Management Measures Tool for Marine Energy

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Accessing Management Measures that Support Deployment of Wave and Tidal Energy Devices

As the marine renewable energy (MRE) industry moves beyond deployment of individual wave and tidal energy devices towards arrays, certain risks of MRE devices on the marine environment are not well understood and have led to onerous monitoring requirements placed on device developers.

A workshop was held in May 2017 with researchers, regulators, and developers to create the basis for the tool shown below. In consultation with the research and regulatory communities, it was agreed that applying a set of robust management measures could act as safeguards for marine animals and habitats until available monitoring data allows for determining the level of risk from MRE devices. At that point, measures could be dialed back or removed, if warranted. More information on the workshop and input for the tool can be found here.

The Management Measures Tool for Marine Energy shows management (or mitigation) measures from past or current MRE projects as a reference to help manage potential risks from future projects and allow them to move forward in the face of uncertainty, or until a risk can be retired. Additional management measures are regularly added by the OES-Environmental team. In addition to the searchable tool below, the information can be downloaded here. The download file includes additional details not shown below, including comments from stakeholders on past experience, cost of management measures, and when a management measure is needed.

View the instructions document for more in-depth details and examples on how to use the Management Measure Tool for Marine Energy or check out this webinar for an overview and demonstration of the tool. 

Last updated January 2023

Displaying 301 - 339 of 339 management measures
Technology Project Phase Stressor Receptor Management Measure Advantages Challenges Project Documents
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Birds
Monitoring

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Fish
Design feature

Physical Ccontainment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination/pollution escaping from structure.

Foubister 2005, MeyGen 2012, DP Energy Ltd. 2013, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Magallanes Renovables 2020, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, THETIS Energy 2009, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project , West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Galway Bay Test Site, Torr Head Project
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Fish
Elasmobranch, large fish
Design feature

Minimise the number of mooring lines.

Reduce risk of entanglement.

Could be a costly measure for technology developers.

Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Habitat
Design feature

Design structures to minimise effect on turbulence structure.

Minimizes change in turbulence structure and hence potential interaction.

Can present financial, logistical, or design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device/moorings.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Ramsey Sound
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Habitat
Mitigation

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Orbital Marine Power 2018, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC, Mocean Wave Energy Converter: Blue Horizon
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Where rock placement is used, ensure clean rock is used.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination/pollution from materials

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Underwater noise

The potential effects from underwater noise generated during installation/ construction (excluding piling).

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Limit vessel speed.

Reduces potential effects.

Relatively low-cost measure.

SAE Renewables 2011, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in lost fishing gear or other equipment trapped on infrastructure.

Reptiles
Sea turtles
Mitigation

Fisheries management: Agreement with fishermen not to fish near to the device, warning of the dangers of losing equipment.

Reduces potential for entanglement of fishing gear in mooring lines and thus potential for entanglement of sea turtles.

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Benthic
Design feature

Site selection (taking into account cumulative impact of other developments).

Minimises risk of development causing displacement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Benthic
Monitoring, Compliance

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

Orbital Marine Power 2014, Xodus Group 2019, Magallanes Renovables 2020, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Birds
Mitigation

Timing of installation and decommissioning & marine operations to avoid times of particular sensitivity (e.g. breeding).

Minimizes risk of development causing displacement by avoiding works during sensitive times.

Can be disruptive to installation/decommissioning and hence costly to developer.

OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Aquatera Ltd 2011, Foubister 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, SSE Renewables 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, McGrath 2013, Orbital Marine Power 2014, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Brims Tidal Array, Wello Penguin at EMEC, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Westray South Tidal Project, Fair Head Tidal Array, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

Reduced visibility impacting prey detection and obstruction avoidance.

Fish
Mitigation

Best practice methodologies to reduce resuspension of sediment during cable burial or device foundation/mooring installation.

Foubister 2005, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Fish
Demersal fish
Design feature

Lay cables in natural crevices.

MeyGen 2012, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Fish
Mitigation

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Lack of industry specific guidance.

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Habitat
Mitigation

Timing of installation and decommissioning & marine operations to avoid times of particular sensitivity (e.g. breeding).

Minimizes risk of development causing displacement by avoiding works during sensitive times

Can be disruptive and hence costly to developer

OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Aquatera Ltd 2011, Foubister 2005, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, SSE Renewables 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, McGrath 2013, Orbital Marine Power 2014, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, Brims Tidal Array, Wello Penguin at EMEC, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Westray South Tidal Project, Fair Head Tidal Array, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Marine Mammals
Design feature

Design structures to minimise effect on turbulence structure.

Minimizes change in turbulence structure and hence potential interaction.

Can present financial, logistical, or design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device/moorings.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Ramsey Sound
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Marine Mammals
Cetaceans
Design feature

Maintain taut mooring lines.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement.

Regular inspections can provide operational insight into condition.

Inspections help track interactions/events with marine animals.

Mooring design driven by technical and commercial consideration.

Regular ROV/dive or drop-down camera inspections required.

Aquatera Ltd 2011, Laminaria 2018, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Wello Penguin at EMEC, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Reptiles
Design feature

Site selection to avoid sensitive routes/areas.

Minimizes risk of development acting as a barrier to movement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates
Design feature

Bury or HDD cables where possible and viable.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Reduces 'snagging risk' for vessels.

May have an impact on surrounding benthic habitats and sensitive species.

Uncertainty around the need for and efficacy of this measure.

Can be very challenging or impossible at sites where seabed tends to be rocky.

Additional cost to the project.

...Read more

May have an impact on surrounding benthic habitats and sensitive species.

Uncertainty around the need for and efficacy of this measure.

Can be very challenging or impossible at sites where seabed tends to be rocky.

Additional cost to the project.

Reduced possibility of decommissioning.

Read less
Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), PacWave South Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Birds
Monitoring

Installation of ADCPs and turbulence sensors to better understand the baseline tidal flow conditions and hence the change in tidal flow due to presence of the device(s).

Reduce scientific uncertainty

Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Aquatera 2017, Ramsey Sound, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Habitat Creation

The introduction of infrastructure and artificial substrates will provide habitat and artificial refuges.

Birds
Monitoring

Monitor near-field behaviors.

Reduces scientific uncertainty around collision risk, displacement, and other impacts.

Increased value/fecundity of commercially important species.

Informs understanding of potential positive impacts from colonization and use of the project infrastructure.

This type of monitoring can be expensive and difficult to deliver in practice.

May require additional licensing (e.g., echosounders).

MeyGen 2012, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project , Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL)
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Fish
Design feature

Site selection.

Minimizes significance of interaction.

ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Fish
Migratory fish
Design feature

Micrositing of offshore infrastructure to avoid sensitive habitats and minimise footprint.

Could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats.

Relatively low cost measure.

DP Energy Ltd. 2013, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Laminaria 2018, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, The Marine Institute 2016, West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), Galway Bay Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Habitat
Design feature

Site selection to avoid sensitive routes/areas.

Minimizes risk of development acting as a barrier to movement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

ScottishPower Renewables 2012, OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array, Brims Tidal Array
Wave Installation, Operation & Maintenance Habitat Loss

Direct loss of protected or sensitive intertidal communities from changes in hydrodynamics due to nearshore WECs.

Habitat
Intertidal ecology
Design feature

Micrositing of nearshore WECs to minimise the impact on sensitive habitats and species.

Foubister 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, South West of England Regional Development Agency (SWDRA) 2006, SSE Renewables 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, MeyGen 2012, Laminaria 2018, The Marine Institute 2016, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Wave Hub, Westray South Tidal Project, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project , EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Galway Bay Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Marine Mammals
Monitoring

Environmental monitoring to detect collision events.

Understand avoidance behavior, nature of interactions, and outcome of collision events.

Can be a high cost associated with this.

Unclear how much monitoring will be required to fully understand this risk.

Technology is not advanced enough yet to do this efficiently.

Data mortgage (data gathered more quickly than it can be analysed).

...Read more

Can be a high cost associated with this.

Unclear how much monitoring will be required to fully understand this risk.

Technology is not advanced enough yet to do this efficiently.

Data mortgage (data gathered more quickly than it can be analysed).

Power supply availability - hard-wired vs. battery; power is required for monitoring and power availability can present logistical, financial, and technical challenges.

Interaction between equipment - e.g., multibeam sonar/ ADCP/echosounder; there can be interaction between monitoring equipment which can present challenges in monitoring.

Certain equipment used such as PAM may actually effect behaviour themselves.

Read less
SAE Renewables 2011, Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, GlaxoSmithKlineMontrose 2012, Orbital Marine Power 2014, ScottishPower Renewables 2010, Davison and Mallows 2005, McGrath 2013, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, Orbital Marine Power 2018, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC, Oyster 800 at EMEC, GSK Montrose Tidal Array, Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Fair Head Tidal Array, Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Habitat Creation

The introduction of infrastructure and artificial substrates will provide habitat and artificial refuges.

Marine Mammals
Monitoring

Monitor near-field behaviours.

Informs understanding of potential positive impacts from colonization and use of the project infrastructure.

Reduces scientific uncertainty around collision risk, displacement, and other impacts.

Increased value/fecundity of commercially important species.

Can be expensive and difficult to deliver in practice.

May require additional licensing (e.g., echosounders).

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Reptiles
Mitigation

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc., - selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination/pollution from materials which may have escaped structure.

Use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g., fluid changes.)

Foubister 2005, MeyGen 2012, Xodus AURORA 2010, The Marine Institute 2016, THETIS Energy 2009, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project , HS1000 at EMEC, Galway Bay Test Site, Torr Head Project
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Benthic
Monitoring

Installation of ADCPs and turbulence sensors to better understand the baseline tidal flow conditions and hence the change in tidal flow due to presence of the device(s).

Reduce scientific uncertainty.

Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Aquatera 2017, Ramsey Sound, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Habitat Loss

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates, demersal fish
Design feature

Minimize footprint of anchors / foundations.

Could reduce effects on sensitive habitats.

May impact technical considerations, such as size of anchors/foundations that are safe and optimal for operation of device(s).

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Aquatera Ltd 2011, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, RSK Group 2012, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Wello Penguin at EMEC, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, West Orkney South Wave Energy Site, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Pontential risk of collision with device giving size and character of structure

Fish
Design feature

Device components (e.g., transformer and power conditioning equipment) are designed internally.

Reduces potential for collision with external moving parts.

Aquatera Ltd 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, Wello Penguin at EMEC, Galway Bay Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Underwater noise

The potential effects from underwater noise generated during installation/ construction (excluding piling).

Birds
Seabirds
Mitigation

Avoid/limit 'noisy works' within close proximity to sensitive sites (e.g., known seal haul outs during sensitive periods) defining appropriate clearance distances where necessary.

Could reduce potential effects on sensitive species during sensitive periods.

Could increase project construction timescales and thus costs (e.g., if continuous drilling time is restricted or specific periods need to be avoided).

Aquatera Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, McGrath 2013, Orbital Marine Power 2014, Aquatera 2017, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, Orbital Marine Power 2018, Wello Penguin at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Fair Head Tidal Array, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Fish
Mitigation

Material selection - lubricants, coolants, hydraulic fluids etc. - selected with low ecotoxicity levels and biodegradable.

Reduces/removes risk of contamination/pollution from materials which may have escaped structure.

Use of lower toxicity materials may compromise performance, or impact other technical issues (e.g., fluid changes.)

Foubister 2005, Foubister 2005, MeyGen 2012, Xodus AURORA 2010, DP Energy Ltd. 2013, The Marine Institute 2016, THETIS Energy 2009, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project , HS1000 at EMEC, West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park, Galway Bay Test Site, Torr Head Project
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Fish
Elasmobranch, large fish
Mitigation

Install a 'detect and shut-down' system using active sonar and other appropriate monitoring equipment.

Could reduce/remove risk of collision with moving blades and enable a route through the consenting process, particulalrly at high sensitivity locations.

Could affect power production, is expensive to implement, and does not help to reduce scientific uncertainty regarding the risk....Read more

Could affect power production, is expensive to implement, and does not help to reduce scientific uncertainty regarding the risk. The reductions in power production, although small, would bring about uncertainty in the investment process and there are questions around impacts of sonar on sensitive species.

Read less
Xodus Group 2019, Davison and Mallows 2005, Magallanes Renovables 2020, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL)
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Habitat
Monitoring

Modelling to predict the interaction between changes in tidal flow, flux and turbulence structure and animals.

Reduces scientific uncertainty so appropriate management measures can be employed

Limited management measures available to minimise interaction despite modelling to fully predict interaction

GlaxoSmithKlineMontrose 2012, Orbital Marine Power 2014, Craig 2008, GSK Montrose Tidal Array, OpenHydro Alderney
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Habitat
Mitigation, Design feature

Antifouling application on components such as the pile and rodos blades.

Prevents colonization of the device and structure, avoiding forming a stepping stone for non-native species.

Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Orbital Marine Power 2018, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation, Compliance

Management: Establish and implement a Contamination Control Plan / Ship Oil Contamination Emergency Plans (SOPEPs).

Compliance with International Maritime Organization (IMO) and Maritime Coastguard Agency (MCA) codes for the prevention of contamination.

Reduces risk of any contamination/pollution event and ensures that contingency plans are in place.

Demonstrates compliance with environmental management systems.

Low 2012, Foubister 2005, GlaxoSmithKlineMontrose 2012, MeyGen 2012, Davison and Mallows 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, GSK Montrose Tidal Array, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project , Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Underwater noise

The potential effects from airborne noise from support vessel activity.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Adherence to Scotish Marine Wildlife Watching Code (SMWWC).

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, Xodus Group 2019, Magallanes Renovables 2020, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2020, Aquatera 2017, Laminaria 2018, Orbital Marine Power 2018, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, EMEC Scapa Flow Scale Wave Test Site, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC, Mocean Wave Energy Converter: Blue Horizon
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Reptiles
Sea turtles
Design feature

Minimise the number of mooring lines.

Reduce risk of entanglement.

Could be a costly measure for technology developers.