There are substantial knowledge gaps regarding both the bioacoustics and the responses of animals to sounds associated with pre-construction, construction, and operations of offshore wind (OSW) energy development. A workgroup of the 2020 State of the Science Workshop on Wildlife and Offshore Wind Energy identified studies for the next five years to help stakeholders better understand potential cumulative biological impacts of sound and vibration to fishes and aquatic invertebrates as the OSW industry develops. The workgroup identified seven short-term priorities that include a mix of primary research and coordination efforts. Key research needs include the examination of animal displacement and other behavioral responses to sound, as well as hearing sensitivity studies related to particle motion, substrate vibration, and sound pressure. Other needs include: identification of priority taxa on which to focus research; standardization of methods; development of a long-term highly instrumented field site; and examination of sound mitigation options for fishes and aquatic invertebrates. Effective assessment of potential cumulative impacts of sound and vibration on fishes and aquatic invertebrates is currently precluded by these and other knowledge gaps. However, filling critical gaps in knowledge will improve our understanding of possible sound-related impacts of OSW energy development to populations and ecosystems.