Offshore Wind

Harnessing wind energy in offshore environments.

Similar to land-based wind technologies, offshore wind uses turbines to generate energy which is delivered to the shore via an export cable. A main advantage of offshore wind is the stronger and more consistent winds that blow offshore, allowing the use of larger turbine blades. The development of offshore wind in Europe and Asia has preceded development activities in other parts of the world. However, several projects in the United States are currently underway. While the most common offshore wind energy technology is a three-bladed horizontal axis turbine, there are a variety of foundation types which can support the deployment of devices in a range of aquatic environments – shallow nearshore habitats to deeper offshore environments.

 

Monopile Foundation

 

Monopile foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a pile being driven to varying depths into the seabed (10-40 m) depending on the soil conditions. The pile-driving construction process is an environmental concern as the noise produced is incredibly loud and propagates far in the water, even after mitigation strategies such as bubble shields, slow start, and acoustic cladding are employed. As with land-based wind energy, collision risk with birds and bats is a major concern, though the impact is more difficult to quantify because carcasses that provide evidence of collisions become lost at sea. While the footprint of offshore wind energy is relatively small, it may still cause scouring. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Artificial reefing is likely to occur around wind farms as the new hard substrate provides protection and attracts colonizing invertebrates.

Tripod Fixed Bottom

 

Tripod fixed bottom foundations are used at transitional depth (20-80 m) and consist of three legs connecting to a central shaft that supports the turbine base. Each leg has a pile driven into the seabed creating a wide foundation that allows for the piles to be placed at a shallower depth in the seabed. The environmental effects are very similar to monopiles, except that the footprint is a little larger.

Gravity Foundation

 

Gravity foundations are used at shallow depths (0-30 m) and consist of a large and heavy base constructed of steel or concrete to rest on the seabed. The footprint is relatively large and may cause scouring, artificial reefing, or physical destruction of habitats upon introduction. Otherwise, the environmental effects are similar to monopiles.

Gravity Tripod

 

Gravity tripod foundations are used at transitional depths (10-40 m) and consist of two heavy concrete structures connected by three legs where one structure sits on the seabed while the other sits above the water. Very few offshore windfarms are currently using this foundation. The environmental concerns are identical to those of gravity foundations, though the scouring effect may be less significant depending on the design.

Floating Structure

 

Floating structure foundations are used at deep depths (40-900 m) and consist of a balanced floating structure moored to the seabed with fixed cables. The floating structure may be stabilized using buoyancy, mooring lines, or a ballast. The mooring lines may cause minor scouring or pose a risk of collision, but the turbine foundation is mostly located in the upper layer of the water column where there tend to be less organisms.

Total Results: 1266
Title Author Datesort ascending Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
The Local Fish Community, Indifferent to the Wind Farm? van Hal, R., Griffioen, B. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Cod and Sole Behaviour in an Offshore Wind Farm Winter, E., Aarts, G., van Keeken, O. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Fish
Porpoises and Offshore Windfarms - Conflict, Co-Existence or Refuge Scheidat, M. October 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals
The Effects of Wind Power on Marine Life - A Synthesis Bergström, L., et al. October 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessing the Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Wind Power: A Review of Present Knowledge and Research Needs Arvesen, A., Hertwich, E. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
The Development of Benthic Communities on Hard Substrates within OWEZ, the First Dutch Offshore Wind Farm Noordzee Wind September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Farms and their Impact on Fish Abundance and Community Structure Stenberg, C., et al. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Fish
Small Scale Distribution of Fish in Offshore Wind Farms Hansen, K., Stenberg, C., Møller, P. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Turbine Height as a Management Tool for Collision Risk to Birds at Offshore Wind Farms Davies, I., Band, B. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
The Added Value of 'Small-Scale' Monitoring of the Soft-Sediment Endobenthos around Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., Vanaverbeke, M., Magda, V. September 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
The Turning Point for Atlantic Offshore Wind Energy: Time for Action to Create Jobs, Reduce Pollution, Protect Wildlife, and Secure America's Energy Future Bowes, C., Allegro, J. September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Development of Offshore Renewable Energy in Scotland's Seas: Research Implementation Strategy Scottish Government September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Developing Environmental Protocols and Modeling Tools to Support Ocean Renewable Energy and Stewardship McCann, J. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Maine Deepwater Offshore Wind Report University of Maine, Rockefeller Brothers Fund September 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Socio-economics
Identification of Outer Continental Shelf Renewable Energy Space-Use Conflicts and Analysis of Potential Mitigation Measures Conway, F., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Environmental Impacts Due to Fixed and Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Brewer, M. September 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Offshore Wind Capital Cost Estimation in the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf - A Reference Class Approach Kaiser, M., Snyder, B. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
MERiFIC 3.2.1: Documentary Summary of the Environmental Impact of Renewable Marine Energy Sotta, C. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Is Offshore Wind Development a Threat to the North Atlantic Right Whale? Luke Hanna August 2012 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Radar Monitoring of Migrating Pink-Footed Geese: Behavioural Responses to Offshore Wind Farm Development Plonczkier, P., Simms, I. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Request for advice on the populations of cetaceans that might be involved in significant interactions with marine renewable energy developments in Scottish marine waters Northridge, S. August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Aerial Survey of Seabirds: The Advent of Digital Methods Buckland, S., et al. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
A methodological update of the Framework for the Appropriate Assessment of the ecological effects of Offshore Windfarms at the Dutch Continental Shelf Boon, A., et al. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Population Sizes of Seabirds Breeding in Scottish SPAs Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Population Sizes of Seabirds breeding in Scottish Special Protection Areas Lewis, M., et al. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Population Trends of Breeding Seabird Colonies in Scottish SPAs Malcolm, F., Lye, G., Lewis, M. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Appendix K Tetra Tech Bird Survey Report: Spring - Fall 2010 Avian and Bat Studies Report Lake Erie Wind Power Study Svedlow, A., Gilpatrick, L., McIlvain, D. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats, Birds
Prevention of the ecological effects of offshore windfarms in licensing and spatial planning - an overview Boon, A. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Development of a New Underwater Piling Noise Mitigation System - Using Hydro Sound Dampers (HSD) Kuhn, C., et al. July 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Short- and Long-Term Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm on Three Species of Sandeel and their Sand Habitat van Deurs, M., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Using a Shore Bird (Red Knot) Fitted with Geolocators to Evaluate a Conceptual Risk Model Focusing on Offshore Wind Burger, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Study on the Marine Growth Effect on the Dynamic Response of Offshore Wind Turbines Shi, W., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Recovery of Barotrauma Injuries in Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from Exposure to Pile Driving Sound Casper, B., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Threshold for Onset of Injury in Chinook Salmon from Exposure to Impulsive Pile Driving Sounds Halvorsen, M., et al. June 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Assessment of the Potential for Conflict between Existing Ocean Space Use and Renewable Energy Development off the Coast of Oregon Sullivan, C. June 2012 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Cumulative Effects of Wind Farms in the Dutch North Sea on Bird Populations Poot, M., et al. June 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Seabirds & Offshore Wind Farms Monitoring Results 2011 Vanermen, N., et al. June 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Fish and Benthos at Alpha Ventus Reichert, K., et al. May 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Guidelines for Data Acquisition to Support Marine Environmental Assessments of Offshore Renewable Energy Projects Judd, A. May 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Assessing the Impact of Marine Wind Farms on Birds through Movement Modelling Masden, E., et al. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Development of a Cost Minimizing Strategy to Mitigate Bird Mortalities in a Wind Farm Singh, K. May 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Offshore Wind Power Reef Effects and Reef Fauna Roles Krone, R. May 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Ecosystem
Analysis of Environmental Characteristics and Operational Reports of Small and Medium Turbines Florescu, A., Bandoc, G., Degeratu, M. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Socio-economics
Delivering Offshore Electricity to the EU: Spatial Planning of Offshore Renewable Energies and Electricity Grid Infrastructures in an Integrated EU Maritime Policy Seanergy May 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
A Review of Flight Heights and Avoidance Rates of Birds in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Cook, A., et al. May 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
The Current State of Offshore Wind Energy Technology Development Sun, X., Huang, D., Wu, G. May 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Coastal Wave Parks Should Not Interfere with Gray Whale Migrations Andrea Copping April 2012 Blog Article Offshore Wind
Likely Effects of Construction of Scroby Sands Offshore Wind Farm on a Mixed Population of Harbour Phoca vitulina and Grey Halichoerus grypus Seals Skeate, E., Perrow, M., Gilroy, J. April 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Marine bird colony and at-sea distributions along the Oregon coast: Implications for marine spatial planning and information gap analysis Suryan, R., et al. April 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
A Biogeographic Assessment of Seabirds, Deep Sea Corals and Ocean Habitats of the New York Bight: Science to Support Offshore Spatial Planning Menza, C., et al. April 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds
Marine Bird Distribution Along the Oregon Coast Suryan, R., et al. April 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds
Ecosystem service tradeoff analysis reveals the value of marine spatial planning for multiple ocean uses White, C., Halpern, B., Kappel, C. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Found in the Wind: The Value of Early Consultation and Collaboration with Other Ocean Users for Successful Offshore Wind Development Frulla, D., Hagerman, G., Hallowell, M. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Building a stakeholder's vision of an offshore wind-farm project: A group modeling approach Château, P., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Common Sole Larvae Survive High Levels of Pile-Driving Sound in Controlled Exposure Experiments Bolle, L., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Tiree Onshore Scenario Mapping Ironside Farrar March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Ireland Offshore Renewable Energy Strategic Action Plan 2012 - 2020 UK Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Using a Collision Risk Model to Assess Bird Collision Risks for Offshore Wind Farms Band, B. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Offshore Renewables - Guidance on Assessing the Impact on Coastal Landscape and Seascape: Guidance for Scoping an Environmental Statement Scottish Natural Heritage March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Strategic Impact Assessment of Offshore Windpower in Norway - Impacts on Seabirds Lorensten, S., et al. March 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 2: Feasibility Study of Systems to Monitor Collisions Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Do Windmill Parks Function as a Refugium? Derweduwen, J., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
Symposium Sound Solutions Report The North Sea Foundation February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Benthic Communities on Hard Substrates of the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) Bouma, S., Lengkeek, W. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates
Vulnerability of Scottish Seabirds to Offshore Wind Turbines Furness, B., Wade, H. February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Scotland's Renewables Routemap Short Life Task Force On Streamlining Energy Development Licensing and Consents The Scottish Government February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Doppler Lidar-Based Wind-Profile Measurement System for Offshore Wind Energy and Other Marine Boundary Layer Applications Pichugina, Y., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
The Development and Use of a Method to Fill Time Gaps in Migration Counts Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Thomas, L., Arroyo, G. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
On the Effect of Structure-Induced Resistance and Mixing on Inflows into the Baltic Sea: A Numerical Model Study Rennau, H., Schimmels, S., Burchard, H. February 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Habitat Preferences of Harbour Seals in the Dutch Coastal Area: Analysis and Estimate of Effects of Offshore Wind Farms Brasseur, S., et al. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
The Lessons Learned from the Development of the Wind Energy Industry that Might be Applied to Marine Industry Renewables Garrad, A. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Noise Mitigation Measures and Low-noise Foundation Concepts - State of the Art Verfuß, T. January 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Towards an Environmentally Sound Offshore Wind Energy Deployment Verfuß, U. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Upper Ocean Response to Large Wind Farm Effect in the Presence of Surface Gravity Waves Paskyabi, M., Fer, I. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
A Probabilistic Approach to Introduce Risk Measurement Indicators to an Offshore Wind Project Evaluation - Improvement to an Existing Tool ECUME Douard, F., Domecq, C., Lair, W. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
The European Offshore Wind Industry Key 2011 Trends and Statistics European Wind Energy Association January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Monitoring and Research Shortlist Offshore Wind - Knowledge advancements and follow up Boon, A. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Flight Call Rates of Migrating Thrushes: Effects of Wind Conditions, Humidity and Time of Day at an Illuminated Offshore Platform Hüppop, O., Hilgerloh, G. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines
Interactions with Offshore Wind Energy: Birds and Bats Island Institute January 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Static Device Bats, Birds, Seabirds
What is the Source Level of Pile-Driving Noise in Water? Ainslie, M., et al. January 2012 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Monitoring and Evaluation of Spatially Managed Areas (MESMA) January 2012 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Multipurpose Marine Cadastre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management January 2012 Website Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Wind Turbines and Coastal Recreation Demand Landry, C., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Socio-economics, Recreation
Effects of Offshore Pile Driving on Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Brandt, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea: Heading for an Understanding of Environmental Impacts Degraer, S., Brabant, R., Rumes, B. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Socio-economics
Establishing the Resilience of a Coastal-marine Social-ecological System to the Installation of Offshore Wind Farms Burkhard, B., Gee, K. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Wind Energy Development and its Environmental Impact: A Review Leung, D., Yang, Y. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Electromagnetic Fields Emitted by High Voltage Alternating Current Offshore Wind Power Cables and Interactions with Marine Organisms Gill, A., et al. January 2012 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF
Interactions Between Seals and Offshore Wind Farms McConnell, B., Lonergan, M., Dietz, R. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Ormonde Offshore Wind Farm 2010 Construction Environmental Monitoring Report Saunders, S. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals
Long Range Propagation Modeling of Offshore Wind Turbine Noise using Finite Element and Parabolic Equation Models Kim, H., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise
Offshore Power Production and Marine Stakeholders: From Understanding Conflict to Impact Mitigation Alexander, K. January 2012 Thesis Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Behavioral Reactions of Harbor Porpoise to Pile-Driving Noise Tougaard, J., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Assessment of the Marine Renewables Industry in Relation to Marine Mammals: Synthesis of Work Undertaken by the ICES Working Group on Marine Mammal Ecology (WGMME) Murphy, S., et al. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
What is the Global Potential for Renewable Energy? Moriarty, P., Honnery, D. January 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
South West Marine Energy Park Prospectus Southwest Marine Energy Park Coalition January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on Birds and Needs to Plan their Future Development in Spain Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Muñoz, A., Arroyo, G. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Effects of Pile Driving on the Behavior of Cod and Sole Thomsen, F., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish
Migration and Habitat Use by Seabirds in the Atlantic Flyway: Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Proposed Wind Farms Berlin, A. January 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl

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