Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1247
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Sustainability and tourism: the effect of the United States’ first offshore wind farm on the vacation rental market Carr-Harris, A., Lang, C. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
The post-normal politics and science of wind power planning: Evidence from a Danish near-shore wind farm tender Johansen, K., Upham, P. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Europe, China and the United States: Three different approaches to the development of offshore wind energy deCastro, M., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Why does the offshore wind industry need standardized HSE management systems? An evidence from Denmark Ahsan, D., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
The integrated offshore grid in Europe: Exploring challenges for regional energy governance Dedecca, J., Hakvoort, R., Herder, P. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
A modelling approach for offshore wind farm feasibility with respect to ecosystem-based marine spatial planning Pınarbaşı, K., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Minimizing wildlife impacts for offshore wind energy development: Winning tradeoffs for seabirds in space and cetaceans in time Best, B., Halpin, P. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Installing Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations Quieter: A Performance Overview of the First Full-Scale Demonstration of the AdBm Underwater Noise Abatement System Elzinga, J., et al. May 2019 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Assessing the Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Seabird Foraging Guilds Along the East Coast of the United States Goodale, M,, Milman, A., Griffin, C. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Characterizing the benthic community in Maryland’s offshore wind energy areas using a towed camera sled: Developing a method to reduce the effort of image analysis and community description Cruz-Marrero, W., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
A three-dimensional underwater sound propagation model for offshore wind farm noise prediction Lin, Y., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Renewable energy from the high seas: Geo-spatial modelling of resource potential and legal implications for developing offshore wind projects beyond the national jurisdiction of coastal States Elsner, P., Suarez, S. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Attraction of nocturnally migrating birds to artificial light: The influence of colour, intensity and blinking mode under different cloud cover conditions Rebke, M., et al. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Lighting Birds
Impact of pile-driving on Hector's dolphin in Lyttelton Harbour, New Zealand Leunissen, E., Rayment, W., Dawson, S. May 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Combined Exploitation of Offshore Wind and Wave Energy in the Italian Seas: A Spatial Planning Approach Azzellino, A., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Stakeholder Perspectives on the Value of Marine Spatial Planning Towards Advancing Offshore Wind in the U.S. Ryan, K., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Effects of established offshore wind farms on energy flow of coastal ecosystems: A case study of the Rudong offshore wind farms in China Wang, J., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Assessing the cumulative exposure of wildlife to offshore wind energy development Goodale, M., Milman, A. April 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Assessing the cumulative exposure of wildlife to offshore wind energy development Wing Goodale, M., Milman, A. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Automatic Bird Identification for Offshore Wind Farms Niemi, J., Tanttu, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Birds
Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Assess the Impacts of Marine Renewable Energy Pezy, J., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Impact of the establishment of US offshore wind power on neodymium flows Fishman, T., Graedel, T. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Meta-Analysis of Finfish Abundance at Offshore Wind Farms Methratta, E., Dardick, W. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Soundscape of an Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) hotspot before windfarm construction in the Pearl River Estuary, China: Do dolphin engage in noise avoidance and passive eavesdropping behavior? Wang, Z., et al. March 2019 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Avoidance Behaviour of Migrating Raptors Approaching an Offshore Wind Farm Jacobsen, E., Jensen, F., Blew, J. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Raptors
Consideration of scales in offshore wind environmental impact assessments Ryan, K., Danylchuk, A., Jordaan, A. March 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The First Large-Scale Offshore Aerial Survey Using a High-Resolution Camera System McGovern, S., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Offshore Wind
Wind and Energy Wildlife Impacts Bispo, R., et al. March 2019 Book Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Resource selection and wintering phenology of White-winged Scoters in southern New England: Implications for offshore wind energy development Meattey, D., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
On the Potential Impact of Lake Erie Wind Farms on Water Temperatures and Mixed‐Layer Depths: Some Preliminary 1‐D Modeling Using COHERENS Afsharian, S., Taylor, P. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Life-cycle green-house gas emissions of onshore and offshore wind turbines Wang, S., Wang, S., Jinxiang, L. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Feeding home ranges of pacific coast feeding group gray whales Lagerquist, B., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Operational offshore wind farms and associated ship traffic cause profound changes in distribution patterns of Loons (Gavia spp.) Mendel, B., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Offshore Wind Birds
Comparing offshore and onshore wind development considering acceptance costs Hevia-Koch, P., Jacobsen, H. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Winds of change – Predicting water-based recreationists' support and opposition for offshore wind energy development in the Great Lakes Ferguson, M., et al. February 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Recreation
Site selection process for floating offshore wind farms in Madeira Islands Díaz, H., Fonseca, R., Soares, C. January 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
The politics of Estonia's offshore wind energy programme: Discourse, power and marine spatial planning Tafon, R., Howarth, D., Griggs, S. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning
Chains of trust: Energy justice, public engagement, and the first offshore wind farm in the United States Dwyer, J., Bidwell, D. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Korean traditional beliefs and renewable energy transitions: Pungsu, shamanism, and the local perception of wind turbines Kim, E., Chung, J., Seo, Y. December 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Micrometeorological impacts of offshore wind farms as seen in observations and simulations Siedersleben, S., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Is Marine Spatial Planning Enough to Overcome Biological Data Deficiencies? Ryan, K., Danylchuk, A., Jordaan, A. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Humpback Whales and Floating Offshore Wind Farm Animation Grear, M., et al. November 2018 Video Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
West Coast Organization Channels Energy for Marine Renewables Marisa McNatt and Matthew Sanders (POET) November 2018 Blog Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Linking ecosystem services with epibenthic biodiversity change following installation of offshore wind farms Causon, P., Gill, A. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Emissions from corrosion protection systems of offshore wind farms: Evaluation of the potential impact on the marine environment Kirchgeorg, T., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals
Nocturnal flight activity of northern gannets Morus bassanus and implications for modelling collision risk at offshore wind farms Furness, R., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Floating offshore wind - Economic and ecological challenges of a TLP solution Kausche, M., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment
Effects of larger turbines for the offshore wind farm at Krieger's Flak, Sweden. Assessment of impact on marine mammals Tougaard, J., Mikaelsen, M. October 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Underwater noise levels of pile-driving in a New Zealand harbour, and the potential impacts on endangered Hector's dolphins Leunissen, E., Dawson, S. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Oil and gas infrastructure decommissioning in marine protected areas: System complexity, analysis and challenges Burdon, D., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Collision and displacement vulnerability to offshore wind energy infrastructure among marine birds of the Pacific Outer Continental Shelf Kelsey, E., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Appendix M-1 Biological Assessment for Project Icebreaker EDR, D.P.C. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Flatfish habitat use near North America's first offshore wind farm Wilber, D., Carey, D., Griffin, M. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Final Environmental Assessment LEEDCo Project Icebreaker Lake Erie, City of Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio Parker, R., et al. September 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Wildlife [Thesis] Goodale, M. September 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Potential Interaction Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Areas and Breeding Avian Species on the US Mid-Atlantic Coast Wisman, J. September 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
The influence of stakeholder groups in operation and maintenance services of offshore wind farms: Lesson from Denmark Ahsan, D., Pederson, S. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Predicting the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances on marine populations Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Creation of microhabitats (tidepools) in ripraps with climax communities as a way to mitigate negative effects of artificial substrate on marine biodiversity Ostale-Valriberas, E., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Site Selection of Hybrid Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Systems in Greece Incorporating Environmental Impact Assessment Loukogeorgaki, E., Vagiona, D., Vasileiou, M. August 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Estimating Seabird Flight Height using LiDAR Cook, A., et al. August 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Benthic biodiversity on old platforms, young wind farms, and rocky reefs Coolen, J., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Measuring sensitivity of two OSPAR indicators for a coastal food web model under offshore wind farm construction Raoux, A., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
An Overview of Offshore Wind Energy Resources in Europe Under Present and Future Climate deCastro, M., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
The social dynamics of turbine tourism and recreation: Introducing a mixed-method approach to the study of the first U.S. offshore wind farm Smith, H., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Recreation
Environmental benefits of leaving offshore infrastructure in the ocean Fowler, A., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
Anthropogenic disturbance facilitates a non-native species on offshore oil platforms Viola, S., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Zooplankton Community Responses and the Relation to Environmental Factors from Established Offshore Wind Farms within the Rudong Coastal Area of China Wang, T., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
The influence of regulatory framework on environmental impact assessment in the development of offshore wind farms in Spain: Issues, challenges and solutions Salvador, S., Gimeno, L., Larruga, F. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Quantifying avian avoidance of offshore wind turbines: Current evidence and key knowledge gaps Aonghais, S., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
2018 State of the Sector Report: Marine Renewable Energy in Canada Marine Renewables Canada June 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Effect of pile-driving sounds on harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) hearing Kastelein, R., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Wind in the sails or choppy seas?: People-place relations, aesthetics and public support for the United States’ first offshore wind project Firestone, J., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Disturbance of harbour porpoises during construction of the first seven offshore wind farms in Germany Brandt, M., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
A portfolio model for siting offshore wind farms with economic and environmental objectives Cranmer, A., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Socio-economics
East Anglia THREE: Preliminary Environmental Information Report (PEIR) Royal Haskoning May 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The Development of Ocean Test Beds for Ocean Technology Adaptation and Integration into the Emerging U.S. Offshore Wind Energy Industry Kirincich, A., et al. May 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Marine Noise Budgets in Practice Faulkner, R., Merchant, N., Martinez, R. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
The impact of on-shore and off-shore wind turbine farms on property prices Jensen, C., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Site Selection for Offshore Wind Farms in the Southwest Coast of South Korea Kim, C., Jang, S., Kim, T. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Overcoming Biological Data Deficiencies in Environmental Permitting for Offshore Wind Energy Ryan, K. May 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Resolving environmental effects of wind energy Sinclair, K., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Risk of whale encounters with offshore renewable energy mooring lines and electrical cables Copping, A., Grear, M., Sanders, G. April 2018 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
The Life-Cycle Energy and Environmental Emissions of a Typical Offshore Wind Farm in China Yang, J., et al. April 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals Socio-economics, Climate Change
A Stochastic Collision Risk Model for Seabirds in Flight McGregor, R., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Changing the Game: New Renewable Energy Support Website Launched Jim Strittholt April 2018 Blog Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
ORJIP Bird Collision and Avoidance Study Skov, H., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Predicting the impacts of wind farms on seabirds: An individual-based model Warwick-Evans, V., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Hornsea Project Three Offshore Wind Farm RPS Group March 2018 Website Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement for Procurement of Offshore Wind New York State Department of Public Service, Ecology and Environment, Inc. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Appendix L-2 WEST Bird and Bat Annual Report 2018 Gordon, C., et al. February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
A strategic analysis of tidal current energy conversion systems in the European Union Segura, E., Morales, R., Somolinos, J. February 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Appendix E-2 LimnoTech Report - Results of 2017 Aquatic Sampling LimnoTech February 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
The effects of temporary exclusion of activity due to wind farm construction on a lobster (Homarus gammarus) fishery suggests a potential management approach Roach, M., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics
Challenges and opportunities for governance in marine spatial planning Greenhill, L. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Marine spatial planning Ehler, C. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Co-locating offshore wind farms and marine protected areas Ashley, M., et al. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Compatibility of offshore energy installations with marine protected areas Thurstan, R., Yates, K., O'Leary, B. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Capturing benefits Hooper, T., Ashley, M., Austen, M. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Displacement of existing activities Kafas, A., Donohue, P., Davies, I. February 2018 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement

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