Management Measures Tool for Marine Energy

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Accessing Management Measures that Support Deployment of Wave and Tidal Energy Devices

As the marine renewable energy (MRE) industry moves beyond deployment of individual wave and tidal energy devices towards arrays, certain risks of MRE devices on the marine environment are not well understood and have led to onerous monitoring requirements placed on device developers.

A workshop was held in May 2017 with researchers, regulators, and developers to create the basis for the tool shown below. In consultation with the research and regulatory communities, it was agreed that applying a set of robust management measures could act as safeguards for marine animals and habitats until available monitoring data allows for determining the level of risk from MRE devices. At that point, measures could be dialed back or removed, if warranted. More information on the workshop and input for the tool can be found here.

The Management Measures Tool for Marine Energy shows management (or mitigation) measures from past or current MRE projects as a reference to help manage potential risks from future projects and allow them to move forward in the face of uncertainty, or until a risk can be retired. Additional management measures are regularly added by the OES-Environmental team. In addition to the searchable tool below, the information can be downloaded here. The download file includes additional details not shown below, including comments from stakeholders on past experience, cost of management measures, and when a management measure is needed.

View the instructions document for more in-depth details and examples on how to use the Management Measure Tool for Marine Energy or check out this webinar for an overview and demonstration of the tool. 

Last updated June 2024

Displaying 301 - 339 of 339 management measures
Technology Project Phase Stressor Receptor Management Measure Advantages Challenges Project Documents
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Fish
Design feature

Array/ mooring configuration designed to avoid migratory routes or other important sites.

Minimizes risk of development creating displacement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

May be inconsistent with optimal layout of the development for exploitation of the energy source.

Can be a costly measure when scaling up to larger arrays.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Fox 2019, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Habitat Loss

Direct loss of protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed communities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings or support structures on the seabed.

Fish
Demersal fish
Design feature

Site selection to avoid sensitive or protected sub-littoral seabed communities.

Could reduce/remove effects on sensitive habitats.

None identified

ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Fox 2019, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for oil spill incident resulting from the influence of unfavorable weather conditions.

Habitat
Mitigation

Vessel activities to occur in suitable weather conditions.

Reduces the chance for oil spill to the environment.

None identified

MeyGen 2012, The Marine Institute 2016, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project, Galway Bay Test Site, Pelamis Wave Power P2 Demonstration at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

Sediment disturbance disrupting water clarity that results in smothering of fish spawning grounds.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Best practice methodologies to reduce resuspension of sediment during cable burial or device foundation/mooring installation.

None identified

None identified

Craig 2008, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, OpenHydro Alderney, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Timing of installation and decommissioning & marine operations to avoid times of particular sensitivity (e.g., breeding).

Minimizes risk of development causing displacement by avoiding works during sensitive times.

Can be disruptive and hence costly to developer.

OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Aquatera Ltd 2011, Foubister 2005, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, SSE Renewables 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, McGrath 2013, Orbital Marine Power 2014, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Fox 2019, Brims Tidal Array, Wello Penguin at EMEC, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Westray South Tidal Project, Fair Head Tidal Array, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project, Ness of Duncansby Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Vessel disturbance

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Marine Mammals
seals
Mitigation

Employ an MMO during periods when noisy operations are likely to cause disturbance (e.g., all operations using a DP vessel).

None identified

None identified

SAE Renewables 2011, Orbital Marine Power 2010, Minesto 2016, Foubister 2005, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, Xodus Group 2019, Magallanes Renovables 2020, MeyGen 2012, DP Energy Ltd. 2013, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, THETIS Energy 2009, Davison and Mallows 2005, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC, Pelamis Wave Power P2 Demonstration at EMEC, Minesto Holyhead Deep - Non-grid connected DG500, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project, West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Torr Head Project, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Reptiles
Mitigation

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

None identified

Mocean Wave Energy Converter: Blue Horizon
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from landfall cables on sensitive species.

Benthic
Benthic invertebrates
Design feature

Limit cable voltage.

None identified

None identified

MeyGen 2012, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

Reduced visibility impacting prey detection and obstruction avoidance.

Birds
Mitigation

Best practice methodologies to reduce resuspension of sediment during cable burial or device foundation/mooring installation.

None identified

None identified

Foubister 2005, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Birds
Diving birds
Monitoring

Install tension sensors on mooring lines.

Informs of problem with mooring lines allowing rectification.

Cost per unit.

Additional cost and control system integration requirement.

Load from entangled animal is likely to be smaller than the device loading on the moorings.

Uncertainty of the efficacy of this measure.

Laminaria 2018, Fox 2019, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

Modifications to prey distribution and abundance (to include for other receptors) resulting in changes to foraging behaviour.

Fish
Design feature

Design structures to minimize effect on turbulence structure.

Minimizes change in turbulence structure and hence potential interaction.

Can present financial, logistical, or design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device/moorings.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Fox 2019, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Ramsey Sound
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Fish
Migratory fish
Design feature

Bundle cables together to reduce field vectors.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Less redundancy in system.

Potential commercial and technical feasibility issues.

Greater costs associated with not laying direct cable paths.

MeyGen 2012, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Underwater noise

The potential effects from airborne noise from support vessel activity.

Fish
Mitigation

Adherence to Scottish Marine Wildlife Watching Code (SMWWC).

None identified

None identified

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, Magallanes Renovables 2020, Xodus Group 2019, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2020, Aquatera 2017, Laminaria 2018, Orbital Marine Power 2018, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, EMEC Scapa Flow Scale Wave Test Site, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC, Mocean Wave Energy Converter: Blue Horizon
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Habitat Creation

The introduction of infrastructure and artificial substrates will provide habitat and artificial refuges.

Habitat
Monitoring

Monitor near-field behaviors.

Reduces scientific uncertainty around collision risk, displacement, and other impacts.

Increased value/fecundity of commercially important species.

Can be expensive and difficult to deliver in practice.

May require additional licensing (e.g., echosounders).

Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Install propeller guards.

None identified

None identified

McGrath 2013, Fair Head Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Marine Mammals
Cetaceans
Mitigation

Install strain gauges on the device

Alerts the operator in the event of an entanglement event.

Magallanes Renovables 2020, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to removal or alteration of energy flow arising from devices and moorings or support structures.

Reptiles
Monitoring

Modelling to predict the interaction between changes in tidal flow, flux, and turbulence structure and animals.

Reduces scientific uncertainty so appropriate management measures can be employed

Limited management measures available to minimize interaction despite modelling to fully predict interaction

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Changes in sediment dynamics

The potential wider or secondary effects (siltation changes or smothering) on protected or sensitive sub-littoral seabed due to scour or siltation around devices and associated moorings, support structures, and export cables.

Benthic
Design feature

Minimize the amount of structure on the seabed.

Minimizes the changes in sediment dynamics due to presence of structure on the seabed.

Can present financial/ logistical/ design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device/moorings.

OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Fox 2019, Brims Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Habitat Creation

The introduction of infrastructure and artificial substrates may generate additional habitat diversity.

Benthic
Benthic species
Monitoring

Structure colonization and biofouling surveys.

Informs understanding of potential for increased prey availability and ecological diversity.

Cost associated with monitoring.

Magallanes Renovables 2020, Orbital Marine Power 2018, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Birds
Diving birds
Monitoring

Environmental monitoring to better understand near-field behaviour and avoidance.

Help reduce scientific uncertainty.

Can be a high cost associated with this.

Unclear how much monitoring will be required to fully understand this risk.

Technology is not advanced enough yet to do this efficiently.

Data mortgage (data generated more quickly than it can be analysed).

...Read more

Can be a high cost associated with this.

Unclear how much monitoring will be required to fully understand this risk.

Technology is not advanced enough yet to do this efficiently.

Data mortgage (data generated more quickly than it can be analysed).

Power supply availability - hard-wired vs. battery; power is required for monitoring and power availability can present logistical, financial, and technical challenges.

Interaction between equipment - e.g., multibeam sonar/ADCP/echosounder; there can be interaction between monitoring equipment which can present challenges in monitoring.

Certain equipment used such as PAM may actually effect behaviour themselves.

Read less
Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, Minesto 2016, SSE Renewables 2011, Xodus Group 2012, GlaxoSmithKlineMontrose 2012, Orbital Marine Power 2018, AECOM 2009, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Brims Tidal Array, Minesto Holyhead Deep - Non-grid connected DG500, Westray South Tidal Project, Costa Head Wave Farm, GSK Montrose Tidal Array, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC, Fundy Ocean Research Center for Energy (FORCE) Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Birds
Mitigation

Source vessels locally.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

None identified

McPherson 2015, Nova Innovation - Shetland Tidal Array, Mocean Wave Energy Converter: Blue Horizon
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Collision risk

Potential for collision with turbine blades.

Birds
Diving birds
Mitigation

Design proportion of swept area to structure area to minimize collision risk.

Could reduce the likelihood/consequence of potential collision events.

Can be a high cost associated with this.

Can present financial, logistical, or design challenges to technology developer to alter design of device.

Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in device mooring lines and cables.

Fish
Elasmobranch, large fish
Design feature, Monitoring

Routine inspections of mooring lines. Implement features into existing control systems to detect entanglement events.

Remove/reduce risk of entanglement.

Likely to be required as part of the technical monitoring of the device and therefore not an additional cost

Could be a costly measure for technology developers if not required as part of technical monitoring of device.

Argyll Tidal Limited 2013, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, Xodus Group 2019, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, Argyll Tidal Demonstrator Project, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, PacWave South Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

The potential wider or secondary effects (siltation changes or smothering) on protected or sensitive littoral habitat due to changes in tidal flow around devices and associated moorings, support structures, or landfall cables.

Habitat
Benthic invertebrates
Monitoring

Pre and post installation monitoring of sensitive benthic communities, based on visual surveys.

Reduce scientific uncertainty.

Interpretation of data for statistical purposes may not have power to detect change generated by impact.

May require correlation with detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics studies and physical flow measurements.

Orbital Marine Power 2014, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, ScottishPower Renewables 2010, The Marine Institute 2016, Orbital Marine Power 2018, EMEC Shapinsay Sound Scale Tidal Test Site, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array, Galway Bay Test Site, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Habitat
Mitigation

Establish and implement a Biofouling Management Plan.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer of non-native species.

Lack of industry specific guidance.

European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, Xodus Group 2019, Orbital Marine Power 2018, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for accidental or unplanned events which could lead to contamination of the marine environment.

Marine Mammals
Design feature

Physical Containment systems including bulk heads, closed circuit systems, pressure relief systems.

Reduces risk of contamination/pollution escaping from structure.

None identified

Foubister 2005, MeyGen 2012, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) 2011, The Marine Institute 2016, THETIS Energy 2009, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS), Galway Bay Test Site, Torr Head Project
Wave, Tidal Installation, Decommissioning Underwater noise

The potential effects from underwater noise generated during installation/construction (excluding piling).

Marine Mammals
Mitigation

Avoid/limit 'noisy works' within close proximity to sensitive sites (e.g., known seal haul outs during sensitive periods, defining appropriate clearance distances where necessary).

Could reduce potential effects on sensitive species during sensitive periods.

Could increase project construction timescales (e.g., if continuous drilling time is restricted or specific periods need to be avoided).

Orbital Marine Power 2014, Xodus AURORA 2010, Aquatera Ltd 2011, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, Davison and Mallows 2005, Xodus Group 2019, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, McGrath 2013, Aquatera 2017, The Marine Institute 2016, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, DP Energy Ltd. 2017, HS1000 at EMEC, Wello Penguin at EMEC, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Fair Head Tidal Array, Tocardo InToTidal at EMEC, Galway Bay Test Site, PacWave South Test Site, Fair Head Tidal Array
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Entanglement

Potential for marine animals to become entangled in lost fishing gear or other equipment trapped on infrastructure.

Reptiles
Sea turtles
Monitoring

Ensure standard notifications of loss of fishing gear in region notified to operators. Reporting of entanglement events.

Good practice for emergency preparedness.

Chances of lost fishing gear being reported is reportedly low.

Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Contamination

Potential for oil spill incident resulting from the influence of unfavorable weather conditions.

Benthic
Mitigation

Vessel activities to occur in suitable weather conditions.

Reduces the chance of oil spill to the environment.

None identified

MeyGen 2012, Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, ScottishPower Renewables 2012, Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) 2014, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Pelamis Wave Power P2 Demonstration at EMEC, U.S. Navy Wave Energy Test Site (WETS)
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Benthic
Compliance

Compliance with all relevant guidance (including IMO guidelines) regarding ballast water management and transfer of non-native species.

Reduce/remove risk of transfer and settlement of non-native species.

None identified

MeyGen 2012, McPherson 2015, OpenHydro and SSE Renewables 2013, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, Xodus Group 2019, Magallanes Renovables 2020, Royal Haskoning and Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. 2013, SSE Renewables 2011, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project, Nova Innovation - Shetland Tidal Array, Brims Tidal Array, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, EMEC Billia Croo Grid-Connected Wave Test Site, Magallanes Renovables ATIR at EMEC, Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Project, Westray South Tidal Project, Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Contamination

Potential for oil/hydraulic spill incident resulting from the maintenance activities.

Fish
Mitigation

All maintenance activities involving oil/hydraulic fluid treatments will be carried out on-shore.

Reduces the chance for oil spill to the environment.

None identified

Foubister 2005, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation Barrier to movement

Potential barrier to movement due to the physical presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures, cables and electrical equipment.

Fish
Design feature

Array/mooring configuration designed to avoid migratory routes or other important sites

Minimizes risk of development acting as a barrier to movement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

May be inconsistent with optimal layout of the development for exploitation of the energy source.

Can be a costly measure when scaling up to larger arrays.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Fox 2019, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance EMF

Impacts of electromagnetic fields from subsea cables on sensitive species.

Fish
Migratory fish, elasmobranchs
Design feature

Install cable protection, armor, rock placement, or other cable protection.

Reduce the level of EMF to surrounding water column and therefore any potential effects.

Reduces 'snagging risk' for vessels.

Creation of artificial habitat.

May have an impact on surrounding benthic habitats and sensitive species e.g smothering

Creation of artificial habitat may cause aggregation effect causing greater impact of EMF.

Increased cost to project.

Reduced possibilities for decommissioning in future.

Orbital Marine Power 2014, Foubister 2005, McGrath 2013, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 2020, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Fair Head Tidal Array, PacWave South Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Lighting

Potential for lighting to adversely affect nocturnal and migratory species.

Fish
Design feature

Consider type, color and use of lighting during design and consultation with navigational stakeholders.

Could reduce impacts on sensitive species if they are known to use or migrate near to the project site.

A targeted lighting plan may have the potential to reduce impacts on sensitive species but navigational interests need to be considered at all times

Navigational safety need to be considered at all times and may take precedent over ecological needs.

DP Energy Ltd. 2013, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2014, Tidal Lagoon Power 2017, AECOM 2009, West Islay Tidal Project Energy Park, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site, Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL), Fundy Ocean Research Center for Energy (FORCE) Test Site
Wave, Tidal Operation & Maintenance Contamination

Potential for oil/hydraulic spill incident resulting from the maintenance activities.

Habitat
Mitigation

All maintenance activities involving oil/hydraulic fluid treatments will be carried out on-shore.

Reduces the chance for oil spill to the environment.

None identified

Foubister 2005, EMEC Fall of Warness Grid-Connected Tidal Test Site
Tidal Operation & Maintenance Changes in water flow

Modifications to prey distribution and abundance (to include for other receptors) resulting in changes to foraging behaviour.

Marine Mammals
Monitoring

Observational surveys (including remote sensing) of bird and marine mammals (prey availability linked to benthic community).

Reduces scientific uncertainty.

Statistical power of studies can be low. Can be difficult to distinguish between natural variation and direct effects of energy removal from the system.

Monitoring may be expensive.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, GlaxoSmithKlineMontrose 2012, Orbital Marine Power 2014, Tidal Energy Ltd 2008, Xodus AURORA 2010, European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, McGrath 2013, Xodus Group 2012, Orbital Marine Power 2018, AECOM 2009, Oyster 800 at EMEC, GSK Montrose Tidal Array, Ramsey Sound, HS1000 at EMEC, EMEC Shapinsay Sound Scale Tidal Test Site, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen), Fair Head Tidal Array, Orbital Marine Power O2 at EMEC, Fundy Ocean Research Center for Energy (FORCE) Test Site
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Displacement

Potential displacement of essential activities due to the presence of devices and associated moorings/support structures.

Marine Mammals
Design feature

Array/mooring configuration designed to avoid migratory routes or other important sites.

Minimizes risk of development creating displacement by avoiding migratory routes or other important sites.

May be inconsistent with optimal layout of the development for exploitation of the energy source.

Can be a costly measure when scaling up to larger arrays.

Aquamarine Power Ltd 2011, Davison and Mallows 2005, Fox 2019, Oyster 800 at EMEC, Strangford Lough - MCT (SeaGen)
Wave, Tidal Decommissioning Vessel disturbance

Potential for disturbance from project vessels.

Marine Mammals
Cetaceans, seals
Mitigation

Limit use of vessels, e.g. one vessel present with regular use of thrusters to maintain position.

Reduces potential disturbance effects.

None identified

Low 2012, MeyGen 2012, Atlantis Resources Corporation at EMEC, MeyGen Tidal Energy Project
Wave, Tidal Installation, Operation & Maintenance, Decommissioning Marine Non-Native Species (MNNS)

Potential for introduction of MNNS which can have an adverse impact on the native species at the site.

Reptiles
Monitoring

Monitoring and reporting of MNNS.

Reduces/removes risk of transfer of non-native species.

None identified