Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Titlesort ascending Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Near-Shore Wind Power - Protected Seascapes, Environmentalists' Attitudes, and the Technocratic Planning Perspective Wolsink, M. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Navitus Bay Wind Park Technical Appendix 2.1 - EMF Calculations Report Dorey, P. April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF N/A
Navitus Bay Wind Park Environmental Statement: Non-Technical Summary Navitus Bay Development April 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Nature Conservation Guidance on Offshore Windfarm Development - A Guidance Note on the Implications of the EC Wild Birds and Habitats Directives for Developers Undertaking Offshore Windfarm Developments UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Natural Resources Impact Assessment Under 30 V.S.A 248(B)(5) Georgia Mountain Community Wind Project Arrowwood Environmental March 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
National Wind Technology Center Site Environmental Assessment: Bird and Bat Use and Fatalities - Final Report Schmidt, E., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
National Register of Historic Places Database National Park Service January 2011 Website Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
National Offshore Wind Strategy: Facilitating the Development of the Offshore Wind Industry in the United States Gilman, P., et al. September 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A N/A
Musselroe Wind Farm Project Summary Ellis, M. March 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Mussel and Seaweed Cultivation in Offshore Wind Farms: An Opinion Survey Michler-Cieluch, T., Kodeih, S. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Multipurpose Marine Cadastre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management January 2012 Website Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics
Multiple-Pulse Sounds and Seals: Results of a Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Telemetry Study During Wind Farm Construction Hastie, G., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals
Multiple Mortality Events in Bats: A Global Review O'Shea, T., et al. July 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Multi-Year Acoustic Monitoring of Bats at the Maple Ridge Wind Project New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Multi-use of the sea: A wide array of opportunities from site-specific cases across Europe Bocci, M., et al. April 2019 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning, Stakeholder Engagement
Multi-state occupancy models of foraging habitat use by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) Gorresen, P., et al. October 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Bats
Multi-Platform Concepts for Combining Offshore Wind Energy and Fish Farming in Freezing Sea Areas: Case Study in the Gulf of Bothnia Mikkola, E., et al. June 2018 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Fish
Multi-Criteria GIS Analysis for Siting of Small Wind Power Plants: A Case Study from Berlin Drews, L. January 2012 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Socio-economics
Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis in Wind Power Project Development: Case Study in Latvia Antans, A. June 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Multi-Criteria Assessment of Offshore Wind Turbine Support Structures Lozano-Minguez, E., Kolios, A., Brennan, F. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
MR6.2 Definition of 'Range' in the Context of Marine Renewable Energy Development and Marine Mammal Conservation Northridge, S. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
MR6.1 Review of Methodology and Main Results of the JCP Analysis of Cetacean Densities in the Context of Marine Renewable Development Lonergan, M., Hammond, P. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
MR1 & MR2 Current State of Knowledge of the Effects of Offshore Renewable Energy Generation Devices on Marine Mammals and Research Requirements: Update, September 2014 Thompson, D., et al. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Moving Towards Best Practice for Bird Mortality Mitigation in Wind Power Planning, Sweden McNally, R. May 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Movements of Seals from Rødsand Seal Sanctuary Monitored by Satellite Telemetry Dietz, R., et al. January 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Movement patterns of white‐tailed sea eagles near wind turbines Krone, O., Treu, G. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Mortality of Bats at Wind Turbines Links to Nocturnal Insect Migration? Rydell, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Mortality of Bats at a Large-Scale Wind Power Development at Buffalo Ridge, Minnesota Johnson, G., et al. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Mortality estimation from carcass searches using the R-package carcass - a tutorial Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Mortality at wind-farms is positively related to large-scale distribution and aggregation in griffon vultures Carrete, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Mooring System Considerations for Renewable Energy Standards Cribbs, A., et al. May 2017 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device N/A
Monitoring the Potential Impact of A Wind Development Site on Bats in the Northeast Reynolds, D. January 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats
Monitoring Seasonal Bat Activity on a Coastal Barrier Island in Maryland, USA Johnson, J., Gates, J., Zegre, N. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general Static Device Bats
Monitoring of Wintering Geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Park "Sveti Nikola" Territory and the Kaliakra Region in Winter 2009/2010 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm region in winter 2012/2013 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm and the Kaliakra region in winter 2013/2014 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm 2011/2012 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Monitoring of Wintering Geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "Sveti Nikola" Territory and the Kaliakra Region in Winter 2010/2011 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Monitoring of wintering geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "St. Nikola" territory and the Kaliakra region in winter 2015/2016 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, P. April 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Monitoring of Wintering Geese in the AES Geo Energy Wind Farm "St Nikola" Territory and the Kaliakra Region in Winter 2014/2015 Zehtindjiev, P., Whitfield, D. April 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Monitoring of Seasonal Bird Activity and Mortality on Unit 2 at the Buffalo Ridge Windplant, Minnesota Higgins, K., Dieter, C., Usgaard, R. January 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
Monitoring of Hydrodynamic and Morphological Changes at the C-Power and Belwind Offshore Windfarm Sites - A Synthesis Van den Eynde, D., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Monitoring of Bird and Bat Collisions with Wind Turbines at the Summerview Wind Power Project, Alberta 2005-2006 Brown, W., Hamilton, B. September 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Monitoring Bat Activity at the Dutch EEZ in 2014 Lagerveld, S., Poerink, B., de Vries, P. September 2015 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Monitoring and Researching Ecological Effects of Dutch Offshore Wind Farms Boon, A., et al. May 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Monitoring and Research Shortlist Offshore Wind - Knowledge advancements and follow up Boon, A. January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Modelling Total Numbers and Distribution of Common Scoter Melanitta nigra at Horns Rev Petersen, I. November 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Modelling the Spatial Concentrations of Bird Migration to Assess Conflicts with Wind Turbines Liechti, F., Guélat, J., Komenda-Zehnder, S. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Modelling the Effects of Wind Farming on the Local Weather Using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Jawaheer, B., et al. January 2019 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Modelling Seabird Collision Risk with Off-Shore Wind Farms Mateos, M., Arroyo, G., Rosario, J. May 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Modelling Potential Changes in Marine Biogeochemistry due to Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farms van der Molen, J., Rees, J., Limpenny, S. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Modelling of Pile Driving Noise by Means of Wavenumber Integration Lippert, T., Lippert, S. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Modelling of Noise Effects of Operational Offshore Wind Turbines Including Noise Transmission Through Various Foundation Types Marmo, B., et al. August 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Modelling impacts of offshore wind farms on trophic web: the Courseulles-sur-Mer case study Raoux, A., et al. April 2016 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Ecosystem
Modelling Human Impacts on the Tasmanian Wedge-Tailed Eagle (Aquila audax fleayi) Bekessy, S., et al. November 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Modelling Harbour Porpoise Seasonal Density as a Function of the German Bight Environment: Implications for Management Gilles, A., et al. August 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals
Modelling golden eagle habitat selection and flight activity in their home ranges for safer wind farm planning Tikkanen, H., et al. July 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Modelling Flight Heights of Marine Birds to More Accurately Assess Collision Risk with Offshore Wind Turbines Johnston, A., et al. February 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Modelling flight heights of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Great Skuas from GPS: a Bayesian approach Ross-Smith, V., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Modelled Sensitivity of Avian Collision Rate at Wind Turbines Varies with Number of Hours of Flight Activity Input Data Douglas, D., et al. October 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Modelled Cumulative Impacts on the White-Bellied Sea-Eagle of Wind Farms Across the Species' Australian Range Smales, I. December 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Seabirds
Modelled Cumulative Impacts on the Tasmanian Wedge-Tailed Eagle of Wind Farms Across the Species' Range Muir, S., Smales, I. September 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Modelled cumulative impacts on the Swift Parrot of wind farms across the species' range in south-eastern Australia Smales, I. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Modeling the spatial effects of disturbance: a constructive critique to provide evidence of ecological thresholds Powell, L., et al. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Modeling the Distribution of Migratory Bird Stopovers to Inform Landscape-Scale Siting of Wind Development Pocewicz, A., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Modeling of Underwater Noise from Pile Driving using Coupled Finite Element and Parabolic Equation Model with Improved Parabolic Equation Starting Field Park, J., Seong, W., Lee, K. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Modeling Large Offshore Wind Farms Under Different Atmospheric Stability Regimes with the Park Wake Model Peña, A., Réthoré, P., Rathmann, O. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Modeling Carcass Removal Time for Avian Mortality Assessment in Wind Farms Using Survival Analysis Bispo, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Modeling autumn migration of a rare soaring raptor identifies new movement corridors in central Appalachia Dennhardt, A., et al. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Modeling At-Sea Occurrence and Abundance of Marine Birds to Support Atlantic Marine Renewable Energy Planning: Phase 1 Report Kinlan, B., et al. May 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Model-Based Estimation of Collision Risks of Predatory Birds with Wind Turbines Eichhorn, M., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Model for Underwater Noise Radiated by Submerged Wind Turbine Towers Hay, T., et al. June 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Mobile Demersal Megafauna at Common Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations in the German Bight (North Sea) Two Years after Deployment - Increased Production Rate of Cancer pagurus Krone, R., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates
Mobile Demersal Megafauna at Artificial Structures in the German Bight - Likely Effects of Offshore Wind Farm Development Krone, R., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Mitigation of Underwater Piling Noise Using New Hydro Sound Dampers (HSD) Elmer, K., et al. September 2011 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Nearfield Habitat
Mitigation of Underwater Pile Driving Noise During Offshore Construction: Final Report Stokes, A., et al. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Mitigation of Low-Frequency Underwater Anthropogenic Noise using Stationary Encapsulated Gas Bubbles Lee, K., Wochner, M., Wilson, P. November 2012 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
Mitigation Measures for Wildlife in Wind Energy Development, Consolidating the State of Knowledge - Part 2: Operation, Decommissioning Gartman, V., et al. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Mitigation Measures for Wildlife in Wind Energy Development, Consolidating the State of Knowledge - Part 1: Planning and Siting, Construction Gartman, V., et al. August 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A N/A
Mitigating Wind-Turbine Induced Avian Mortality: Sensory, Aerodynamic and Cognitive Constraints and Options May, R., et al. February 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Mitigating Wind Energy Impacts on Wildlife: Approaches for Multiple Taxa Arnett, E., May, R. April 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Mitigating the negative impacts of tall wind turbines on bats: Vertical activity profiles and relationships to wind speed Wellig, S., et al. March 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Mitigating Bat Mortality with Turbine-Specific Curtailment Algorithms: A Model Based Approach Behr, O., et al. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Mitigating Bat Fatalities from Wind-Power Plants through Targeted Curtailment: Results from 4 Years of Testing of CHIROTECH Lagrange, H., et al. February 2013 Presentation Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Guidance for Commercial Wind Energy Projects Minnesota Department of Natural Resources July 2018 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A N/A
Minimizing wildlife impacts for offshore wind energy development: Winning tradeoffs for seabirds in space and cetaceans in time Best, B., Halpin, P. May 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds, Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Minimizing Collision Risk Between Migrating Raptors and Marine Wind Farms: Development of a Spatial Planning Tool Baisner, A., et al. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Minimization of Motion Smear: Reducing Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: Period of Performance: July 12, 1999 - August 31, 2002 Hodos, W. August 2003 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Minimal Effects of Wind Turbines on the Distribution of Wintering Farmland Birds Devereux, C., Denny, M., Whittingham, M. October 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines
Migratory Stopover of Songbirds in the Western Lake Erie Basin Johnson, P. January 2013 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Migratory bats are attracted by red light but not by warm-white light: Implications for the protection of nocturnal migrants Voigt, C., et al. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats
Migration of Franklin's Gull (Leucophaeus pipixcan) and its Variable Annual Risk from Wind Power Facilities Across the Tehuantepec Isthmus Villegas-Patraca, R., Herrera-Alsina, L. May 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Migration of Bats Past a Remote Island Offers Clues toward the Problem of Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines Cryan, P., Brown, A. September 2007 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats
Migration and Habitat Use by Seabirds in the Atlantic Flyway: Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Proposed Wind Farms Berlin, A. January 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Migrating bats at the southern North Sea: Approach to an estimation of migration populations of bats at the southern North Sea Limpens, H., et al. March 2017 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Bats
Mid-Atlantic Marine Wildlife Surveys, Modeling, and Data: Workshop to Establish Coordination & Communication Brown-Saracino, J., Smith, C., Gilman, P. July 2013 Workshop Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Micrometeorological impacts of offshore wind farms as seen in observations and simulations Siedersleben, S., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment
Microclimate effects of wind farms on local crop yields Kaffine, D. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Socio-economics
Methodology and Results of Calibration of Tonal Click Detectors for Small Odontocetes (C-PODs) Dähne, M., et al. September 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Methodologies for measuring and assessing potential changes in marine mammal behaviour, abundance or distribution arising from the construction, operation and decommissioning of offshore windfarms Diederichs, A., et al. June 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals

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