Integrated System for Protection of Birds (ISPB) includes 114 wind turbines, 95 of which are within the Kaliakra SPA BG0002051 and 19 are in the areas adjacent to the protected zone.
The ornithological monitoring of ISPB is a complex study assigned by the Wind farms, located in Kaliakra SPA BG0002051- AES Geo Energy Ltd., Kaliakra Wind Power AD, Degrets OOD, Disib OOD, Windex OOD, Long Man Invest OOD, Long Man Energy OOD, Zevs Bonus OOD, Vertikal-Petkov & Sie SD, Wind Park Kavarna East EOOD, Wind Park Kavarna West EOOD, Millennium Group OOD in 2018.
The ISPB consists of a combination of radar observations and meteorological data, integrated with field visual observations, which jointly used are essential for the accurate risk assessment and ensure that appropriate action is taken immediately to avoid collision risk. So far as potential adverse impacts of turbine collisions on birds, a Turbine Shutdown System is deployed supported by an Early Warning System.
The monitoring studies are based on the requirements of basic normative and methodological documents as follows: Environmental Protection Act, Biological Diversity Act, Bulgarian Red Data Book, Directive 92/43/EEC for habitats and species, and Directive 2009/147/EC on the conservation of wild birds, Protected Areas Act and Order RD-94 of 15.02.2018 of the Minister of Environment and Waters. Best international practices are also incorporated (TPVS/Inf (2013) 15: https://rm.coe.int/1680746245). Detailed information on the scope, technical rules and monitoring procedures are publicly available at a dedicated website https://kaliakrabirdmonitoring.eu/.
In order to provide objective data for the bird risk assessment, this summary presents activities and results of the monitoring in 2018. The activities were supervised and coordinated by Prof. Dr. Pavel Zehtindjiev - Ornithologist with over 25 years of research in ornithology; over 85 scientific publications in international ornithological journals; member of European Ornithologists Union and several other conservation organisations; winner of the Revolutionary Discovery Award for Ornithology of an American Ornithological Society in 2016 – The Cooper Ornithological Society; 10 years of experience in impact monitoring of wind turbines on breeding, migrating and wintering bird species in the region of Kaliakra.
Three types of radars integrated into the ISPB were used for monitoring and prevention of bird collisions:
Bird Scan MS1
The radar collects quantitative data and provides information about Migration Traffic Rate of birds through a specific sector where the fixed beam of the radar is directed (Figure 1). The quality of the data deepens on the distance to the birds and to the size of the migrating birds. In the case of ISPB the maximum distance we have used the Bird Scan MS1 radar is 10 km beam directed from west to east across the main migratory front of seasonal migrations. The data obtained by this radar system allow crude identification of ecological types of birds: for example, passerines, swifts, waders and large birds. The radar data do not allow quantification of bird migration for every bird species observed in the ISPB territory and therefore do not allow any comparison with visual observations. These data are not used for quantification and analysis of the characteristics of migration.
Deltatrack Radar System
This radar is a tracking radar system which allows detection of a single target or group of targets and tracking of their movements in a range of around 5 km (Figure 1). It is used in the monitoring as a real time tool for the tracking of already (visually) identified bird targets in the ISPB territory. The radar is not applicable for quantitative analysis of bird migration.
Radar System Robin
This is a 3D radar system constructed for detection and tracking of moving targets in air volume of around 10 km3 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Kb70clGHOQ&t=8s) (Figure 1). It is a real time tool for tracking of moving targets and in combination with visual observations in the field provides highly reliable data on the distance as well altitudes of birds already detected and identified by the field ornithologists. This radar does not provide
quantitative data of migration at a species level because it does not allow species identification.
All three radar systems have been used as tools to assist field observations, detection of potential ingresses, and real time tracking of birds after visual observation through the ISPB during the period of monitoring.
All quantitative data and analysis of recorded bird numbers are based on the only possible quantification of bird migration of different bird species – the visual observations in the field. Locations of field observation points are presented in Figure 1.
Detailed descriptions of the technical characteristics of the three radar systems integrated within the ISPB are presented on the web site: https://kaliakrabirdmonitoring.eu/.