamic Consequences on Marine Renewable Energy Infrastructure in the UK Want, A., Harris, R., Porter, J. December 2018 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Invertebrates
From identification of compatibilities and conflicts to reaching marine spatial allocation agreements. Review of actions required and relevant tools and processes Kyriazi, Z. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Co-location opportunities for renewable energies and aquaculture facilities in the Canary Archipelago Weiss, C., et al. December 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Fishing, Marine Spatial Planning
Addressing conflicting spatial demands in MSP: Considerations for MSP planners Gee, K., et al. December 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-Economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement

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