Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1228
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Implications for Offshore Wind Farm Ornithological Cumulative Impact Assessment: How the Manipulation of Density and Breeding Season Parameters Affects the Outcomes of Collision Risk Modelling Tongue, A. September 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Biodiversity Offsets for Offshore Wind Farm Projects: The Current Situation in Europe Vaissière, A., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Community Benefits, Framing and the Social Acceptance of Offshore Wind Farms: An Experimental Study in England Walker, B., Wiersma, B., Bailey, E. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore Wind Turbines and Commercial Vessel Traffic in the Atlantic Ocean Molly Grear August 2014 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Predicting the Large-Scale Consequences of Offshore Wind Turbine Array Development on a North Sea Ecosystem van der Molen, J., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem
Seals and Windfarms in the North Sea Molly Grear August 2014 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Recent Developments of Ocean Environmental Description with Focus on Uncertainties Bitner-Gregersen, E., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Applicability of the "Frame of Reference" Approach for Environmental Monitoring of Offshore Renewable Energy Projects Garel, E., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Issuance of Incidental Harassment Authorizations to Deepwater Wind for the Take of Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction of the Block Island Wind Farm and Block Island Transmission System National Marine Fisheries Service August 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Computationally Efficient Modelling of Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction of Offshore Wind Turbines on Gravity Footings Damgaard, M., Andersen, L., Ibsen, L. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Report on Environmental Impact Assessment and Mitigation Strategies TROPOS July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Lighting, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Marine Mammals Trace Anthropogenic Structures at Sea Russell, D., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Avoidance Behaviour of Birds around Offshore Wind Farms: Overview of Knowledge Including Effects of Configuration Krijgsveld, K. July 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Numerical Study for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation in Donghai Offshore Wind Farm, Shanghai, China Chang, K., Jeng, D. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal
Impact Hypothesis for Offshore Wind Farms: Explanatory Models for Species Distribution at Extremely Exposed Rocky Areas Schläppy, M., Saskov, A., Dahlgren, T. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
A Comparison of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches to Benthic Habitat Mapping to Inform Offshore Wind Energy Development LaFrance, M., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Repeated Mapping of Reefs Constructed by Sabellaria spinulosa Leuckart 1849 at an Offshore Wind Farm Site Pearce, B., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Offshore Wind Farm UK Planning Inspectorate July 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Do man-made structures and water depth affect the diel rhythms in click recordings of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)? Brandt, M., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Marine Mammals
A Sustainability Index of Potential Co-Location of Offshore Wind Farms and Open Water Aquaculture Benassai, G., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
Similar Diversity-Disturbance Responses to Different Physical Impacts: Three Cases of Small-Scale Biodiversity Increase in the Belgian Part of the North Sea De Backer, A., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Geological and Geotechnical Characterisation for Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations: A Case Study of the Sheringham Shoal Wind Farm Le, T., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment Boezaart, A., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Bats, Birds, Socio-economics
US Department of Energy Announces Funding for Three Pioneering Offshore Wind Projects Alicia Gorton June 2014 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Marine Spatial Planning - Current Status 2014: National Planning in Sweden's Territorial Waters and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (SwAM) June 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Assessing Ecological Risks of Offshore Wind Power on Kattegat Cod Hammar, L., Wikström, A., Molander, S. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish
GHG emissions and energy performance of offshore wind power Raadal, H., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Effects of Man-Made Structures on Sedimentary Oxygenation: Extent, Seasonality and Implications for Offshore Renewables Wilding, T. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Assessing Northern Gannet Avoidance of Offshore Windfarms Rehfisch, M., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
The Key Technologies and Development of Offshore Wind Farm in China Wu, J., Wang, Z., Wang, G. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Offshore Activity of Bats Along the Mid-Atlantic Coast Sjollema, A., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats
Physical and Numerical Large-Scale Wave Basin Modeling of Fluid-Structure Interaction and Wave Impact Phenomena Yim, S., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
D4.17 Report on environmental monitoring protocols Magagna, D., et al. May 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Use of Population Viability Analysis (PVA) to Assess the Potential for Long Term Impacts from Piling Noise on Marine Mammal Populations - A Case Study from the Scottish East Coast De Silva, R., et al. May 2014 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Coordination and Cooperation in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the US National Ocean Policy Maier, N. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Population Consequences of Displacement from Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Developments for Seabirds Breeding at Scottish SPAs Searle, K., et al. May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Responses of Free-Living Coastal Pelagic Fish to Impulsive Sounds Hawkins, A., Roberts, L., Cheesman, S. May 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Identifying Space for Offshore Wind Energy in the North Sea. Consequences of Scenario Calculations for Interactions with Other Marine Uses Jongbloed, R., van der Wal, J., Lindeboom, H. May 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
California Current Cetacean & Ecosystem Assessment Survey (CalCurCEAS): Final Report to Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regarding Surveys of Windfloat and Wave Energy Areas Barlow, J., Henry, A., Ballance, L. April 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Report of the Workshop on International Harmonisation of Approaches to Define Underwater Noise Exposure Criteria Lucke, K., et al. April 2014 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Design and Initial Component Tests of an Integrated Avian and Bat Collision Detection System for Offshore Wind Turbines Flowers, J., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Walney Extension Offshore Wind Farm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Field Testing of Multiple Sensors in an Underwater Environment Monitoring System Chan, H., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Environmental aspects of designing multi-purpose offshore platforms in the scope of the FP7 TROPOS Project Lu, S., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Turbid Wakes Associated with Offshore Wind Turbines Observed with Landsat 8 Vanhellemont, Q., Ruddick, K. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Enrichment and Shifts in Macrobenthic Assemblages in an Offshore Wind Farm Area in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
On a Hybrid Model for the Prediction of Pile Driving Noise from Offshore Wind Farms Lippert, T., von Estorff, O. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Navitus Bay Wind Park Environmental Statement: Non-Technical Summary Navitus Bay Development April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Large Eddy Simulation Studies of the Effects of Alignment and Wind Farm Length Stevens, R., Gayme, D., Meneveau, C. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal
Review of Environmental Data Associated with Post-Consent Monitoring of Licence Conditions of Offshore Wind Farms Marine Management Organisation April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Navitus Bay Wind Park Technical Appendix 2.1 - EMF Calculations Report Dorey, P. April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
Establishing an Agenda for Social Studies Research in Marine Renewable Energy Kerr, S., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Experimental Study on Influence of Pitch Motion on the Wake of a Floating Wind Turbine Model Rockel, S., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Wildlife - A Generalized Impact Assessment Bergström, L., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Soaring Migratory Birds Avoid Wind Farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Southern Mexico Villegas-Patraca, R., Cabrera-Cruz, S., Herrera-Alsina, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Prioritisation of monitoring and research for diadromous fish in the context of Marine/Offshore Renewables: A summary of stakeholder engagement meetings between Marine Scotland, wild fisheries interests and wind, wave and tidal developers Hunter, D., Malcolm, I., Armstrong, J. March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Socio-economics, Fishing, Stakeholder Engagement
Habitat Use and Selection of Black Scoters in Southern New England and Siting of Offshore Wind Energy Facilities Loring, P., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 22: Socio-Economics Beeden, D. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The State of Rhode Island's Pioneering Marine Spatial Plan Olsen, S., McCann, J., Fugate, G. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 13: Fish and Shellfish Ecology Brown & May Marine March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Measuring the Interaction Between Marine Features of Special Protection Areas with Offshore Wind Farm Development Sites Through Telemetry: Final Report Thaxter, C., et al. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Study and Application of Underwater Noise Impact in Coastal Region off Western Taiwan Cheng, Y., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 11: Marine and Coastal Ornithology Thornton, P. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 10: Marine Water and Sediment Quality Page, C. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Mapping Fisheries for Marine Spatial Planning: Gear-Specific Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), Marine Conservation and Offshore Renewable Energy Campbell, M., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Marine Spatial Planning, Navigation
Encouraging Renewable Energy in the Offshore Environment Appiott, J., Dhanju, A., Cicin-Sain, B. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 29: Noise and Vibration Wigham, S. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Marine Energy Research Innovation and Knowledge Accelorator (MERIKA) March 2014 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm (Zone 4) - Project One UK Planning Inspectorate March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 14: Marine Mammals Mackey, B., Keenan, G. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 12: Marine and Intertidal Ecology Lewis, J. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Taming Hurricanes with Arrays of Offshore Wind Turbines Jacobson, M., Archer, C., Kempton, W. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The Potential of Offshore Wind Farms to Act as Marine Protected Areas Ashley, M., Mangi, S., Rodwell, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
The potential of offshore windfarms to act as marine protected areas – A systematic review of current evidence Ashley, M., Mangi, S., Rodwell, L. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Evaluating Offshore Wind Energy Feasibility off the California Central Coast Feinberg, L., et al. March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Dogger Bank Creyke Beck Environmental Statement - Chapter 15: Commercial Fisheries Brown & May Marine March 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Quieting Technologies for Reducing Noise During Seismic Surveying and Pile Driving Workshop CSA Ocean Sciences March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Assessing the Impact of Underwater Sounds on Fishes and Other Forms of Marine Life Hawkins, A., Popper, A. March 2014 Magazine Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Effective Mitigation of Underwater Piling Noise Karl-Heinz, E. February 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
D4.06 Data Reports and Databases: Data on Coastal and Offshore Wind Measurements Courtney, M., et al. February 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Report on the Implications for European Sites Proposed Burbo Bank Extension Offshore Wind Farm The Planning Inspectorate for England and Wales February 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Assessing the Impact of Windfarms in Subtidal, Exposed Marine Areas Dahlgren, T., et al. February 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Marine Renewable Energy and Environmental Interactions: Baseline Assessments of Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles and Benthic Communities on the Oregon Shelf Henkel, S., Suryan, R., Lagerquist, B. February 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Large-Eddy Simulation of Offshore Wind Farm Yang, D., Meneveau, C., Shen, L. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal
The Cumulative Effect on Sound Levels from Multiple Underwater Anthropogenic Sound Sources in Shallow Coastal Waters Pine, M., Jeffs, A., Radford, C. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Modelling Flight Heights of Marine Birds to More Accurately Assess Collision Risk with Offshore Wind Turbines Johnston, A., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Airborne Sound Propagation Over Sea During Offshore Wind Farm Piling Van Renterghem, T., Botteldooren, D., Dekoninck, L. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Effects of Noise and By-Catch on a Danish Harbour Porpoise Population Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Marine Renewable Energy and the Environment: Progress and Challenges Polagye, B. January 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Quantifying the Impact of Offshore Wind Farms on Gannet Populations: A Strategic Ringing Project Furness, R., Wanless, S. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Long Term Estimations of Low Frequency Noise Levels over Water from an Off-Shore Wind Farm Bolin, K., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
The Ecology of Benthopelagic Fishes at Offshore Wind Farms: A Synthesis of 4 Years of Research Reubens, J., Degraer, S., Vincx, M. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem, Fish
Of birds, blades and barriers: Detecting and analysing mass migration events at alpha ventus Hill, R., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Marine habitat modelling for harbour porpoises in the German Bight Skov, H., et al. January 2014 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
Bat Activity in Dutch offshore wind farms in autumn 2012 Lagerveld, S., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats
Offshore Energy Structures Karimirad, M. January 2014 Book Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Strategic Sectoral Planning for Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland Davies, I., Pratt, D. January 2014 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Prediction of Structure Borne Noise Radiation and Propagation from Offshore Impact Pile Driving Huikwan, K. January 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Ecological Research at the Offshore Windfarm Alpha Ventus: Challenges, Results and Perspectives Beiersdorf, A., Radecke, A. January 2014 Book Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
A Spatial Conservation Prioritization Approach for Protecting Marine Birds Given Proposed Offshore Wind Energy Development Winiarski, K., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds

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