Management Measures Tool for Marine Energy

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Accessing Management Measures that Support Deployment of Wave and Tidal Energy Devices

As the marine renewable energy (MRE) industry moves beyond deployment of individual wave and tidal energy devices towards arrays, certain risks of MRE devices on the marine environment are not well understood and have led to onerous monitoring requirements placed on device developers.

A workshop was held in May 2017 with researchers, regulators, and developers to create the basis for the tool shown below. In consultation with the research and regulatory communities, it was agreed that applying a set of robust management measures could act as safeguards for marine animals and habitats until available monitoring data allows for determining the level of risk from MRE devices. At that point, measures could be dialed back or removed, if warranted. More information on the workshop and input for the tool can be found here.

The Management Measures Tool for Marine Energy shows management (or mitigation) measures from past or current MRE projects as a reference to help manage potential risks from future projects and allow them to move forward in the face of uncertainty, or until a risk can be retired. Additional management measures are regularly added by the OES-Environmental team. In addition to the searchable tool below, the information can be downloaded here. The download file includes additional details not shown below, including comments from stakeholders on past experience, cost of management measures, and when a management measure is needed.

View the instructions document for more in-depth details and examples on how to use the Management Measure Tool for Marine Energy or check out this webinar for an overview and demonstration of the tool. 

Last updated June 2024

Displaying 101 - 200 of 339 management measures
Technology Project Phase Stressor Receptor Management Measure Advantages Challenges Project Documents
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Fish
Demersal fish
Design feature

Bury cables where possible and viable.

None identified

None identified

Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), PacWave South Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Fish
Mitigation, Design feature

Antifouling application on components such as the pile and rodos blades.

Helps prevent colonization of the device and structure, avoiding forming a stepping stone for non-native species.

None identified

Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Habitat
Benthic invertebrates
Design feature

Install cable protection, armor, rock placement, or other cable protection.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Reduces 'snagging risk' for vessels.

Creation of artificial habitat leading to greater fecundity in species.

May have an impact on surrounding benthic habitats and sensitive species.

Creation of artificial habitat may cause aggregation effect causing greater impact of EMF.

Uncertainty around the need for and efficacy of this measure.

Increased cost to project.

...Read more

May have an impact on surrounding benthic habitats and sensitive species.

Creation of artificial habitat may cause aggregation effect causing greater impact of EMF.

Uncertainty around the need for and efficacy of this measure.

Increased cost to project.

Reduced possibilities for decommissioning in future.

Direct disturbance/loss of benthic communities.

Read less
Foubister 2005, Orbital Marine Power 2010, MeyGen 2012, ScottishPower Renewables 2010, DP Energy Ltd. 2013, Fox 2019, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Orbital Marine Power SR250 at EMEC, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project, Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array, West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Marine Mammals
Design feature

Site selection.

Minimizes significance of interaction.

None identified

ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Fox 2019, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in lost fishing gear or other equipment trapped on infrastructure.

Marine Mammals
Cetaceans
Monitoring

Ensure standard notifications of loss of fishing gear in region notified to operators. Reporting of entanglement events.

Good practice for emergency preparedness.

Chances of lost fishing gear being reported is reportedly low.

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

Reduced visibility impacting prey detection and obstruction avoidance.

Reptiles
Mitigation

Best practice methodologies to reduce resuspension of sediment during cable burial or device foundation/mooring installation.

None identified

None identified

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in sediment dynamics

The potential wider or secondary effects (siltation changes or smothering) on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to scour or siltation around devices and associated moorings, support structures and export cables.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates, demersal fish
Monitoring

Periodic visual monitoring through the use of divers or drop down video, static cameras / remote sensing techniques, benthic grab surveys, geophysical survey to identify scour pits, turbidity measurements.

Generation of data to quantify level and spatial extent of effect.

Technical and health and safety risks associated with periodic monitoring operation in close vicinity of infrastructure.

May require power shut down measure.

Subsea static monitoring options require O&M which may have time and cost implications.

Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Foubister 2005, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2010, Davison and Mallows 2005, SSE Renewables 2011, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Xodus Group 2012, AECOM 2009, Ramsey Sound, Brims Tidal Array, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, EMEC Shapinsay Sound Scale Tidal Test Site, Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Westray South Tidal Project, PacWave South Test Site, Fundy Ocean Research Center for Energy (FORCE) Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates
Design feature

Strategic use of rock placement/other cable protection.

None identified

None identified

Orbital Marine Power 2010, MeyGen 2012, DP Energy Ltd. 2017, ScottishPower Renewables 2010, DP Energy Ltd. 2013, Orbital Marine Power SR250 at EMEC, Westray South Tidal Project, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project, Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array, West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

Modifications to prey distribution and abundance (to include for other receptors) resulting in changes to foraging behavior.

Birds
Diving birds
Design feature

Design structures to minimize effect on turbulence structure.

Minimizes change in turbulence structure and hence potential interaction.

Can present financial, logistical, or design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device/moorings.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Fox 2019, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Ramsey Sound
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Lighting

Potential for light from installation vessels to adversely affect nocturnal and migratory species.

Birds
Seabirds
Monitoring

Monitoring effects on animals.

Reduce scientific uncertainty.

Can be difficult to detect change as a result of interaction as opposed to natural variability.

Xodus Group 2019, Fox 2019, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Fish
Monitoring

Environmental monitoring to better understand near-field behaviour and avoidance.

Could reduce potential effects on sensitive species during sensitive periods.

Help reduce scientific uncertainty.

Can be a high cost associated with this.

Unclear how much monitoring will be required to fully understand this risk.

Technology is not advanced enough yet to do this efficiently.

Data mortgage (data gathered more quickly than it can be analysed).

...Read more

Can be a high cost associated with this.

Unclear how much monitoring will be required to fully understand this risk.

Technology is not advanced enough yet to do this efficiently.

Data mortgage (data gathered more quickly than it can be analysed).

Power supply availability - hard-wired vs. battery; power is required for monitoring and power availability can present logistical, financial and technical challenges.

Interaction between equipment - e.g., multibeam sonar/ ADCP/echosounder; there can be interaction between monitoring equipment which can present challenges in monitoring.

Certain equipment used such as PAM may actually effect behaviour themselves.

Difficulties associated with storing and anlysing the data produce

Read less
Xodus Group 2019, Magallanes Renovables 2020, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Fish
Elasmobranch, large fish
Design feature

Cable design with maximum bend radius.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement

Mooring design driven by technical and commercial consideration.

Foubister 2005, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

Sediment disturbance disrupting water clarity that results in smothering of fish spawning grounds.

Habitat
Mitigation

Best practice methodologies to reduce resuspension of sediment during cable burial or device foundation/mooring installation.

None identified

None identified

Orbital Marine Power 2014, ScottishPower Renewables 2010, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Galway Bay Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Habitat Loss

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Habitat
Benthic invertebrates, demersal fish
Design feature

Cable protection management measures to ensure that any rock placement that is required will be kept to a minimum to reduce seabed disturbance.

Could reduce effects on sensitive habitats.

Additional cost.

AECOM 2009, Fox 2019, Fundy Ocean Research Center for Energy (FORCE) Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Marine Mammals
Diving birds
Mitigation

Reduce maximum blade tip speed.

Could reduce the likelihood/consequence of potential collision events.

Potential impacts on power production.

Control mechanism of turbine blade speed unclear.

May cause increased fatigue.

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation, Compliance

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

None identified

Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Reptiles
Mitigation

Timing of installation and decommissioning & marine operations to avoid times of particular sensitivity (e.g., breeding).

Minimizes risk of development causing displacement by avoiding works during sensitive times.

Can be disruptive and hence costly to developer.

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Benthic
Design feature

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination/pollution escaping from structure.

None identified

Foubister 2005, MeyGen 2012, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Magallanes Renovables 2020, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, The Marine Institute 2016, Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), Galway Bay Test Site, Oyster 800 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Habitat Loss

Seabed habitat disturbance/loss or changes to

seabed habitat

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates, demersal fish
Mitigation

Adherence to vessel anchor and device anchor/mooring plans.

Minimize impact on biodiversity/ecosystem.

None identified

Xodus Group 2019, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Birds
Design feature

Physical containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination/pollution escaping from structure.

None identified

Foubister 2005, MeyGen 2012, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Magallanes Renovables 2020, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, THETIS Energy 2009, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Galway Bay Test Site, Torr Head Project
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Vessel disturbance

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Birds
Birds on water
Mitigation

Vessel transit route: defining routes to avoid sensitive sites and to only disturb one route.

Reduces potential effects.

Relatively low-cost measure.

This is measurable and definable.

None identified

OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, DP Energy Ltd. 2013, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2020, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, SSE Renewables 2011, SAE Renewables 2011, Aquatera 2017, Davison and Mallows 2005, Orbital Marine Power 2018, Brims Tidal Array, West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park, EMEC Scapa Flow Scale Wave Test Site, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Westray South Tidal Project, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Fish
Elasmobranch, large fish
None identified

None identified.

None identified

None identified

Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Habitat Loss

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Fish
Demersal fish
Design feature

Minimize footprint of anchors/foundations.

Could reduce effects on sensitive habitats

May impact technical considerations.

Aquatera Ltd 2011, Xodus Group 2019, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Wello Penguin at EMEC, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Habitat
Mitigation

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination/pollution from materials.

None identified

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Adherence to vessel management plan.

Minimizes the potential interaction between animals and construction or maintenance vessels.

None identified

OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Aquatera 2017, ScottishPower Renewables 2010, Xodus Group 2019, Fox 2019, Brims Tidal Array, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Marine Mammals

None identified

None identified

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Vessel disturbance

Disturbance at seal haul-out sites from project vessels.

Marine Mammals
Seals
Mitigation

Avoid transiting within 500m of known seal haul outs.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

None identified

SAE Renewables 2011, Argyll Tidal Limited 2013, Orbital Marine Power 2014, Orbital Marine Power 2010, Magallanes Renovables 2020, Royal Haskoning 2012, Xodus Group 2019, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC, Argyll Tidal Demonstrator Project, Pelamis Wave Power P2 Demonstration at EMEC, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, Oyster 800 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Reptiles
Compliance

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

None identified

MeyGen 2012, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates
Design feature

Install cable protection, armor, rock placement, or other cable protection.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Reduces 'snagging risk' for vessels.

Creation of artificial habitat leading to greater fecundity in species.

May have an impact on surrounding benthic habitats and sensitive species.

Creation of artificial habitat may cause aggregation effect causing greater impact of EMF.

Increased cost to project.

Reduced possibilities for decommissioning.

...Read more

May have an impact on surrounding benthic habitats and sensitive species.

Creation of artificial habitat may cause aggregation effect causing greater impact of EMF.

Increased cost to project.

Reduced possibilities for decommissioning.

Direct disturbance/ loss of benthic communities.

Read less
MeyGen 2012, Foubister 2005, McGrath 2013, DP Energy Ltd. 2017, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Fair Head Tidal Array, Fair Head Tidal Array, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Birds
Design feature

Site selection to avoid sensitive routes/areas.

Minimizes risk of development acting as a barrier to movement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

None identified

Argyll Tidal Limited 2013, OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Fox 2019, Argyll Tidal Demonstrator Project, Brims Tidal Array, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Birds
Diving birds
Monitoring, Design feature

Routine inspections of mooring lines. Implement features into existing control systems to detect entanglement events.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement.

Likely to be required as part of the technical monitoring of the device and therefore not likely an additional cost.

Potential cost of measure for technology developers if not required as part of technical monitoring of the device.

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, PacWave South Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

Modifications to tidal flows affect prey distribution and abundance resulting in changes to foraging behavior.

Fish
Monitoring

Observational surveys (including remote sensing) of species (prey availability linked to benthic community).

Reduce scientific uncertainty.

Statistical power of studies can be low. Can be difficult to distinguish between natural variation and direct effects of energy removal from the system.

Foubister 2005, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Fox 2019, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Fish
Demersal fish
Design feature

Device components (e.g., transformer and power conditioning equipment) are designed internally.

Reduces field effects external to the device.

None identified

DP Energy Ltd. 2013, Aquatera Ltd 2011, West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park, Wello Penguin at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Underwater noise

The potential effects from underwater noise generated during installation/ construction (excluding piling).

Fish
Mitigation

Avoid/limit 'noisy works' within close proximity to sensitive sites i.e. known seal haul outs during sensitive periods, defining appropriate clearance distances where necessary.

Could reduce potential effects on sensitive species during sensitive periods.

Could increase project construction timescales (e.g., if continuous drilling time is restricted or specific periods need to be avoided).

Aquatera Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, McGrath 2013, Aquatera 2017, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, Wello Penguin at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Fair Head Tidal Array, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Habitat
Benthic invertebrates
Design feature

Use of 3-phase cables instead of DC cables.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Potential commercial and technical feasibility issues.

Uncertainty around the need for and efficacy of this measure.

Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Fox 2019, Ramsey Sound
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

Modifications to prey distribution and abundance (to include for other receptors) resulting in changes to foraging behaviour.

Marine Mammals
Design feature

Site selection.

Minimizes significance of interaction.

None identified

ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Fox 2019, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Marine Mammals
Cetaceans
Design feature, Monitoring

Routine inspections of mooring lines. Implement features into existing control systems to detect entanglement events.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement.

Likely to be required as part of the technical monitoring of the device and therefore not an additional cost.

Could be a costly measure for technology developers if not required as part of technical monitoring of device.

Argyll Tidal Limited 2013, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Orbital Marine Power 2018, Argyll Tidal Demonstrator Project, PacWave South Test Site, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

Sediment disturbance disrupting water clarity that results in smothering of fish spawning grounds.

Reptiles
Mitigation

Best practice methodologies to reduce resuspension of sediment during cable burial or device foundation/mooring installation.

None identified

None identified

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance Changes in sediment dynamics

The potential wider or secondary effects (siltation changes or smothering) on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to scour or siltation around devices and associated moorings, support structures and export cables.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates, demersal fish
Design feature

Micrositing of export cables and infrastructure to minimize the impact on sensitive habitats and species. Best practice techniques for cable installation, burial, and protection.

Reduces, limits, or offsets potential impacts on sensitive habitats and species.

None identified

Project Management Support Services 2006, Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Foubister 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, RSK Group 2012, South West of England Regional Development Agency (SWDRA) 2006, SSE Renewables 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, DP Energy Ltd. 2017, Laminaria 2018, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, THETIS Energy 2009, Royal Haskoning 2019, Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Anglesey Skerries Tidal Stream Array, Ramsey Sound, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Wave Hub, Westray South Tidal Project, Fair Head Tidal Array, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), Torr Head Project, Morlais Tidal Demonstration Zone, Oyster 800 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates
Design feature

Bundle cables together to reduce field vectors.

None identified

None identified

MeyGen 2012, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

Modifications to prey distribution and abundance (to include for other receptors) resulting in changes to foraging behavior.

Birds
Diving birds
Monitoring

Modelling to predict the interaction between changes in tidal flow, flux, and turbulence structure and animals.

Reduces scientific uncertainty so appropriate management measures can be employed.

Limited management measures available to minimize interaction despite modelling to fully predict interaction.

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Birds
Compliance

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

None identified

MeyGen 2012, Magallanes Renovables 2020, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, PacWave South Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Fish
Mitigation

Selective structural and blade coatings (e.g., colors to aide detection).

Unknown implications, but possible that it will aid detection of subsea structures and help reduce risk.

Minimal one-off cost that can be easily planned for at the design stage.

Unknown and further research is needed.

This could result in 'attraction', increasing risk of collision.

Uncertainty around how animals use visual cues. Other sensory organs are often more important for fish.

...Read more

Unknown and further research is needed.

This could result in 'attraction', increasing risk of collision.

Uncertainty around how animals use visual cues. Other sensory organs are often more important for fish.

Use of such measures may be limited to conform with IALA standards.

Read less
Xodus Group 2019, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Fish
Elasmobranch, large fish
Design feature, Monitoring

Install tension sensors on mooring lines.

Informs of problem with mooring lines allowing rectification.

Additional cost.

Would require control system integration.

Load from entangled animal is likely to be smaller than the device loading on the moorings.

Uncertainty of the efficacy of this measure.

Laminaria 2018, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in sediment dynamics

The potential wider or secondary effects (siltation changes or smothering) on protected or sensitive littoral habitat due to devices and associated moorings, support structures, or landfall cables.

Habitat
Benthic species
Monitoring

Periodic visual monitoring through the use of divers, drop down video, or intertidal shore surveys.

Help reduce uncertainty.

Generation of data to quantify level and spatial extent of effect.

Technical and Health and Safety risks associated with periodic monitoring operation in close vicinity of infrastructure.

Power shut down potential.

Subsea static monitoring options require O&M.

GlaxoSmithKlineMontrose 2012, Xodus AURORA 2010, Davison and Mallows 2005, GSK Montrose Tidal Array, HS1000 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Habitat Loss

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Habitat
Benthic invertebrates, demersal fish
Mitigation

Use of locally sourced materials, for cable protection, of the same type as the habitat to be disturbed by cable installation.

Minimizes habitat loss as lost seabed is replaced with same material.

None identified

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential risk of collision with device giving size and character of structure.

Marine Mammals
Design feature

Device components (e.g., transformer and power conditioning equipment) are designed internally.

Reduces potential for collision with external moving parts.

The Marine Institute 2016, Galway Bay Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

None identified

Argyll Tidal Demonstrator Project, PacWave South Test Site, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC, Mocean Wave Energy Converter: Blue Horizon
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Reptiles
Design feature

Array/ mooring configuration designed to avoid migratory routes or other important sites

Minimizes risk of development creating displacement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

May be inconsistent with optimal layout of the development for exploitation of the energy source.

Can be a costly measure when scaling up to larger arrays.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Fox 2019, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Benthic
Mitigation

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of pollution from materials which may have escaped structure.

None identified

Foubister 2005, MeyGen 2012, Xodus AURORA 2010, Foubister 2005, Davison and Mallows 2005, The Marine Institute 2016, THETIS Energy 2009, AECOM 2009, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project, HS1000 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Galway Bay Test Site, Torr Head Project, Fundy Ocean Research Center for Energy (FORCE) Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Benthic
Mitigation

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Lack of industry specific guidance.

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, Xodus Group 2019, RSK Group 2012, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, West Orkney South Wave Energy Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Birds
Mitigation

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. - selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination/pollution from materials which may have escaped structure.

Use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance or impact other technical issues (e.g., fluid changes.)

MeyGen 2012, Foubister 2005, Xodus AURORA 2010, Davison and Mallows 2005, The Marine Institute 2016, THETIS Energy 2009, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, HS1000 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Galway Bay Test Site, Torr Head Project
Wave, Tidal Decommissioning Vessel disturbance

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Birds
Mitigation

Limit use of vessels, e.g. one vessel present with regular use of thrusters to maintain position.

Reduces potential disturbance effects.

None identified

Low 2012, MeyGen 2012, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Fish
Design feature

Site selection (taking into account cumulative impact of other developments).

Minimizes risk of development causing displacement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

None identified

ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Fox 2019, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Habitat Loss

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Fish
Demersal fish
Design feature

Cable protection management measures to ensure that any rock placement that is required will be kept to a minimum to reduce seabed disturbance.

Could reduce effects on sensitive habitats

Additional cost.

DP Energy Ltd. 2013, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Habitat
Mitigation, Compliance

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan/Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organization (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination/pollution event and ensures that contingency plans are in place.

Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

None identified

Foubister 2005, GlaxoSmithKlineMontrose 2012, MeyGen 2012, Davison and Mallows 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, South West of England Regional Development Agency (SWDRA) 2006, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, GSK Montrose Tidal Array, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Wave Hub, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Marine Mammals
Monitoring

Monitoring of existing developments.

Reduces scientific uncertainty.

Can be complex and costly.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, GlaxoSmithKlineMontrose 2012, Orbital Marine Power 2014, Fox 2019, Oyster 800 at EMEC, GSK Montrose Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Employ an MMO during periods when noisy operations are likely to cause disturbance (e.g., all operations using a DP vessel).

None identified

None identified

SAE Renewables 2011, Orbital Marine Power 2010, Minesto 2016, Foubister 2005, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, Xodus Group 2019, Magallanes Renovables 2020, McGrath 2013, MeyGen 2012, DP Energy Ltd. 2017, Royal Haskoning 2012, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, THETIS Energy 2009, Davison and Mallows 2005, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC, Pelamis Wave Power P2 Demonstration at EMEC, Minesto Holyhead Deep - Non-grid connected DG500, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, Fair Head Tidal Array, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project, Fair Head Tidal Array, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Galway Bay Test Site, Torr Head Project, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Vessel disturbance

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Care will be taken to avoid splitting up groups and mothers and young.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

None identified

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2020, Magallanes Renovables 2020, Aquatera 2017, Orbital Marine Power 2018, EMEC Scapa Flow Scale Wave Test Site, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Reptiles
Mitigation

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Lack of industry specific guidance.

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, Royal Haskoning 2012, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Oyster 800 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates
Design feature

Install cable protection or armor.

None identified

None identified

Foubister 2005, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Birds
Design feature

Array/ mooring configuration designed to avoid migratory routes or other important sites.

Minimizes risk of development acting as a barrier to movement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

May be inconsistent with optimal layout of the development for exploitation of the energy source.

Can be a costly measure when scaling up to larger arrays.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Fox 2019, Oyster 800 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in lost fishing gear or other equipment trapped on infrastructure.

Birds
Diving birds
Mitigation

Fisheries management: Agreement with fishermen not to fish near to the device, warning of the dangers of losing equipment.

Reduces potential for entanglement of fishing gear in mooring lines and thus potential for entanglement of marine animals.

None identified

Xodus Group 2019, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Fish
Monitoring

Installation of ADCPs and turbulence sensors to better understand the baseline tidal flow conditions and hence the change in tidal flow due to presence of the device(s).

Reduce scientific uncertainty.

None identified

Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Aquatera 2017, Fox 2019, Ramsey Sound, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Fish
Migratory fish
Design feature

Use of 3-phase cables instead of DC cables.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects

Potential commercial and technical feasibility issues - the cables used will largely depend upon the project requirements.

Some uncertainty as to the efficacy of this measure.

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Underwater noise

The potential effects from underwater noise generated by wave and tidal energy converters.

Fish
Monitoring

Measure noise generated by device(s) during operation to better understand the potential effects on sensitive species.

Measured noise levels can be correlated with threshold values of relevant species and baseline noise levels of the site to determine impact and need for adaptive management measures.

Can be complex and costly to undertake this type of monitoring in high energy environments.

Data and analysis have requirement for acoustic experts.

SAE Renewables 2011, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2019, AECOM 2009, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Fundy Ocean Research Center for Energy (FORCE) Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Habitat
Benthic invertebrates
Design feature

Bundle cables together to reduce field vectors.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Less redundancy in system.

Potential commercial and technical feasibility issues.

MeyGen 2012, Fox 2019, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation, Monitoring, Design feature

Install a 'detect and shut-down' system using active sonar and other appropriate monitoring equipment (e.g., Marine Mammal Detections Sonar System [MMDS]).

Could reduce/remove risk of collision with moving blades and enable a route through the consenting process, particularly at high sensitivity locations.

Could affect power production, is expensive to implement, and does not help reduce scientific uncertainty regarding the risk.

Uncertainty around effects of sonar on sensitive species.

Not certain how often ‘shut-downs’ would be required.

...Read more

Could affect power production, is expensive to implement, and does not help reduce scientific uncertainty regarding the risk.

Uncertainty around effects of sonar on sensitive species.

Not certain how often ‘shut-downs’ would be required.

Detection systems are currently insufficient to detect animals (in particular at array scale).

Reductions in power production, although small, would bring about uncertainty in the investment process.

Read less
Harrison et al. 2015, Orbital Marine Power 2010, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, Keenan et al. 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Xodus Group 2019, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Minesto 2016, Magallanes Renovables 2020, Churchill Barriers - Wave Overtopping and Tidal Flow Energy Capture, Pelamis Wave Power P2 Demonstration at EMEC, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Minesto Holyhead Deep - Non-grid connected DG500, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in lost fishing gear or other equipment trapped on infrastructure.

Marine Mammals
Cetaceans
Mitigation

Fisheries management: Agreement with fishermen not to fish near to the device, warning of the dangers of losing equipment.

Reduces potential for entanglement of fishing gear in mooring lines and thus potential for entanglement of marine animals.

None identified

Xodus Group 2019, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Reptiles
Monitoring

Installation of ADCPs and turbulence sensors to better understand the baseline tidal flow conditions and hence the change in tidal flow due to presence of the device(s).

Reduce scientific uncertainty.

None identified

Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

Reduced visibility from altered water clarity associated with sediment mixing that can impact prey detection and obstruction avoidance.

Benthic
Mitigation

Best practice methodologies to reduce resuspension of sediment during cable burial or device foundation/mooring installation.

None identified

None identified

Foubister 2005, ScottishPower Renewables 2010, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, South West of England Regional Development Agency (SWDRA) 2006, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Wave Hub, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Mocean Wave Energy Converter: Blue Horizon
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates
Design feature

Bury cables where possible and viable.

None identified

None identified

Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), PacWave South Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

Modifications to prey distribution and abundance (to include for other receptors) resulting in changes to foraging behavior.

Birds
Diving birds
Design feature

Site selection.

Minimizes significance of interaction.

None identified

Argyll Tidal Limited 2013, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Fox 2019, Argyll Tidal Demonstrator Project, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Birds
Mitigation

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Lack of industry specific guidance.

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Fish
Mitigation

Minimize turbine standstill periods.

None identified

None identified

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Fish
Elasmobranch, large fish
Monitoring

Fishing debris detected during routine inspections of mooring lines and cables will be removed.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement.

Low cost measure, implemented as part of standard O&M procedures.

Regular monitoring will benefit system performance in addition to addressing environmental risks (e.g., early detection of damage or failures in the system).

None identified

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in sediment dynamics

The potential wider or secondary effects (siltation changes or smothering) on protected or sensitive littoral habitat due to devices and associated moorings, support structures, or landfall cables.

Habitat
Benthic species
Design feature

Micrositing of landfall cables and infrastructure to minimize the impact on sensitive habitats and species. Best practice techniques for cable installation, burial and protection.

None identified

None identified

Orbital Marine Power 2014, Craig 2008, OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, DP Energy Ltd. 2013, South West of England Regional Development Agency (SWDRA) 2006, SSE Renewables 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, DP Energy Ltd. 2017, Laminaria 2018, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, OpenHydro Alderney, Brims Tidal Array, West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park, Wave Hub, Westray South Tidal Project, Fair Head Tidal Array, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Habitat Loss

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Habitat
Benthic invertebrates, demersal fish
Design feature

Site selection to avoid sensitive or protected sub-littoral seabed communities.

Could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats.

None identified

ScottishPower Renewables 2012, OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Fox 2019, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array, Brims Tidal Array
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Marine Mammals
Diving birds
Mitigation

Design proportion of swept area to structure area to minimize collision risk.

Could reduce the likelihood/consequence of potential collision events.

Can be a high cost associated with this.

Can present financial, logistical, or design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device.

MeyGen 2012, Fox 2019, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Marine Mammals
Compliance

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

None identified

McPherson 2015, MeyGen 2012, Davison and Mallows 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Magallanes Renovables 2020, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Nova Innovation - Shetland Tidal Array, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Reptiles
Sea turtles
Design feature

Maintain taut mooring lines.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement.

Regular inspections can provide operational insight into condition and track events.

Mooring design driven by technical and commercial consideration.

Regular ROV/dive or drop-down camera inspections required.

Aquatera Ltd 2011, Wello Penguin at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Benthic
Mitigation

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination/pollution from materials.

None identified

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Benthic
Compliance

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

None identified

Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Birds
Mitigation

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination/pollution from materials.

None identified

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Vessel disturbance

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Birds
Birds on water
Mitigation

Vessel speed limitation to and from site.

Reduces potential effects.

Relatively low-cost measure.

None identified

SAE Renewables 2011, OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Xodus Group 2019, AECOM 2009, Fox 2019, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC, Brims Tidal Array, Fundy Ocean Research Center for Energy (FORCE) Test Site, Perpetuus Tidal Energy Centre (PTEC)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Fish
Mitigation

Timing of installation and decommissioning & marine operations to avoid times of particular sensitivity (e.g. breeding).

Minimizes risk of development causing displacement by avoiding works during sensitive times.

Can be disruptive and hence costly to developer.

OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Aquatera Ltd 2011, Foubister 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, SSE Renewables 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, McGrath 2013, Orbital Marine Power 2014, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Fox 2019, Brims Tidal Array, Wello Penguin at EMEC, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Westray South Tidal Project, Fair Head Tidal Array, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Habitat Loss

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Fish
Demersal fish
Mitigation

Use of locally sourced materials, for cable protection, of the same type as the habitat to be disturbed by cable installation.

Minimizes habitat loss as lost seabed is replaced with same material.

Minimize impact on biodiversity/ecosystem

None identified

Wave, Tidal Installation Contamination

Accidental release of contaminants during installation including diesel fuel, oil hydraulic fluids, etc.

Habitat
Mitigation

Best practice methodologies to reduce risk of accidental release of contaminants.

Reduces risk of contamination/pollution escaping from structure.

None identified

DP Energy Ltd. 2013, West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

Reduced visibility impacting prey detection and obstruction avoidance.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Best practice methodologies to reduce resuspension of sediment during cable burial or device foundation/mooring installation.

None identified

None identified

Foubister 2005, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Marine Mammals
Design feature

Site selection (taking into account cumulative impact of other developments).

Minimizes risk of development causing displacement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

None identified

ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Fox 2019, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Vessel disturbance

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Vessel speed limitation to and from site.

Reduces potential effects and is a relatively low cost measure.

None identified

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, SAE Renewables 2011, AECOM 2009, Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) 2014, Fox 2019, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC, Fundy Ocean Research Center for Energy (FORCE) Test Site, U.S. Navy Wave Energy Test Site (WETS)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Reptiles
Mitigation, Compliance

Adhere to appropriate measures when jettisoning ballast water.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

None identified

Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS)
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates
Design feature

Use of 3-phase cables instead of DC cables.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Potential commercial and technical feasibility issues.

Uncertainty around the need for and efficacy of this measure.

Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Ramsey Sound
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Birds
Mitigation

Adherence to vessel management plan.

Minimizes the potential interaction between animals and construction or maintenance vessels.

None identified

OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Aquatera 2017, ScottishPower Renewables 2010, Xodus Group 2019, Fox 2019, Brims Tidal Array, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Birds
Diving birds
Design feature

Cable design with maximum bend radius.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement

Mooring design driven by technical and commercial consideration.

Foubister 2005, Fox 2019, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Fish
Design feature

Design structures to minimize effect on turbulence structure.

Minimizes change in turbulence structure and hence potential interaction.

Can present financial, logistical, or design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device/moorings.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Fox 2019, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Ramsey Sound
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Fish
Elasmobranchs
Design feature

Use of 3-phase cables instead of DC cables.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Potential commercial and technical feasibility issues.

Some uncertainty as to the efficacy of this measure.

Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Ramsey Sound
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Underwater noise

The potential effects from underwater noise generated during installation/ construction (excluding piling).

Fish
Mitigation

Limit vessel speed.

Reduces potential effects.

Relatively low-cost measure.

None identified

SAE Renewables 2011, Fox 2019, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Habitat
Benthic invertebrates
Design feature

Bury or HDD cables where possible and viable.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Reduces 'snagging risk' for vessels.

May have an impact on surrounding benthic habitats and sensitive species.

Uncertainty around the need for and efficacy of this measure.

Can be very challenging or impossible at sites where seabed tends to be rocky.

Additional expense to the project.

...Read more

May have an impact on surrounding benthic habitats and sensitive species.

Uncertainty around the need for and efficacy of this measure.

Can be very challenging or impossible at sites where seabed tends to be rocky.

Additional expense to the project.

Reduced possibility for decommissioning.

Read less
Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Fox 2019, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Collision risk

The potential effects from airborne noise from support vessel activity.

Marine Mammals
Seals
Mitigation

Adherence to Scottish Marine Wildlife Watching Code (SMWWC).

None identified

None identified

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, Xodus Group 2019, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2020, SSE Renewables 2011, Magallanes Renovables 2020, Aquatera 2017, Laminaria 2018, Orbital Marine Power 2018, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, EMEC Scapa Flow Scale Wave Test Site, Westray South Tidal Project, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC, Mocean Wave Energy Converter: Blue Horizon