Tidal

Capturing tidal fluctuations with turbines, reciprocating devices, kites, screws, barrages, or lagoons.

Gravity from the moon and sun cause water in the ocean to bulge in a cyclical pattern as the Earth rotates, causing water to rise and fall relative to the land in what are known as tides. Land constrictions such as straits or inlets can create high velocities at specific sites, which can be captured with the use of devices such as turbines. Since seawater is about 800 times denser than air, tidal turbines can collect energy with slower water currents and smaller turbines than wind energy. While tidal currents are very predictable, challenges arise due to the need for devices to collect flow from opposite directions and survive the harsh corrosive marine environment.

 

Environmental effects will vary between the seven most common approaches: axial flow turbine, cross flow turbine, reciprocating device, tidal kite, Archimedes screw, tidal lagoon, and tidal barrage.

 

Axial Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are the most similar to traditional windmills, where the kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades facing the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

The main environmental concern is collision between turbine blades and marine organisms due to natural animal movements, attraction to the device, or inability to avoid the turbines within strong currents. It should be noted that these turbines spin much slower than propellers on ships. There is also concern that noise from turbines can affect animals that use sound for communication, social interaction, orientation, predation, and evasion. As with all electricity generation, there is a slight concern that electromagnetic fields generated by power cables and moving parts may affect animals that use Earth's natural magnetic field for orientation, navigation, and hunting. Likewise, chemicals such as anti-corrosion paint and small amounts of oil and grease may enter the waterbody during spills, though some turbine designs do not require lubrication. Large-scale tidal energy removal (from arrays) may disrupt natural physical systems to cause degradation in water quality or changes in sediment transport, potentially affecting the ecosystem.

Cross Flow Turbine

 

These turbines are generally cylindrical on a horizontal axis, where kinetic energy of moving water is captured by spinning blades oriented transversely to the direction of flow. Turbines can be open or ducted (shrouded) and placed anywhere in the water column, though bottom-mounted is the most common.

 

There is typically less environmental concern for collision between turbine blades and marine organisms because blades are spinning in the same direction to the flow of water, depending on the design. Concerns about noise, electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of axial flow turbines.

Reciprocating Device

 

Reciprocating devices do not have rotating components, but instead have a hydrofoil that is pushed back and forth transverse to the flow direction by lift or drag. Oscillating devices are the most common form of reciprocating devices.

 

Reciprocating devices often move slower than turbines, but move more freely in the water, resulting in some concern for collision. Reciprocating devices often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Kite

 

A tidal kite is comprised of a hydrodynamic wing, with a turbine attached, tethered by a cable to a fixed point that leverages water flow to lift the wing. As the kite 'flies' loops through the water, the speed increases around the turbine, allowing more energy extraction for slower currents. The kite is neutrally buoyant so as not to fall as the tide changes direction.

 

Collision risk may be of some concern with tidal kites. Although animals are more likely to collide with the tether than the kite itself, little is known about the ability of animals to detect the free movement of some tidal kites. Tidal kites emit noise over a larger frequency than horizontal axis turbines, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Archimedes Screw

 

Historically designed to efficiently transfer water up a tube, an Archimedes screw is a helical surface surrounding a ventral cylindrical shaft. Energy is generated as water flow moves up the spiral and rotates the device.

 

The helical turbine moves very slowly relative to other tidal technologies, and is likely to have little collision risk. Archimedes screws often produce little noise, though this depends on the design and generator. Concerns about electromagnetic fields, chemicals, and energy removal are similar to that of other tidal devices.

Tidal Lagoon

 

Tidal lagoons are comprised of retaining walls embedded with reversible low-head turbines that surround a large reservoir. Tides cause a difference in the water height inside and outside of the walls, functioning very similar to a low-head conventional hydrokinetic dam that works in both direction.

 

The ecosystem within the reservoir undergoes significant transformation, potentially yielding positive impacts with a more diverse seabed, depending on site selection. The changes to the physical system are similar to conventional marine engineering projects and can include altering water flow and shoreline processes partially due to energy removal. Decreased flushing of the reservoir may cause some problems for water quality. There are some collision concerns that arise if fish and benthic invertebrates try to traverse the retaining wall through turbines. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection. There is little concern for electromagnetic fields because cables are embedded in the retaining wall and are not openly exposed to water. The new reservoir may also create calmer waters that allow better recreation.

Tidal Barrage

 

Tidal barrages are dams built across the entrance to a bay or estuary that captures potential tidal energy, similar to tidal lagoons. Energy is collected when the height difference on either side of the dam is greatest, at low or high tide. A minimum height fluctuation of 5 meters (16.4 feet) is required to justify the construction, so only 40 locations worldwide have been identified as feasible.

 

Installing a tidal barrage impacts bay or estuary ecosystems due to the alteration of tidal flows and can have negative effects such as changing the shoreline and important tidal flats. Inhibiting the flow of water in and out of the bay, may also lead to less flushing of the bay or estuary, altering the water quality, and potentially causing additional turbidity (suspended solids) and less saltwater, which may result in the death of fish that act as a vital food source to birds and mammals. Migrating fish may also be unable to access breeding streams, and may attempt to pass through the turbines and risk collision. Impacts from noise depend on turbine selection, similar to tidal lagoons. Decreasing shipping accessibility can become a major socio-economic issue, though locks can be added to allow slow passage. However, the barrage may improve the local economy by increasing land access when used as a bridge and allowing for more recreation opportunities due to calmer waters.

Total Results: 677
Title Author Date Type of Content Technology Typesort descending Stressor Receptor
Admiralty Inlet Pilot Tidal Project Tehani Montaron April 2014 Blog Article Tidal
Fair Head Tidal Array Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project - Phase I November 2016 Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Anglesey Skerries Tidal Stream Array Planned Project Site OES-Environmental Marine Energy general, Tidal
Tidal Energy Community Engagement Handbook Isaacman, L., Colton, J. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Community and Business Toolkit for Tidal Energy Development MacDougall, S., Colton, J. March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Assessment of the Potential of Tidal Power from Minas Passage and Minas Basin Karsten, R., et al. November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat, Human Dimensions
Assessing the Far Field Effects of Tidal Power Extraction on the Bay of Fundy, Gulf of Maine and Scotian Shelf Sheng, J., et al. June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Sediment-Laden Ice Measurements and Observations, and Implications for Potential Interactions of Ice and Large Woody Debris with Tidal Turbines in Minas Passage Sanderson, B., Redden, A., Broome, J. February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Hydrodynamic Impacts of Power Generation by Tidal Lagoons in the Bay of Fundy Cornett, A., Cousineau, J. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Near Field Effects of Tidal Power Extraction on Extreme Events and Coastline Integrity in the Bay of Fundy Watanabe, R. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Impacts of Tidal Energy Extraction on Sediment Dynamics in Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy, NS Smith, P., et al. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Effects of Energy Extraction on Sediment Dynamics in Intertidal Ecosystems of the Minas Basin van Proosdij, D., et al. February 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Passive Acoustic Monitoring of Cetacean Activity Patterns and Movements in Minas Passage: Pre-Turbine Baseline Conditions Tollit, D., Redden, A. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Cross Coupling between Device Level CFD and Oceanographic Models Applied to Multiple TISECs in Minas Passage Klaptocz, V., et al. February 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Energy of Marine Currents in the Strait of Gibraltar and its Potential as a Renewable Energy Resource Quesada, M., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Slipstream Between Marine Current Turbine and Seabed Chen, L., Lam, W. April 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Flow-Noise and Turbulence in Two Tidal Channels Bassett, C., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Environmental Risk Evaluation System - An Approach to Ranking Risk of Ocean Energy Development on Coastal and Estuarine Environments Copping, A., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Interactions of Marine and Avian Animals Around Marine Energy Devices in Scotland Molly Grear May 2014 Blog Article Tidal, Wave
Influence of Site Bathymetry on Tidal Resource Assessment Perez-Ortiz, A., et al. August 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal
Simulating Blade-Strike on Fish Passing Through Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines Romero-Gomez, P., Richmond, M. November 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Riverine, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Survey, Deploy and Monitor Licensing Policy Guidance Marine Scotland August 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Humanity and the Sea: Marine Renewable Energy Technology and Environmental Interactions Shields, M., Payne, A. January 2014 Book Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Admiralty Inlet Final Environmental Assessment Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 August 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions
Floating Vs. Bottom-Fixed Turbines for Tidal Stream Energy: A Comparative Impact Assessment Sanchez, M., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Sound of Islay Demonstration Tidal Array, Cable Route Environmental Information ScottishPower Renewables May 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Array Optimization for Tidal Energy Extraction in a Tidal Channel - A Numerical Modeling Analysis Yang, Z., Wang, T., Copping, A. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Annex IV - Investigating Environmental Effects of Wave and Tidal Devices Through International Cooperation Copping, A., et al. April 2014 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Fish, Marine Mammals
In-Situ Ecological Interactions with a Deployed Tidal Energy Device; An Observational Pilot Study Broadhurst, M., Barr, S., Orme, D. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Fish
Animals Interacting with Wave and Tidal Devices Andrea Copping July 2014 Blog Article Tidal, Wave
Assessing the Influence of Inflow Turbulence on Noise and Performance of a Tidal Turbine using Large Eddy Simulations Lloyd, T., Turnock, S., Humphrey, V. November 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Impact of Tidal-Stream Arrays in Relation to the Natural Variability of Sedimentary Processes Robins, P., Neill, S., Lewis, M. December 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Numerical Modelling of the Effect of Turbines on Currents in a Tidal Channel - Tory Channel, New Zealand Plew, D., Stevens, C. September 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Tidal Flows in Te Aumiti (French Pass), South Island, New Zealand Stevens, C., et al. November 2008 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Tidal Stream Energy Extraction in a Large Deep Strait: The Karori Rip, Cook Strait Stevens, C., et al. February 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
First Interim Report of the Working Group on Marine Renewable Energy (WGMRE) International Council for the Exploration of the Sea April 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Ecosystem
Dynamics of a Floating Platform Mounting a Hydrokinetic Turbine Dewhurst, T., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Wake Effects in Tidal Current Turbine Farms Macleod, A., et al. January 2002 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Maine Tidal Power Initiative: Environmental Impact Protocols for Tidal Power Peterson, M. February 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Insights from Archaeological Analysis and Interpretation of Marine Data Sets to Inform Marine Cultural Heritage Management and Planning of Wave and Tidal Energy Development for Orkney Waters and the Pentland Firth, NE Scotland Pollard, E., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Human Dimensions
Spatial and Temporal Benthic Species Assemblage Responses with a Deployed Marine Tidal Energy Device: A Small Scaled Study Broadhurst, M., Orme, C. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Ecosystem
Fish Interactions with a Commercial-Scale Tidal Energy Device in the Natural Environment Viehman, H., Zydlewski, G. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Decision Support Tools for Collaborative Marine Spatial Planning: Identifying Potential Sites for Tidal Energy Devices Around the Mull of Kintyre, Scotland Janssen, R., Arciniegas, G., Alexander, K. March 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
Developing Capabilities for Tidal Hydrokinetic Blade Strike Monitoring Polagye, B., et al. September 2011 Presentation Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device
Instream Tidal Power in North America: Environmental and Permitting Issues Devine Tarbell & Associates June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem, Human Dimensions
INORE: Sharing is Knowing Cameron McNatt and Michele Martini October 2014 Blog Article OTEC, Tidal, Wave, Offshore Wind
Multibeam Imaging of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices Williamson, B., Blondel, P. December 2012 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Fish
Update on the Marine Environmental Consequences of Tidal Power Development in the Upper Reaches of the Bay of Fundy Gordon, D., Dadswell, M. June 1984 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Numerical Modeling of the Effect of Tidal Stream Turbines on the Hydrodynamics and the Sediment Transport - Application to the Alderney Race (Raz Blanchard), France Thiébot, J., de Bois, P., Guillou, S. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The Use of Acoustic Devices to Warn Marine Mammals of Tidal-Stream Energy Devices Wilson, B., Carter, C. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Environment Description for the EMEC Tidal Test Site Fall of Warness, Orkney Finn, M. December 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Nearfield Habitat
The Ecology of Marine Tidal Race Environments and the Impact of Tidal Energy Development Broadhurst, M. January 2013 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal Static Device Invertebrates, Fish
EMEC Fall of Warness Tidal Test Site: Wildlife Observations Project Annual Report Marine Scotland May 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Analysis of Bird and Marine Mammal Data for Fall of Warness Tidal Test Site, Orkney Robbins, A. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
A Modeling Study of the Potential Water Quality Impacts from In-Stream Tidal Energy Extraction Wang, T., Yang, Z., Copping, A. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Using Hydroacoustics to Understand Fish Presence and Vertical Distribution in a Tidally Dynamic Region Targeted for Energy Extraction Viehman, H., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Fish
Tidal Power Development in Maine: Stakeholder Identification and Perceptions of Engagement Johnson, T., Jansujwicz, J., Zydlewski, G. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Public Perceptions and Externalities in Tidal Stream Energy: A Valuation for Policy Making Vazquez, A., Iglesias, G. March 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
The Regulation of Tidal Energy Development Off Nova Scotia: Navigating Foggy Waters Doelle, M., et al. September 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
A Tidal Power Project Wright, G. September 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Marine Spatial Plan Framework & Regional Locational Guidance for Marine Energy Marine Scotland January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Static Device Human Dimensions, Marine Spatial Planning
A Diving Bird Collision Risk Assessment Framework for Tidal Turbines Grant, M., Trinder, M., Harding, N. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds
Diving Behaviour of Black Guillemots Cepphus grylle in the Pentland Firth, UK: Potential for Interactions with Tidal Stream Energy Developments Masden, E., Foster, S., Jackson, A. October 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds
Evaluation of Behavior and Survival of Fish Exposed to an Axial-Flow Hydrokinetic Turbine Amaral, S., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Enhancing Local Distinctiveness Fosters Public Acceptance of Tidal Energy: A UK Case Study Devine-Wright, P. January 2011 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Examining the Impacts of Tidal Energy Capture from an Ecosystem Services Perspective Leslie, H., Palmer, M. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Ecosystem
Economic Evaluation of the Recreational Value of the Coastal Environment in a Marine Renewables Deployment Area Voke, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal Human Dimensions, Aesthetics, Recreation
Tidal Resource Extraction in the Pentland Firth, UK: Potential Impacts on Flow Regime and Sediment Transport in the Inner Sound of Stroma Martin-Short, R., et al. April 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
The Maine Tidal Power Initiative: Transdisciplinary Sustainability Science Research for the Responsible Development of Tidal Power Jansujwicz, J., Johnson, T. January 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Human Dimensions
The Cumulative Impact of Tidal Stream Turbine Arrays on Sediment Transport in the Pentland Firth Fairley, I., Masters, I., Karunarathna, H. August 2015 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
A Self-Contained Subsea Platform for Acoustic Monitoring of the Environment Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices - Field Deployments at Wave and Tidal Energy Sites in Orkney, Scotland Williamson, B., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Renewable Energy Resources: Environmental Impact Chapter Tiwari, G., Ghosal, M. January 2005 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, OTEC, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device
Flocculation and Sediment Deposition in a Hypertidal Creek O'Laughlin, C., van Proosdij, D., Milligan, T. July 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
D2.2 Collation of Tidal Test Options McCombes, T., et al. October 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
D2.7 Tidal Measurement Best Practice Manual Elsaesser, B., et al. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
D2.16 Tidal Test Parameter Overview Germain, G. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
D2.18 Tidal Data Analysis Best Practice Grant, A., McCombes, T., Johnstone, C. October 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
MR3 Methods for Tracking Fine Scale Movements of Marine Mammals around Marine Tidal Devices McConnell, B., et al. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Macrotidal Estuaries: A Region of Collision Between Migratory Marine Animals and Tidal Power Development Dadswell, M., Rulifson, R. January 1994 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish, Marine Mammals
Proceedings of the 4th Oxford Tidal Energy Workshop University of Oxford March 2015 Workshop Article Marine Energy general, Tidal
Scoping Study: Review of Current Knowledge of Underwater Noise Emissions from Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Robinson, S., Lepper, P. August 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise
Environmental Assessment Registration Document - Fundy Tidal Energy Demonstration Project Volume I: Environmental Assessment AECOM June 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Monitoring Report - 2011 Installation of Monopile at Voith Hydro Test Berth, Fall of Warness, Orkney Aquatera November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
EMEC Fall of Warness Test Site: Environmental Appraisal European Marine Energy Centre August 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Scotrenewables Tidal Power Ltd SR250 Deployment Fall of Warness: Environmental Statement Volume II - Appendices Scotrenewables Tidal Power October 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal
Comparison of Underwater Background Noise during Spring and Neap Tide in a High Tidal Current Site: Ramsey Sound Broudic, M., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Enabling Actions Report: Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Wave and Tidal Stream Projects and Migratory Salmonids Slaski, R., Hirst, D., Gray, S. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Fish
Shapinsay Sound Tidal Test Site: Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Fall of Warness Tidal Test Site: Additional Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Modelling Techniques for Underwater Noise Generated by Tidal Turbines in Shallow Waters Lloyd, T., Turnock, S., Humphrey, V. June 2011 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
Measurement of Long-Term Ambient Noise and Tidal Turbine Levels in the Bay of Fundy Martin, B., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1: Environmental Statement MeyGen January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Sediment-Generated Noise and Bed Stress in a Tidal Channel Bassett, C., Thomson, J., Polagye, B. April 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Noise
Confusion Reigns? A Review of Marine Megafauna Interactions with Tidal-Stream Environments Benjamins, S., et al. August 2015 Book Chapter Marine Energy general, Tidal Birds, Marine Mammals
Attitudes towards Marine Energy: Understanding the Values de Groot, J. March 2015 Thesis Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Human Dimensions, Stakeholder Engagement
Hydrokinetic Turbine Models in Complex Channel Topography: Local Scour, Sediment Transport and Device Performance Hill, C., et al. July 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal
Annex I: Movements and Diving Behaviour of Juvenile Grey Seals in Areas of High Tidal Energy Thompson, D. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Guidance to Inform Marine Mammal Site Characterisation Requirements at Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Sites in Wales Sparling, C., et al. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Marine Mammals
Towards Acoustic Monitoring of Marine Mammals at a Tidal Turbine Site: Grand Passage, NS, Canada Malinka, C., Hay, A., Cheel, R. September 2015 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal Marine Mammals

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