Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 885
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Harbor Porpoises and Offshore Wind Energy, a WREN Short Science Summary N/A May 2017 Report Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Year-Round Spatiotemporal Distribution of Harbour Porpoises Within and Around the Maryland Wind Energy Area N/A May 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Changes in Fish Communities on a Small Spatial Scale, an Effect of Increased Habitat Complexity by an Offshore Wind Farm van Hal, R., Griffioen, A., van Keeken, O. May 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
A Well-Being Framework for Impact Evaluation: The Case of the UK Offshore Wind Industry Hattam, C., Hooper, T., Papathanasopoulou, E. April 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Recreational Use of Offshore Wind Farms: Experiences and Opinions of Sea Anglers in the UK Hooper, T., Hattam, C., Austen, M. April 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Fishing
The Implications of Energy Systems for Ecosystem Services: A Detailed Case Study of Offshore Wind Hooper, T., Beaumont, N., Hattam, C. April 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Maritime Route Delineation using AIS Data from the Atlantic Coast of the US Breithaupt, S., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Navigation
Sustainable Decommissioning of an Offshore Wind Farm Topham, E., McMillan, D. March 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
An Assessment of the Economic Potential of Offshore Wind in the United States from 2015 to 2030 Beiter, P., et al. March 2017 Report Offshore Wind Socio-economics
A Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects (FAECE) of Offshore Wind Farms on Birds, Bats and Marine Mammals in the Southern North Sea Platteeuw, M., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Bats, Birds, Marine Mammals
Unforeseen Responses of a Breeding Seabird to the Construction of an Offshore Wind Farm Harwood, A., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Static Device Seabirds
Is There a State-of-the-Art to Reduce Pile-Driving Noise? Bellmann, M., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Noise
Benthic and Fish Aggregation Inside an Offshore Wind Farm: Which Effects on the Trophic Web Functioning? Raoux, A., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Socio-Economic Impact of Outer Continental Shelf Wind Energy Development on Fisheries in the US Atlantic: Volume I - Report Narrative Kirkpatrick, A., et al. January 2017 Report Offshore Wind Fishing
Socio-Economic Impact of Outer Continental Shelf Wind Energy Development on Fisheries in the US Atlantic: Volume II - Appendices Kirkpatrick, A., et al. January 2017 Report Offshore Wind Fishing
Lack of Sound Science in Assessing Wind Farm Impacts on Seabirds N/A December 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Seabirds
Effects of Pile Driving on the Residency and Movement of Tagged Reef Fish Iafrate, J., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Use of Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV) and Motion Analysis for Studying the Impacts of Underwater Noise upon Free Ranging Fish and Implications for Marine Energy Management Roberts, L., Perez-Dominguez, R., Elliott, M. November 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Achieving Blue Growth through Maritime Spatial Planning: Offshore Wind Energy Optimization and Biodiversity Conservation in Spain Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D., et al. November 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Legal and Policy
Collision and Displacement Vulnerability Among Marine Birds of the California Current System Associated with Offshore Wind Energy Infrastructure Adams, J, et al. October 2016 Report Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Seabirds
Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm (OWF) on the Common Shore Crab Carcinus maenas: Tagging Pilot Experiments in the Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm (Sweden) Langhamer, O., Holand, H., Rosenqvist, G. October 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates
Northeast Ocean Plan Northeast Regional Planning Body October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Recent Developments in Ocean Energy and Offshore Wind: Financial Challenges and Environmental Misconceptions Esteban, M., Gasparatos, A., Doll, C. September 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Life Cycle Assessment
Hybrid Wave and Offshore Wind Farms: A Comparative Case Study of Co-located Layouts N/A September 2016 Journal Article Wave, Offshore Wind
Assessing The Benefit Of Noise Reduction Measures During Offshore Wind Farm Construction On Harbour Porpoises Verfuss, U., et al. September 2016 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farms on North Sea Stratification Carpenter, J., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The Turbulent Wake of a Monopile Foundation Rogan, C., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Energy Removal
A Synchronized Sensor Array for Remote Monitoring of Avian and Bat Interactions with Offshore Renewable Energy Facilities Suryan, R., Albertani, R., Polagye, B. July 2016 Report Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Offshore Wind Turbines: An Overview of the Effects on the Marine Environment Riefolo, L., et al. July 2016 Conference Paper Offshore Wind
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbour Porpoise Abundance in the German Bight: Assessment of Noise Effects Brandt, M., et al. June 2016 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Unstructured Grid Modelling of Offshore Wind Farm Impacts on Seasonally Stratified Shelf Seas Cazenave, P., Torres, R., Allen, J. June 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Avoidance of Wind Farms by Harbour Seals is Limited to Pile Driving Activities Russell, D., et al. May 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Role of Benthic Habitat Distribution Data in Coastal Water Wind Turbine Site Selection Sahla, M., Kalliola, R., Haldin, M. May 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates
Modelling impacts of offshore wind farms on trophic web: the Courseulles-sur-Mer case study Raoux, A., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Offshore Wind Ecosystem
An Indicator to Objectively Quantify the Visual Impact of an Offshore Wind Farm Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A. April 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Aesthetics
Renewable Energy in situ Power Cable Observation Love, M., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
What Drives Attitudes towards Marine Renewable Energy Development in Island Communities in the UK? de Groot, J., Bailey, I. April 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Stakeholder Engagement
Environmental Interview: Effects of Wind Power on Marine Life Kautsky, L. March 2016 Video Offshore Wind Fish, Marine Mammals
Expected Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Mediterranean Marine Life Bray, L., et al. March 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem
The Adhesion of Corrosion Protection Coating Systems for Offshore Wind Power Constructions after Three Years under Offshore Exposure Momber, A., Plagemann, P., Stenzel, V. March 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Chemicals
Marine Renewable Energy Seascape Borthwick, A. March 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Climate Change, Legal and Policy
Atlantic Coast Port Access Route Study (ACPARS) ACPARS Working Group February 2016 Report Offshore Wind Navigation
The expected efficiency and coastal impact of a hybrid energy farm operating in the Portuguese nearshore Onea, F., Rusu, E. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Nearfield Habitat
Public Opinion and the Environmental, Economic and Aesthetic Impacts of Offshore Wind Bush, D., Hoagland, P. February 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Aesthetics, Stakeholder Engagement
Underwater Noise Modelling for Environmental Impact Assessment Farcas, A., Thompson, P., Merchant, N. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Environmental Impacts of Balancing Offshore Wind Power with Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Bouman, E., Øberg, M., Hertwich, E. January 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Life Cycle Assessment
Multiple-Pulse Sounds and Seals: Results of a Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Telemetry Study During Wind Farm Construction Hastie, G., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Offshore Wind Farm Site Selection Study around Jeju Island, South Korea Kim, T., Park, J., Maeng, J. January 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Determining the Infrastructure Needs to Support Offshore Floating Wind and Marine Hydrokinetic Facilities on the Pacific West Coast and Hawaii Porter, A., Phillips, S. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on the Early Life Stages of Dicentrarchus labrax Debusschere, E., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Approaching Population Thresholds in Presence of Uncertainty: Assessing Displacement of Seabirds from Offshore Wind Farms Busch, M., Garthe, S. January 2016 Journal Article Offshore Wind Seabirds
Challenge of Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring in High-Energy Environments: UK Tidal Environments and Other Case Studies Booth, C. January 2016 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind
Review of Offshore Wind Farm Impact Monitoring and Mitigation with Regard to Marine Mammals Verfuss, U., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
A Methodology for Multi-Criteria Design of Multi-Use Offshore Platforms for Marine Renewable Energy Harvesting Zanuttigh, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Valuation of Ecological and Amenity Impacts of an Offshore Windfarm as a Factor in Marine Planning Börger, T., Hooper, T., Austen, M. December 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Socio-economics
Three Dimensional Tracking of a Wide-Ranging Marine Predator: Flight Heights and Vulnerability to Offshore Wind Farms Cleasby, I., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Seabirds
Energy Systems and their Impacts on Marine Ecosystem Services Papathanasopoulou, E., et al. December 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Likelihood of a Marine Vessel Accident from Wind Energy Development in the Atlantic Copping, A., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Navigation
Challenges in Implementing Sustainable Marine Spatial Planning: The New Portuguese Legal Framework Case Santos, C., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Legal and Policy
Influence of Concrete Mix Design on CO2 Emissions for Large Wind Turbine Foundations Berndt, M. November 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Climate Change
Evaluation and Comparison of the Levelized Cost of Tidal, Wave, and Offshore Wind Energy Astariz, S., Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. October 2015 Journal Article Wave, Tidal, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Benthic Monitoring and Sampling Design and Effort to Detect Spatial Changes: A Case Study using Data from Offshore Wind Farm Sites Franco, A., Quintino, V., Elliott, M. October 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Strategic Planning to Reduce Conflicts for Offshore Wind Development in Taiwan: A Social Marketing Perspective Chen, J., Liu, H., Chuang, C. October 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Monitoring Bat Activity at the Dutch EEZ in 2014 Lagerveld, S., Poerink, B., de Vries, P. September 2015 Report Offshore Wind Bats
Hybrid Wave and Offshore Wind Farms: a Comparative Case Study of Co-located Layouts [Conference Paper] Astariz, S., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave, Offshore Wind
Combining Offshore Wind and Wave Energy Extraction: An Environmental Perspective Rumes, B., et al. September 2015 Conference Paper Wave, Offshore Wind
Continuation Implementation Masterplan Wind at Sea Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid), Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (Rijkwaterstaat) September 2015 Report Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Seabird Avoidance and Attraction at an Offshore Wind Farm in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Seabirds
Developing an Avian Collision Risk Model to Incorporate Variability and Uncertainty Masden, E. September 2015 Report Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Towards a Cumulative Collision Risk Assessment of Local and Migrating Birds in North Sea Offshore Wind Farms Brabant, R., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Passerines, Seabirds
Symbiotic Offshore Energy Harvesting and Storage Systems Slocum, A. September 2015 Journal Article Wave, Offshore Wind Birds
Combining Wave Energy with Wind and Solar: Short-Term Forecasting Reikard, G., Robertson, B., Bidlot, J. September 2015 Journal Article Wave, Offshore Wind
Comparison of Manual and Semi-Automatic Underwater Imagery Analyses for Monitoring of Benthic Hard-Bottom Organisms at Offshore Renewable Energy Installations Saskov, A., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
NYSERDA Environmental Research Program Plan Research Area 4: Marine Wind and Wildlife New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) September 2015 Report Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Toward Wind Farm Monitoring Optimization: Assessment of Ecological Zones from Marine Landscapes using Machine Learning Algorithms Grilli, A., Shumchenia, E. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Equivocal Effects of Offshore Wind Farms in Belgium on Soft Substrate Epibenthos and Fish Assemblages Vandendriessche, S., Derweduwen, J., Hostens, K. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Offshore Wind Park Monitoring Programmes, Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the Future Lindeboom, H., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Rapid Macrobenthic Recovery after Dredging Activities in an Offshore Wind Farm in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates
Effect of exposure duration to pile driving sounds on temporary hearing threshold shift in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Kastelein, R., et al. September 2015 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Towards a Numerical Model to Simulate the Observed Displacement of Harbour Porpoises Phocoena phocoena Due to Pile Driving in Belgian Waters Haelters, J., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Assessment of Entanglement Risk to Marine Megafauna due to Offshore Renewable Energy Mooring Systems Harnois, V., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Succession and Seasonal Dynamics of the Epifauna Community on Offshore Wind Farm Foundations and their Role as Stepping Stones for Non-Indigenous Species Mesel, I., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates
Assessing Seabird Displacement at Offshore Wind Farms: Power Ranges of a Monitoring and Data Handling Protocol Vanermen, N., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Seabirds
An Analytical Model for the Underwater Sound Pressure Waveforms Radiated when an Offshore Pile is Driven Hall, M. August 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise
Impulsive Sounds Change European Seabass Swimming Patterns: Influence of Pulse Repetition Interval Neo, Y., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Foundation Damping and the Dynamics of Offshore Wind Turbine Monopiles Carswell, W., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Attitudes and Perceptions of Fishermen on the Island of Ireland Towards the Development of Marine Renewable Energy Projects Reilly, K., O'Hagan, A., Dalton, G. August 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Leading Edge Erosion of Coated Wind Turbine Blades: Review of Coating Life Models Slot, H., et al. August 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Chemicals
Integrated Environmental Mapping and Monitoring, a Methodological Approach to Optimise Knowledge Gathering and Sampling Strategy Nilssen, I., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms - Part A: Methods Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid) July 2015 Report Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Framework for Assessing Ecological and Cumulative Effects of Offshore Wind Farms - Part B: Description and Assessment of the Cumulative Effects of Implementing the Roadmap for Offshore Wind Power Ministry of Economic Affairs (Rijksoverheid) July 2015 Report Offshore Wind Farfield Environment
Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for narrow-band sweeps (0.125-150 kHz) Kastelein, R., et al. July 2015 Report Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Bird Movements at Rotor Heights Measured Continuously with Vertical Radar at a Dutch Offshore Wind Farm Fijn, R., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Passerines, Seabirds
Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development? Arnould, J., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
Temporal Variation in Environmental Conditions and the Structure of Fish Assemblages around an Offshore Oil Platform in the North Sea Fujii, T. July 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
A Computational Method to Predict and Study Underwater Noise due to Pile Driving Schecklman, S., et al. July 2015 Journal Article Offshore Wind Noise
Identifying Information Needs and Approaches for Assessing Potential Impacts of Offshore Wind Farm Development on Fisheries Resources in the Northeast Region Petruny-Parker, M., et al. July 2015 Report Offshore Wind Socio-economics
MR1 & MR2 Current State of Knowledge of the Effects of Offshore Renewable Energy Generation Devices on Marine Mammals and Research Requirements: Update, September 2014 Thompson, D., et al. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
MR6.1 Review of Methodology and Main Results of the JCP Analysis of Cetacean Densities in the Context of Marine Renewable Development Lonergan, M., Hammond, P. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Sustainable Seas Ko ngā moana whakauka: National Science Challenge Hall, J., et al. July 2015 Presentation Marine Energy general, Offshore Wind

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