Raptors

Birds of prey that hunt and feed on small animals.

Raptors

Raptors have keen vision that allows them to detect distant prey, which consists of small animals that are hunted with powerful talons and beaks. Most raptors supplement their diet with carrion, while vultures and condors eat carrion as their primary food source. Many species are considered apex predators. Raptors have wind-specific flight behaviors and typically hunt from perches by soaring during high winds. Soaring on thermals brings raptors to the same elevation as wind turbine blades, which can pose a high risk for collision. Raptor populations are at the greatest risk from human activities because they tend to be long-lived, mature late, and lay few eggs. Mitigation can include locating wind farms away from prime habitat, turning off turbines during peak raptor presence, dismantling specific turbines that are shown to cause raptor deaths, and upgrading old smaller turbines with new taller turbines. Power lines may also pose risk of electrocution because larger raptors may more easily connect conductive components and may be inclined to perch atop power poles.

Photo Credit: "White-tailed Eagle in Mull, Scotland" by Jacob Spinks

Total Results: 259
Titlesort descending Author Date Type of Content Technology Type Stressor Receptor
Eagle Take Minimization System Petr, R., Knag, J., Laufer, E. March 2018 Report Wind Energy general Birds, Raptors
Eagles and Wind Energy: Identifying Research Priorities Allison, T. May 2012 Report Wind Energy general Birds, Raptors
Ecological Baseline Study for the Zintel Canyon Wind Project Erickson, W., et al. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Ecological Survey and Impact Assessment for the Proposed Cable Route Corridor and Substation, Walpole, Lincolnshire, & Norfolk Lapwings Consultants September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
Effect Studies Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee - Final Report on Fluxes, Flight Altitudes and Behaviour of Flying Birds Krijgsveld, K., et al. November 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Effects of Individuals Lost Due to Wind Turbines on the Time of Occupying a Territory, the Survival of Breeding Territories and the Breeding Success of White-Tailed Sea Eagles (Case Studies) Grunkorn, T., Nehls, G. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Effects of Weather on Avian Migration at Proposed Ridgeline Wind Energy Sites Thomas, P., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Effects of wind farms and food scarcity on a large scavenging bird species following an epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy Martinez-Abrain, A., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem
Effects of Wind Farms on Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus) in Southern Spain Hernández-Pliego, J., et al. November 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Effects of Wind Turbines on Birds and Bats in Northeastern Wisconsin Howe, R., Evans, W., Wolf, A. November 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Effects of Wind Turbines on Nesting Raptors at Buffalo Ridge in Southwestern Minnesota Usgaard, R., et al. January 1997 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Effects on Birds of an Offshore Wind Park at Horns Rev: Environmental Impact Assessment Noer, H., et al. January 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Assessment: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project North Dakota Western Area Power Administration April 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Estimating Potential Costs of Cumulative Barrier Effects on Migrating Raptors: A Case Study Using Global Positioning System Tracking in Japan Kikuchi, D., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Birds, Raptors
Estimating the Potential Mortality of Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus) Due to Wind Energy Development on the Island of Crete (Greece) Xirouchakis, S., et al. March 2019 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Raptors
Fall 2004 Avian Migration Surveys at the Proposed Deerfield Wind/Searsburg Expansion Project in Searsburg and Readsboro, Vermont Roy, R., Pelletier, S. April 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Fixed Point Raptor Migration Survey at the National Wind Technology Center: April 2010 Ryon, T., Brenda, B. June 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Flight Response to Spatial and Temporal Correlates Informs Risk from Wind Turbines to the California Condor Poessel, S., et al. May 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Framework for Testing the Effectiveness of Bat and Eagle Impact-Reduction Strategies at Wind Energy Projects Sinclair, K., DeGeorge, E. April 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Game Birds do not Surrogate for Raptors in Trials to Calibrate Observed Raptor Collision Fatalities Urquhart, B., Hulka, S., Duffy, K. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagle Diet Breadth and Reproduction in Relation to Fluctuations in Primary Prey Abundance in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin Preston, C., Jones, R., Horton, N. September 2017 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagle Fatalities and the Continental-Scale Consequences of Local Wind-Energy Generation Katzner, T., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagles in a Changing World Collopy, M., Woodbridge, B., Brown, J. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagles in a Multiple Land-Use Environment: A Case Study in Conflict Management Madders, M., Walker, D. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagles in a Perilous Landscape: Predicting the Effects of Mitigation for Wind Turbine Blade Strike Mortality Hunt, G. July 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Griffon Vulture Mortality at Wind Farms in Southern Spain: Distribution of Fatalities and Active Mitigation Measures de Lucas, M., et al. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Guidance on Survey and Monitoring in Relation to Marine Renewable Deployments in Scotland - Draft Reports Royal Haskoning September 2011 Report Marine Energy general Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus population trends in relation to wind farms Wilson, M., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Home in the heat: Dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development Braham, M., et al. June 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Raptors
How do diurnal long-distance migrants select flight altitude in relation to wind? Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Liechti, F. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
How Ecofriendly are Wind Farms? Cohn, J. July 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Impact of Terrestrial Wind Farms on Diurnal Raptors: Developing a Spatial Vulnerability Index and Potential Vulnerability Maps Noguera, J., Pérez, I., Mínguez, E. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Birds and Bats: Looking into the Problem Edkins, M. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general Bats, Birds, Raptors, Seabirds
Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds in Evros and Rhodopi, Greece: Pleminary results Ruiz, G., Poirazidis, K., Schindler, S. January 2006 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Impacts of Wind Turbines on the Population and Nest Site Selection of the Montagu’s Harrier in North Frisia Rasran, L., Thomsen, K. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Impacts of Wind Turbines on the Population and Nest Site Selection of the Montagu’s Harrier in the Hellweg Börde, North Rhine-Westphalia Joest, R., Griesenbrock, B., Illner, H. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Impacts on Wildlife and Government Responsibilities for Regulating Development and Protecting Wildlife Office, United States Government Accountability September 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Influence of Behavior on Bird Mortality in Wind Energy Developments Smallwood, K., Rugge, L., Morrison, M. September 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Waterfowl
Integrating Effects of Supplementary Feeding, Poisoning, Pollutant Ingestion and Wind Farms of Two Vulture Species in Spain using a Population Viability Analysis Garcia-Ripolles, C., Lopez, P. March 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Chemicals Birds, Raptors
Intense short-wavelength light triggers avoidance response by Red-tailed Hawks: A new tool for raptor diversion? Foss, C., Ronning, D., Merker, D. August 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general Birds, Raptors
Interim Golden Eagle Technical Guidance: Inventory and Monitoring Protocols; and Other Recommendations in Support of Golden Eagle Management and Permit Issuance Pagel, J., Whittington, D., Allen, G. February 2010 Report Birds, Raptors
Investigations of Birds During Construction and Operation of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm at Rødsand Kahlert, J., et al. January 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Landscape-scale distribution and density of raptor populations wintering in anthropogenic-dominated desert landscapes Duerr, A., et al. September 2015 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales Tack, J., Fedy, B. August 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Large Scale Risk-Assessment of Wind-Farms on Population Viability of a Globally Endangered Long-Lived Raptor Carrete, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities Smallwood, K., Neher, L., Bell, D. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Map-Based Repowering of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Based on Burrowing Owl Burrows, Raptor Flights, and Collisions with Wind Turbines Smallwood, K., Neher, L. August 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Marine Wind Farms: Seabirds, White-Tailed Eagles, Eurasian Eagle-Owl and Waders - A Screening of Potential Conflict Areas Christensen-Dalsgaard, S., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Match Between Soaring Modes of Black Kites and the Fine-Scale Distribution of Updrafts Santos, C., et al. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Meteorological and Environmental Variables Affect Flight Behaviour and Decision-Making of an Obligate Soaring Bird, the California Condor Gymnogyps californianus Poessel, S., et al. January 2018 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Minimization of Motion Smear: Reducing Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: Period of Performance: July 12, 1999 - August 31, 2002 Hodos, W. August 2003 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Minimizing Collision Risk Between Migrating Raptors and Marine Wind Farms: Development of a Spatial Planning Tool Baisner, A., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Model-Based Estimation of Collision Risks of Predatory Birds with Wind Turbines Eichhorn, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Modeling autumn migration of a rare soaring raptor identifies new movement corridors in central Appalachia Dennhardt, A., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Modelled Cumulative Impacts on the Tasmanian Wedge-Tailed Eagle of Wind Farms Across the Species' Range Muir, S., Smales, I. September 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Modelled Cumulative Impacts on the White-Bellied Sea-Eagle of Wind Farms Across the Species' Australian Range Smales, I. December 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Seabirds
Modelling golden eagle habitat selection and flight activity in their home ranges for safer wind farm planning Tikkanen, H., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Modelling Human Impacts on the Tasmanian Wedge-Tailed Eagle (Aquila audax fleayi) Bekessy, S., et al. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Monitoring of Seasonal Bird Activity and Mortality on Unit 2 at the Buffalo Ridge Windplant, Minnesota Higgins, K., Dieter, C., Usgaard, R. January 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Mortality at wind-farms is positively related to large-scale distribution and aggregation in griffon vultures Carrete, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Movement patterns of white‐tailed sea eagles near wind turbines Krone, O., Treu, G. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
National Wind Technology Center Site Environmental Assessment: Bird and Bat Use and Fatalities - Final Report Schmidt, E., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
New Zealand Falcon Monitoring and Risk Assessment, Hurunui Wind Farm Meridian Energy January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Nine Canyon Wind Power Project Avian and Bat Monitoring Report: September 2002 - August 2003 Erickson, W., Kronner, K., Gritski, B. October 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
No Substitute for Survival: Perturbation Analyses Using a Golden Eagle Population Model Reveal Limits to Managing for Take Tack, J., et al. September 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Novel Scavenger Removal Trials Increase Wind Turbine - Caused Avian Fatality Estimates Smallwood, K., et al. July 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Ocean Wind Power Ecological Baseline Studies Final Report - Volume 2: Avian Studies Geo-Marine July 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Seabirds List National Marine Sanctuaries July 2004 Website Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Overlap Between Wind Power Plants and Griffon Vultures Gyps fulvus in Spain Telleria, J. May 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors, Shorebirds
Overview of raptor monitoring in Spain Zapata, J. January 2012 Journal Article Birds, Raptors
Patterns of migrating soaring migrants indicate attraction to marine wind farms Skov, H., et al. December 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Ponnequin Wind Energy Project: Reference Site Avian Study Kerlinger, P., Curry, R., Ryder, R. April 2000 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Poor Evidence-Base For Assessment Of Windfarm Impacts On Birds Steward, G., Pullin, A., Coles, C. February 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Population Development and Breeding Success of Birds of Prey in Relation to the Development of Wind Energy Use in Germany Rasran, L., Mammen, U. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Population dynamics in white-tailed eagle at an on-shore wind farm area in coastal Norway Dahl, E. January 2014 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Post-Construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring Study for the High Winds Wind Power Project Solano County, California: Two Year Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California Kerlinger, P., et al. October 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California Year One Final Report Kerlinger, P., et al. September 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Post-Construction Avian Monitoring Study for the Shiloh I Wind Power Project Solano County, California, Two Year Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Post-Construction Meteorological Tower Fatality Study at the Shiloh I Wind Project Site Solano County, California Final Report Kerlinger, P., et al. April 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Raptors
Potential impact of wind farms on territories of large eagles in southeastern Spain Martinez, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway (Bird Wind): Progress Report 2009 Bevanger, K., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway (BirdWind) Report on Findings 2007-2010 Bevanger, K., et al. December 2010 Report Wind Energy general Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway: Progress Report 2008 Bevanger, K., et al. December 2008 Report Wind Energy general Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway: Status Report 1st January 2008 Bevanger, K., et al. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Pre-Wind Energy Development Assessment of the Avian Community in the Central Texas Panhandle Wulf, S. December 2010 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors
Predicting Eagle Fatalities at Wind Facilities Bay, K., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Predicting the Response of Bird Populations to Wind Energy-Related Deaths Morrison, M., et al. January 1998 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting IV RESOLVE May 2001 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Proximity to wind-power plants reduces the breeding success of the white-tailed eagle Balotari-Chiebao, F., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Puget Sound Energy Hopkins Ridge Wind Project Phase 1 Post-Construction Avian and Bat Monitoring First Annual Report Young, D. Jr., et al. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Putting Aeolus to work without the death toll: federal wind farm siting guidelines can mitigate avian and Chiropteran mortality Mensing, B. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Quantifying the Demographic Cost of Human-Related Mortality to a Raptor Population Hunt, W., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Raptor Baseline Studies in Energy Development Kennedy, P. June 1980 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Raptor Interactions with Wind Energy: Case Studies from Around the World Watson, R., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Raptors in Bosnia and Herzegovina - their status and perspectives for monitoring development Kotrosan, D., Hatibovic, E. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Birds, Raptors
Reconciling endangered species conservation with wind farm development: Cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) in south-eastern Europe Vasilakis, D., et al. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Red Kite Mammen, K., Mammen, U., Resetaritz, A. April 2017 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Reduced Breeding Success in White-Tailed Eagles at Smøla windfarm, Western Norway, is Caused by Mortality and Displacement Dahl, E., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Reintroduction of White-tailed Eagles Haliaeetus albicilla to Ireland Mee, A., et al. January 2016 Journal Article Birds, Raptors

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