Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptorssort descending
Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines? Racey, P., Nicholls, B. March 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF Bats
The Aversive Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation on Foraging Bats - A Possible Means of Discouraging Bats from Approaching Wind Turbines Nicholls, B., Racey, P. July 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF Bats
Coastal And Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Wilson, J., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
True Navigation and Magnetic Maps in Spiny Lobsters Boles, L., Lohmann, K. January 2003 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates
Identical Response of Caged Rock Crabs (Genera Metacarcinus and Cancer) to Energized and Unenergized Undersea Power Cables in Southern California, USA Love, M., et al. April 2015 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates
Effect of magnetic pulses on Caribbean spiny lobsters: implications for magnetoreception Ernst, D., Lohmann, K. June 2016 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates
Magnetic Orientation and Magnetoreception in Birds and Other Animals Wiltschko, R., Wiltschko, W. August 2005 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Sea Turtles
Magnetic Maps in Animals: Nature's GPS Lohmann, K., Lohmann, C., Putman, N. July 2007 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Sea Turtles
Environmental Assessment of Offshore Wind Power Generation near Rhode Island: Acoustic and Electromagnetic Effects on Marine Animals Miller, J., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Bioelectric Fields of Marine Organisms: Voltage and Frequency Contributions to Detectability by Electroreceptive Predators Bedore, C., Kajiura, S. April 2013 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Magnetic Orientation and Navigation in Marine Turtles, Lobsters, and Molluscs: Concepts and Conundrums Cain, S., et al. January 2005 Journal Article N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Sea Turtles
Assessing potential impacts of energized submarine power cables on crab harvests Love, M., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Socio-economics, Fishing
Acuity of a Cryptochrome and Vision-Based Magnetoreception System in Birds Solov'yov, I., Mouritsen, H., Schulten, K. July 2010 Journal Article N/A EMF Birds
Behaviour of migrating birds exposed to X-band radar and a bright light beam Bruderer, B., Peter, D., Steuri, T. May 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Lighting Birds
The Physics Of Geomagnetic-Field Transduction In Animals Winklhofer, M. November 2009 Journal Article N/A EMF Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Wildlife - A Generalized Impact Assessment Bergström, L., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Behaviour Of Trout (Salmo Trutta L.) Larvae And Fry In A Constant Magnetic Field Formicki, K., et al. July 2004 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Effect of Modified Magnetic Field on the Ocean Migration of Maturing Chum Salmon, Oncorhynchus keta Yano, A., et al. April 1997 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Offshore Windmills and the Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish Öhman, M., Sigray, P., Westerberg, H. December 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
The Perception of Weak Electric D.C. Currents by the European Eel (Anguilla anguilla) Enger, P., Kristensen, L., Sand, O. July 1976 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
An Inherited Magnetic Map Guides Ocean Navigation in Juvenile Pacific Salmon Putman, N., et al. February 2014 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Evidence for Geomagnetic Imprinting as a Homing Mechanism in Pacific Salmon Putman, N., et al. February 2013 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Rearing in a Distorted Magnetic Field Disrupts the 'Map Sense' of Juvenile Steelhead Trout Putman, N., Meinke, A., Noakes, D. May 2014 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Assessing Ecological Risks of Offshore Wind Power on Kattegat Cod Hammar, L., Wikström, A., Molander, S. June 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish
Using Medaka Embryos as a Model System to Study Biological Effects of the Electromagnetic Fields on Development and Behavior Lee, W., Yang, K. October 2014 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Detection and Processing of Electromagnetic and Near-Field Acoustic Signals in Elasmobranch Fishes Kalmijn, A. September 2000 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Sensitivity and Response Dynamics of Elasmobranch Electrosensory Primary Afferent Neurons to Near Threshold Fields Tricas, T., New, J. December 1997 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Directional Behaviour of Transplanted Stationary and Migratory Forms of the Eel, Anguilla anguilla, in a Circular Tank Tesch, F., Lelek, A. January 1973 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Elasmobranch Cognitive Ability: Using Electroreceptive Foraging Behaviour to Demonstrate Learning, Habituation and Memory in a Benthic Shark Kimber, J., et al. January 2014 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Electric and Magnetic Field Detection in Elasmobranch Fishes Kalmijn, A. November 1982 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Effects of an Electric Field on White Sharks: In Situ Testing of an Electric Deterrent Huveneers, C., et al. May 2013 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Sharks can Detect Changes in the Geomagnetic Field Meyer, C., Holland, K., Papastamatiou, Y. December 2004 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
The ability of a benthic elasmobranch to discriminate between biological and artificial electric fields Kimber, J., et al. January 2011 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Behavioral responses by migrating juvenile salmonids to a subsea high-voltage DC power cable Wyman, M., et al. August 2018 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Are magnetic and electromagnetic fields of anthropogenic origin potential threats to early life stages of fish? Fey, D., et al. April 2019 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish
Compatibility of Magnetic Imprinting and Secular Variation Putman, N., Lohmann, K. July 2008 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Effects of EMF emissions from undersea electric cables on coral reef fish Kilfoyle, A., et al. November 2017 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Geomagnetic Imprinting: A Unifying Hypothesis of Long-Distance Natal Homing in Salmon and Sea Turtles Lohmann, K., Putman, N., Lohmann, C. December 2008 Journal Article N/A EMF Fish, Sea Turtles
Effect of low frequency electromagnetic field on the behavior and bioenergetics of the polychaete Hediste diversicolor Jakubowska, M., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Invertebrates
Evidence that Fin Whales Respond to the Geomagnetic Field During Migration Walker, M., et al. July 1992 Journal Article N/A EMF Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Environmental Issues Associated with Wind Energy - A Review Dai, K., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF, Noise, Static Device N/A
An Analysis about Wind Farm Construction Based on the Perspective of the Development of Ecological Environment Bai, Z. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Noise, Static Device N/A
Environmental Magnetic Fields: Influences on Early Embryogenesis Cameron, I., et al. April 1993 Journal Article N/A EMF N/A
Motionally Induced Electric and Magnetic Fields in the Sea Sanford, T. May 1971 Journal Article N/A EMF N/A
On the Electrodetection Threshold of Aquatic Vertebrates with Ampullary or Mucous Gland Electroreceptor Organs Peters, R., Eeuwes, L., Bretschneider, F. August 2007 Journal Article N/A EMF N/A
Magnetoreception: Homing in on Vertebrates Kirschvink, J. November 1997 Journal Article N/A EMF N/A
Modeling Magnetic Fields from a DC Power Cable Buried Beneath San Francisco Bay Based on Empirical Measurements Kavet, R., Wyman, M., Klimley, A. February 2016 Journal Article N/A EMF N/A
A review of potential impacts of submarine power cables on the marine environment: Knowledge gaps, recommendations and future directions Taormina, B., et al. November 2018 Journal Article N/A EMF, Static Device N/A
Potential effects of electrical energy transmission - the case study from the Polish Marine Areas (southern Baltic Sea) Otremba, Z., et al. June 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
Electromagnetic Simulation of the Near-Field Distribution around a Wind Farm Ling, H., Yang, S. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Nearfield Habitat
Installation and operational effects of a HVDC submarine cable in a continental shelf setting: Bass Strait, Australia Sherwood, J., et al. December 2016 Journal Article N/A EMF Nearfield Habitat
Marine Turtles use Geomagnetic Cues during Open-Sea Homing Luschi, P., et al. January 2007 Journal Article N/A EMF Sea Turtles
Use of Multiple Orientation Cues by Juvenile Loggerhead Sea Turtles, Caretta caretta Avens, L., Lohmann, K. August 2003 Journal Article N/A EMF Sea Turtles
Simulating Transoceanic Migrations of Young Loggerhead Sea Turtles: Merging Magnetic Navigation Behavior with an Ocean Circulation Model Putman, N., et al. February 2012 Journal Article N/A EMF Sea Turtles
Longitude Perception and Bicoordinate Magnetic Maps in Sea Turtles Putman, N., et al. March 2011 Journal Article N/A EMF Sea Turtles
The Magnetic Map of Hatchling Loggerhead Sea Turtles Lohmann, K., Putman, N., Lohmann, C. April 2012 Journal Article N/A EMF Sea Turtles
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