United States of America



United States of America (USA) is located in North America, covering 9,833,517 km2 (3,796,742 mile2) of land surface and having a population of 324 Million (2016).  The USA’s primary energy production is 21,791 terawatt-hours (TWh), and energy supply per capita is 79 MWh (UN data, 2013). Natural gas is the largest source of primary energy production, while oil is the largest source of primary energy consumption (EIA, 2016). 1,299 species are listed as threatened (UN data, 2015, excluding overseas territories).

 

As of 2017, the USA has 530 kW installed capacity of wave power, with an additional 335 kW capacity of MRE in the planning phase including wave, tidal, and riverine energy (OES). USA is currently a member of Ocean Energy Systems and leads Annex IV.

 

As of 2016, the USA has 82,143 MW total installed wind power capacity, including 30 MW offshore capacity (IEA Wind, 2016). USA generated 226 TWh of electricity from wind in 2016 (IEA Wind).  The USA is currently a member of IEA Wind and leads the WREN initiative.

Total Results: 1199
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
NYSERDA Environmental Research Program Plan Research Area 4: Marine Wind and Wildlife New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Observation of Sandhill Cranes' (Grus canadensis) Flight Behavior in Heavy Fog Kirsch, E., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Observations Of Turbulent Flow Fields In The Chesapeake Bay Estuary For Tidal Energy Conversion Luznik, L., Flack, K. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Observing Cable Laying and Particle Settlement During the Construction of the Block Island Wind Farm James, E., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device
Observing Ocean Changes at the Nation's First SWAC System Comfort, C., et al. September 2013 Presentation Marine Energy general, OTEC Ecosystem
Obtaining Baseline Measurements of Ocean Ambient Sound at a Mobile Test Berth Site for Wave Energy Conversion Off the Central Oregon Coast Haxel, J., Dziak, R., Matsumoto, H. December 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Noise
Ocean Current Turbine Rotor Noise August 2010 Research Study Annex IV Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Ocean Energy: Governance Challenges for Wave and Tidal Stream Technologies Wright, G., Kerr, S., Johnson, K. January 2018 Book Marine Energy general Socio-economics
Ocean Planning and the Gulf of Maine: Exploring Bi-National Policy Options Fanning, L., Heimes, R. May 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Environmental Impacts NOAA Office of Ocean & Coastal Resource Management January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Assessing Potential Physical, Chemical and Biological Impacts and Risks Coastal Response Research Center June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Environmental Effects Assessment Program Plan, 1981-85 NOAA Office of Ocean Minerals and Energy June 1982 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Energy Removal, Static Device
Ocean Wave Energy in the United States: Current Status and Future Perspectives Lehmann, M., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 1: Overview, Summary, and Application Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 2: Avian Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 3: Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Reptiles
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 4: Fish and Fisheries Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Fish
OCGen Module Mooring Design Marnagh, C., et al. April 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
OES Annual Report 2011 Ocean Energy Systems (OES) January 2012 Report Marine Energy general Socio-economics
Offshore Activity of Bats Along the Mid-Atlantic Coast Sjollema, A., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Bats
Offshore Observations of Eastern Red Bats (Lasiurus borealis) in the Mid-Atlantic United States Using Multiple Survey Methods Hatch, S., et al. December 2013 Journal Article Bats
Offshore Renewable Energy Regulatory Primer Showalter, S., Bowling, T. October 2011 Report Marine Energy general Socio-economics
Offshore Wave Power in the US: Environmental Issues Hagerman, G., Bedard, R. December 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Offshore Wind Energy Development Site Assessment and Characterization: Evaluation of the Current Status and European Experience Rein, C., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Socio-economics, Stakeholder Engagement
Offshore Wind Energy: Understanding Impacts on Great Lakes Fishery and Other Aquatic Resources GLWC, GLC March 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Ecosystem
Offshore Wind Farms in the Western Great Lakes: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of their Potential Hingtgen, J. January 2003 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Oil Platforms off California are Among the Most Productive Marine Fish Habitats Globally Claisse, J., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Static Device Fish
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Fish National Marine Sanctuaries August 2010 Website Fish
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Invertebrates List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website Benthic Invertebrates
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Marine Mammals List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Seabirds List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
On-Shore Bird and Bat Pre- and Post-Construction Monitoring Protocol for Commercial Wind Energy Facilities in Ohio: An Addendum to the Ohio Department of Natural Resources Voluntary Cooperative Agreement Ohio Department of Natural Resources May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Open-Ocean Energy Production: The Environmental Context Hanson, H. June 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Reptiles
Opportunistically collected data reveal habitat selection by migrating Whooping Cranes in the US Northern Plains Niemuth, N., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Opposition "overblown"? Community response to wind energy siting in the Western United States Giordono, L., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general Socio-economics
Optimal Avoidance and Evasion Tactics in Predator-Prey Interactions Weihs, D., Webb, P. January 1984 Journal Article Ecosystem
Optimizing Conservation Strategies for Mexican Free-Tailed Bats: A Population Viability and Ecosystem Services Approach Wiederholt, R., et al. September 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Ecosystem
Optimizing Wind Power Generation while Minimizing Wildlife Impacts in an Urban Area Bohrer, G., et al. February 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Oregon Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Wind Energy: Siting and Permitting Guidelines Iberdrola Renewables, et al. September 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device
Oregon Dungeness Crab Tagging Study Hildenbrand, K., Gladics, A., Eder, B. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates
Oregon Historic Sites Database Oregon State Parks January 2012 Website Socio-economics
Oregon Marine Map MarineMap Consortium January 2012 Website Marine Energy general Static Device Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Oregon State University and Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center Wave Energy Test Project US Department of Energy August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Oregon's High Desert and Wind Energy: Opportunities and Strategies for Responsible Development Oregon Natural Desert Association May 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Orientation Behaviour of Leatherback Sea Turtles within the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre Dodge, K., Galuardi, B., Lutcavage, M. April 2015 Journal Article Reptiles
Overcoming Biological Data Deficiencies in Environmental Permitting for Offshore Wind Energy Ryan, K. May 2018 Thesis Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind
Overview of Environmental Effects: OTEC vs Other Power Generation Methods Martí, J. May 2007 Presentation Marine Energy general, OTEC Static Device
Pacific Coast Fisheries GIS Resource Database US Geological Survey January 2015 Website Socio-economics
Pacific Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment (PaCSEA): Aerial Seabird and Marine Mammal Surveys off Northern California, Oregon, and Washington, 2011-2012 Adams, J., et al. March 2014 Report Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Partial Re-Assessment of an Adaptive management Plan for the APWRA: Accounting for Turbine Size Smallwood, S., Spiegel, L. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Patterns of Acoustical Activity of Bats Prior to and Following White-Nose Syndrome Occurrence Ford, W., et al. January 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Patterns of Avian and Bat Mortality at a Utility-Scaled Wind Farm on the Southern High Plains Miller, A. August 2008 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Patterns of Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North America Arnett, E., et al. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Patterns of Bat Fatality at the Casselman Wind Project in South-Central Pennsylvania: 2008 Annual Report Arnett, E., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Patterns of Benthic Mega-Invertebrate Habitat Associations in the Pacific Northwest Continental Shelf Waters Hemery, L., Henkel, S. July 2015 Journal Article Benthic Invertebrates
Patterns of Benthic Mega-Invertebrate Habitat Associations in the Pacific Northwest Continental Shelf Waters: A Reassessment Hemery, L., Henkel, S. August 2016 Journal Article Benthic Invertebrates
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Acoustic Activity at the Proposed Resolute Wind Energy Project, Wyoming, 2009-2010 Hein, C., et al. October 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at a Proposed Wind Facility in Northwest Massachusetts: 2006 Annual Report Arnett, E., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Pennsylvania Arnett, E., Hayes, J., Huso, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at the Proposed Hoosac Wind Energy Project, Massachusetts, 2006-2007 Hein, C., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity Determined Using Acoustic Monitoring at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Wisconsin Redell, D., et al. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Pelagic Seabirds off the East Coast of the United States 2008-2013 Veit, R., et al. January 2015 Report Birds
Pennsylvania Game Commission Wind Energy Voluntary Cooperation Agreement: Amendment I Pennsylvania Game Commission July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Socio-economics
Performance and Near-Wake Measurements for a Vertical Axis Turbine at Moderate Reynolds Number Bachant, P., Wosnik, M. July 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general Nearfield Habitat
Performance and resilience of hydrokinetic turbine arrays under large migrating fluvial bedforms Musa, M., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Petroleum Production Platforms as Sites for the Expansion of Ciguatera in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico Villareal, T., et al. February 2007 Journal Article Static Device Fish, Socio-economics
PG&E WaveConnect Program Final Report Dooher, B., et al. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Socio-economics
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Flat Rock Wind Power Project, Lewis County, New York Kerlinger, P. February 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment for the Windmar Project, Guyanilla, Puerto Rico Kerlinger, P. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment: Clayton Wind Farm Jefferson County, New York Kerlinger, P., Guarnaccia, J. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Phase I Avian Risk Assessment: Herkimer Wind Farm Herkimer County, New York Kerlinger, P., Guarnaccia, J. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds
Phase I Bat Risk Assessment: Mount Wachusett Community College Wind Energy Project Worcester County, Massachusetts Reynolds, D., Veilleux, J. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats
Physical and Biological Modeling of a 100 Megawatt Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Discharge Plume Rocheleau, G., Grandelli, P. September 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, OTEC Static Device
PMEC: Tanana River Test Site Kasper, J., et al. October 2014 Presentation Marine Energy general, Riverine Fish
Ponnequin Wind Energy Project: Reference Site Avian Study Kerlinger, P., Curry, R., Ryder, R. April 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Population Dynamics and Movements of Translocated and Resident Greater Sage-Grouse on Anthro Mountain, Utah Gruber, N. December 2012 Thesis Birds
Population-Level Effects of Wind Farms on a Desert Lizard Keehn, J., Shoemaker, K., Feldman, C. January 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Nearfield Habitat
Portland General Electric Biglow Canyon Wind Farm Phase I Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring First Annual Report Sherman County, Oregon: January, 2008 - December, 2008 Jeffrey, J., et al. April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Post-construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring and Grassland Bird Displacement Surveys at the Judith Gap Wind Energy Project, Wheatland County, Montana TRC Environmental Corporation January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Post-Construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring Study for the High Winds Wind Power Project Solano County, California: Two Year Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California Kerlinger, P., et al. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California Year One Final Report Kerlinger, P., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California, Two Year Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Post-Construction Bird and Bat Mortality Study Cedar Ridge Wind Farm Fond Du Lac County, Wisconsin BHE Environmental, Inc. February 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Post-Construction Meteorological Tower Fatality Study at the Shiloh I Wind Project Site Solano County, California Final Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Post-construction monitoring report for avian and bat mortality at the NPPD Ainsworth Wind Farm Derby, C., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds
Post‐Construction Bat and Bird Fatality Study at the Blue Sky Green Field Wind Energy Center, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin: July 21, 2008 – October 31, 2008 and March 15, 2009 – June 4, 2009 Gruver, J., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Potential Benefits of Vessel Slowdowns on Endangered Southern Resident Killer Whales Joy, R., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Potential Effects of the Interaction Between Marine Mammals and Tidal Turbines - An Engineering and Biomechanical Analysis Carlson, T., Jepsen, R., Copping, A. September 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Potential Environmental Consequences of Enhanced Ocean Upwelling Karl, D., et al. September 2013 Presentation Marine Energy general, OTEC Energy Removal Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Environmental Effects of Leading Edge Hydrokinetic Energy Technology Sudderth, E., et al. May 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Potential Environmental Impacts of Open-Cycle Thermal Energy Conversion Quinby-Hunt, M., Wilde, P., Dengler, A. January 1986 Journal Article Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Energy Removal
Potential Impact of Submarine Power Cables on Crab Harvest Bull, A., Nishimoto, M. February 2016 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates
Potential Impact of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy Wind Turbine on Common (Sterna hirundo) and Roseate (S. dougallii) Terns Vlietstra, L. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Seabirds
Potential Impact of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy Wind Turbine on Common and Roseate Terns Vlietstra, L. June 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Seabirds
Potential Impacts from a Worst Case Discharge from an United States Offshore Wind Farm Gunter, T. January 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals
Potential Impacts from OTEC-Generated Underwater Sounds Rucker, J., Friedl, W. November 1985 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, OTEC Noise
Potential impacts of artificial reef development on sea turtle conservation in Florida Barnette, M. January 2017 Report Static Device Nearfield Habitat, Reptiles
Potential Impacts of Ocean Acidification on the Puget Sound Food Web Busch, D., Harvey, C., McElhany, P. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general Ecosystem
Potential Impacts of Ocean Energy Development on Marine Mammals in Oregon Davis, A. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Marine Mammals, Cetaceans

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