Birds

Generic term that applies to all types of birds.

Birds

Birds (class Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines. Collision with wind turbine blades can kill birds, though the impact of individual deaths on the greater population varies greatly based on species. Reserach is exploring mitigation such as operation limitations, siting location, and lighting selection. Bird collisions with offshore wind turbines present the additional challenge of being unable to count bodies to determine the scale of mortality. Marine energy poses some threat to diving birds colliding with tidal turbines, or birds colliding with floating wave devices during adverse weather conditions. Birds are classified in the following categories:

Photo Credit: "Birds in sunset over water" by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Total Results: 1430
Title Author Date Type of Contentsort ascending Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Fauna Collisions with Wind Turbines: Effects and Impacts, Individuals and Populations. What Are We Trying to Assess? Smales, I. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Results and Analysis of Eagle Studies from the Bluff Point and Studland Bay Wind Farms 2002-2012 Hull, C., et al. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Predicting the Weather-Dependent Collision Risk for Birds at Wind Farms Skov, H., Heinänen, S. January 2015 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Using Stakeholder Input to Develop a Comparative Risk Assessment for Wildlife from the Life Cycles of Six Electrical Generation Fuels Zillioux, E., et al. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Socio-economics, Climate Change, Life Cycle Assessment, Stakeholder Engagement
Wind Energy Technology, Environmental Impacts of Morrison, M., Sinclair, K. June 2004 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Discrimination Between Parametric Survival Models for Removal Times of Bird Carcasses in Scavenger Removal Trials at Wind Turbines Sites Bispo, R., et al. January 2013 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Joint Fact Finding and Stakeholder Consensus Building at the Altamont Wind Resource Area in California Bartlett, G. July 2011 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Socio-economics, Legal and Policy, Stakeholder Engagement
Wind Energy Systems: Environmental Aspects and Impacts Manwell, J., McGowan, J., Rogers, A. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Influences of Artificial Light on Marine Birds Montevecchi, W. January 2006 Book Chapter Lighting Birds, Seabirds
Effects of offshore wind farms on birds: "Cuisinarts of the sky" or just tilting at windmills? Tingley, M. March 2003 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Seabirds
Population dynamics in white-tailed eagle at an on-shore wind farm area in coastal Norway Dahl, E. January 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Shorebird Staging and Migratory Movements at Chaplin and Reed Lakes, Saskatchewan, with Implications for Wind Energy Development Howell, J. May 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Potential Interaction Analysis of Offshore Wind Energy Areas and Breeding Avian Species on the US Mid-Atlantic Coast Wisman, J. September 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Seabirds
Turbine Induced Bird and Bat Fatalities at Wind Projects: Statistical Methods for Mortality Estimation Using Road and Pad Carcass Surveys Maurer, J. August 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Cumulative Adverse Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Development on Wildlife [Thesis] Goodale, M. September 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Evaluating Digital VHF Technology to Monitor Shorebird and Seabird Use of Offshore Wind Energy Areas in the Western North Atlantic Loring, P. September 2016 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Wing Kinematics and Flexibility for Optimal Manoeuvring and Escape Wong, J. July 2017 Thesis Birds
Windy Business: Exploring a Local Wind Power Project in Germany Dennis, K. June 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Seabird Ecology in High-Energy Environments: Approaches to Assessing Impacts of Marine Renewables Robbins, A. July 2017 Thesis Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Wildlife Impacts of and Public Attitudes Towards Small Wind Turbines Tatchley, C. March 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Socio-economics
Patterns of Avian and Bat Mortality at a Utility-Scaled Wind Farm on the Southern High Plains Miller, A. August 2008 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Moving Towards Best Practice for Bird Mortality Mitigation in Wind Power Planning, Sweden McNally, R. May 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Design and Testing of an Integrated Wildlife-Wind Turbine Interactions Detection System Flowers, J. March 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Assessing Bat and Bird Fatality Risk at Wind Farm Sites using Acoustic Detectors Heist, K. August 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Investigating the Potential Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Developments on Seabirds Wade, H. September 2015 Thesis Marine Energy general Birds
Assessing the Influence of Wind Turbines and Land-use on Mortality Risk of Avian Species on the Llano Estacado with Emphasis on Birds of Prey Linner, K. December 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Pre-Wind Energy Development Assessment of the Avian Community in the Central Texas Panhandle Wulf, S. December 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors
Determination of Raptor Migratory Pathways over a Large Landscape Seeland, H. April 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Application of GIS and Spatial Analysis of Golden Eagle Fatalities Caused by Wind Turbines at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Pinger, A. April 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Evaluation of Greater Sage-Grouse Reproductive Habitat and Response to Wind Energy Development in South-Central, Wyoming LeBeau, C. April 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Migratory Stopover of Songbirds in the Western Lake Erie Basin Johnson, P. January 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Bird and Bat Behavior and Mortality at a Northern Iowa Windfarm Jain, A. January 2005 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Waterfowl
Population Dynamics and Movements of Translocated and Resident Greater Sage-Grouse on Anthro Mountain, Utah Gruber, N. December 2012 Thesis Birds
Bird and Bat Responses to Wind Energy Development in Iowa Gillespie, M. January 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Modeling Habitat Use of a Fringe Greater Sage-Grouse Population at Multiple Spatial Scales Burnett, A. July 2013 Thesis Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Implications for Offshore Wind Farm Ornithological Cumulative Impact Assessment: How the Manipulation of Density and Breeding Season Parameters Affects the Outcomes of Collision Risk Modelling Tongue, A. September 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds
Wind Farm Related Mortality Among Avian Migrants - A Remote Sensing Study and Model Analysis Desholm, M. August 2006 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Environmental Consequences of Offshore Wind Power Generation Parkinson, K. April 2001 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Development of a Cost Minimizing Strategy to Mitigate Bird Mortalities in a Wind Farm Singh, K. May 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
An Evaluation of the Wildlife Impacts of Offshore Wind Development Relative to Fossil Fuel Power Production Jarvis, C. September 2005 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Socio-economics
Environmental Aspects of Developing Ireland’s Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) Kavanagh, P., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wave Birds, Marine Mammals
A study of White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla movements and mortality at a wind farm in Norway Nygård, T., et al. January 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Is bird conservation a barrier to wind energy? Aversa, I., Polizel, J., Montaño, M. May 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds in Evros and Rhodopi, Greece: Pleminary results Ruiz, G., Poirazidis, K., Schindler, S. January 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Bird Strikes and Electrocutions at Power Lines, Communication Towers, and Wind Turbines: State of the Art and State of the Science - Next Steps Toward Mitigation Manville, A. June 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Whooping Crane and Sandhill Crane Monitoring at Five Wind Energy Facilities Derby, C., Welsch, M., Thorn, T. January 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Proceedings of the Fourth International Partners in Flight Conference: Tundra to Tropics Rich, T., et al. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Birds
Potential Impacts of Wind Farm Energy Development on Upland Game Birds: Questions and Concerns Brennan, L., et al. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines
Book of Abstracts of the Xth International Symposium on Wild Fauna (ISoWiF 2017) Monzón, A., et al. September 2017 Conference Paper Birds
Proceedings AWEA / Audubon Workshop on Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts American Wind Energy Association January 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Bird and bat mortality at Portuguese wind farms Bernardino, J., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Predictable Hydrodynamic Conditions Explain Temporal Variations in the Density of Benthic Foraging Seabirds in a Tidal Stream Environment Waggitt, J., et al. July 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds
Avian interactions with wind energy facilities: A summary Colson, E. December 1995 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Birds
Integrating a Multibeam and a Multifrequency Echosounder on the Flowbec Seabed Platform to Track Fish and Seabird Behavior around Tidal Turbine Structures Williamson, B., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Fish
Potential Impact of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy Wind Turbine on Common and Roseate Terns Vlietstra, L. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Seabirds
Potential Impact of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy Wind Turbine on Common (Sterna hirundo) and Roseate (S. dougallii) Terns Vlietstra, L. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Seabirds
Windfarm Impacts on Blanket Peat Habitats in Scotland Dargie, T. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Windfarm Design in the Light of Previous Experience Lloyd, A. January 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Wind and Wildlife Fauna Collisions with Wind Turbines: Effects and Impacts, Individuals and Populations. What Are We Trying to Assess? Smales, I. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Warning Sounds and Color for Reducing Bird and Bat Mortality at Wind Turbines Khan, S. October 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
A Summary and Comparison of Bird Mortality from Anthropogenic Causes with an Emphasis on Collisions Erickson, W., Johnson, G., Young, D. June 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Proceedings of Wind Energy and Wildlife: The Good, the Bad... the Possible Kathy, B., MacGregor, G., Grodner, S. May 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Birds, Ecosystem
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting X Schwartz, S. April 2015 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting IV RESOLVE May 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Predicting the Response of Bird Populations to Wind Energy-Related Deaths Morrison, M., et al. January 1998 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem
Impacts of Energy Development on Prairie Grouse Ecology: A Research Synthesis Hagen, C. March 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Bird Impact Study of a Preloaded Composite Wind Turbine Blade Nanami, N., Ochoa, O. August 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Birds
Automated Systems for Monitoring Avian Interactions with Utility Structures and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Mitigative Measures Carlton, R., Harness, R. February 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Assessing Impacts to Birds from the Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Windplant Development Erickson, W., et al. June 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Applying Ecological Risk Assessment Methodology for Outlining Ecosystem Effects of Ocean Energy Technologies Hammar, L., Gullström, M. January 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
First Specific Biodiversity Assessment in the Portuguese Pilot Zone for Marine Renewables Coelho, H., et al. June 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Birds, Ecosystem, Marine Mammals
Wind Energy Development, Prescribed Fire and Migratory Land Birds in the Southeastern United States: Breeding, Stopover, and Wintering Habitat Relationships Brennan, L., Ballard, B., Kuvlesky, W. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting III LGL June 2000 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting II LGL January 1996 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting LGL April 1995 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Avian Interactions with Wind Power Structures Electric Power Research Institute March 2003 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting IX American Wind Wildlife Institute November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
The Birds of Blyth Harbour Still, D., et al. June 1994 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sinclair, K. June 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Status of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Avian Research Program Sinclair, K. June 1999 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Wildlife Research Meeting VIII Schwartz, S. April 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Wildlife Research Meeting VII Schwartz, S. June 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the NWCC Wildlife Workgroup Research Planning Meeting VI Schwartz, S. March 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Onshore Wildlife Interactions with Wind Developments: Research Meeting V Schwartz, S. March 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop: Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts Schwartz, S. May 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Evaluations of Wind Potential in Dobrogea Plateau Sabafu, A., Tudor, D. January 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Noise Birds
Wind Power and the Local Environment - No Free Lunches Plowden, B. March 1992 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Avian Research Program Sinclair, K., Morrison, M. June 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Fuzzy Clustering in Avian Infrared Imagery Application Mirzaei, G., et al. June 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Quantification of Bird Migration Using Doppler Weather Surveillance Radars (NEXRAD) Mirzaei, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Acoustic Monitoring Techniques for Avian Detection and Classification Mirzaei, G., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds
Avian detection & tracking algorithm using infrared imaging Mirzaei, G., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats, Birds
Towers, Turbines, Power Lines, and Buildings-Steps Being Taken by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to Avoid or Minimize Take of Migratory Birds at these Structures Manville, A. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
A crane movement model parameterized using portable radar for evaluating response to wind energy development Kirsch, E., Diehl, R., Suarez, M. July 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Renewable Energy Resources and Wildlife: Impacts and Opportunities Arnett, E., Strickland, M., Morrison, M. February 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Design and Initial Component Tests of an Integrated Avian and Bat Collision Detection System for Offshore Wind Turbines Flowers, J., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Post-Construction Results from The North Hoyle Offshore Wind Farm May, J. September 2005 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals
Long-Term Multibeam Measurements Around a Tidal Turbine Test Site in Orkney, Scotland Blondel, P., Williamson, B. August 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus Migration in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Griffin, L., Rees, E., Hughes, B. October 2010 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
WT-Bird: Bird Collision Recording for Offshore Wind Farms Wiggelinkhuizen, E., et al. November 2004 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds

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