The OES-Environmental 2020 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World compliments and serves as an update to the 2013 Final Report for Phase 1 of OES-Environmental and the 2016 State of the Science Report. Its content reflects the most current and pertinent published information about interactions of marine renewable energy (MRE) devices and associated infrastructure with the animals and habitats that make up the marine environment. It has been developed and reviewed by over 60 international experts and scientists from around the world as part of an ongoing effort supported by the OES collaboration that operates within the International Technology Cooperation Framework of the International Energy Agency (IEA).
The 2020 State of the Science Report on the environmental effects of MRE development begins with a set of environmental questions that define investigations (Chapter 2) and continues with specific information about stressor/receptor interactions of importance (Chapters 3–9), delves into technologies for monitoring interactions with marine animals (Chapter 10), addresses a series of management and planning measures that may assist with responsible MRE development (Chapters 11–13), and concludes with a potential path forward (Chapter 14). The Executive Summary provides a broad overview of the material in the full report and the Short Science Summaries provide highlights from each chapter.
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Download the Full Report
- 2020 State of the Science Report (Low Resolution: 10 MB)
- 2020 State of the Science Report (High Resolution: 47 MB)
- Executive Summary (English, Low Resolution: 1 MB)
- Executive Summary (English, High Resolution: 18 MB)
- Additional translations coming soon...
- Chapter 1: Marine Renewable Energy and Ocean Energy Systems
- Chapter 2: Marine Renewable Energy: Environmental Effects and Monitoring Strategies
- Chapter 3: Collision Risk for Animals around Turbines
- Chapter 4: Risk to Marine Animals from Underwater Noise Generated by Marine Renewable Energy Devices
- Chapter 5: Risk to Animals from Electromagnetic Fields Emitted by Electric Cables and Marine Renewable Energy Devices
- Chapter 6: Changes in Benthic and Pelagic Habitats Caused by Marine Renewable Energy Devices
- Chapter 7: Changes in Oceanographic Systems Associated with Marine Renewable Energy Devices
- Chapter 8: Encounters of Marine Animals with Marine Renewable Energy Device Mooring Systems and Subsea Cables
- Chapter 9: Social and Economic Data Collection for Marine Renewable Energy
- Chapter 10: Environmental Monitoring Technologies and Techniques for Detecting Interactions of Marine Animals with Turbines
- Chapter 11: Marine Spatial Planning and Marine Renewable Energy
- Chapter 12: Adaptive Management Related to Marine Renewable Energy
- Chapter 13: Risk Retirement and Data Transferability for Marine Renewable Energy
- Chapter 14: Summary and Path Forward
Some of the chapters in the 2020 State of the Science Report contained more information and technical details than could be accommodated in the main report. These materials appear as supplementary materials, which are linked within the 2020 State of the Science Report itself and available for download on the 2020 State of the Science Report Supplementary Materials page.
Short Science Summaries
- Benefits and Effects
- Collision Risk
- Underwater Noise
- Electromagnetic Fields
- Changes to Benthic and Pelagic Habitats
- Changes to Oceanographic Systems
- Entanglement Risk
- Social and Economic Data
- Environmental Monitoring
- Marine Spatial Planning
- Adaptive Management
- Risk Retirement and Data Transferability
- Path Forward