Short Science Summary: White Storks in Europe Onshore Wind Energy
White Storks are large diurnal birds of the stork family (Ciconia ciconia) and have a large range across Africa, Europe, Russia, the Middle East and as far east as India. There are both migrant populations which migrate south to Africa, as well as an increasing occurrence of resident white storks in Europe. With regards to wind energy, white storks’ populations are a potentially sensitive species to additional mortality as they are long lived species and have low fecundity. Wind turbines may pose a collision risk to white storks. Avoidance and displacement represent potential indirect risk factors. This summary represents a general overview of the research, produced by WREN under IEA Wind.