Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting Annex IV and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and Annex IV metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Strategic Environmental Assessment Area 8 - Contamination of Water and Sediments Voisey, C., Tyrrell, D., Rowlatt, S March 2004 Report N/A Chemicals Nearfield Habitat
A Framework for Net Environmental Benefit Analysis for Remediation or Restoration of Petroleum-Contaminated Sites Efroymson, R., Nicolette, J., Suter II, G. January 2003 Report N/A Chemicals Nearfield Habitat
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
MERiFIC 3.2.1: Documentary Summary of the Environmental Impact of Renewable Marine Energy Sotta, C. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy Copping, A., Hanna, L. September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
List of Environmental Effects of MHK Devices Simas, T., Moura, A., Conley, D. September 2010 Presentation Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Cape Wind Final Environmental Impact Statement Minerals Management Service January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Final Environmental Assessment of Maine's Deepwater Offshore Floating Wind Turbine Testing and Demonstration Project US Department of Energy September 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
The expected efficiency and coastal impact of a hybrid energy farm operating in the Portuguese nearshore Onea, F., Rusu, E. February 2016 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Nearfield Habitat
High Level Environmental Screening Study for Offshore Wind Farm Developments - Marine Habitats and Species Project Hiscock, K., Tyler-Walters, H., Jones, H. August 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Danish Offshore Wind: Key Environmental Issues DONG Energy, et al. November 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Adverse Impacts of Wind Power Generation on Collision Behaviour of Birds and Anti-Predator Behaviour of Squirrels Kikuchi, R. March 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Nearfield Habitat, Terrestrial Mammals
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Wind Power Guidelines Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Energy Systems: Environmental Aspects and Impacts Manwell, J., McGowan, J., Rogers, A. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Birds and Offshore Wind Farms: A Hot Topic in Marine Ecology Exo, K., Hüppop, O., Garthe, S. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Proceedings of the Wind-Wildlife Research Meeting IX American Wind Wildlife Institute November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
The Airspace is Habitat Diehl, R. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Ecological Effects of Wind-Energy Development National Resource Council August 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Synthesis of Wind Energy Development and Potential Impacts on Wildlife in the Pacific Northwest, Oregon and Washington Mockrin, M., Gravenmier, R. July 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Final Results of Bird Studies at the Offshore Wind Farms at Nysted and Horns Rev, Denmark Petersen, I., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Renewable Energy Resources and Wildlife: Impacts and Opportunities Arnett, E., Strickland, M., Morrison, M. February 2007 Conference Paper Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Climate Change
Sørfjord Windpark, Tysfjord Municipality: Impact Assessment, Evaluation of Natural Environment Jacobsen, K., Arnesen, G., Johnsen, T. April 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Dønnesfjord Windpark, Hasvik Municipality: Impact Assessment, Evaluation of Natural Environment Jacobsen, K., Borg, L., Johnsen, T. January 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Terrestrial Mammals
A Preliminary Review of the Impact of Placing Portions of an Extra-High Voltage Transmission Line Beneath the Chesapeake Bay & Other Waters Community & Environmental Defense Service February 2011 Report N/A EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Electromagnetic Simulation of the Near-Field Distribution around a Wind Farm Ling, H., Yang, S. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Nearfield Habitat
Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy Wilhelmsson, D., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Review Report 2004: The Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Project: Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farms Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring Boesen, C., Kjær, J. October 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Coastal And Offshore Wind Energy Generation: Is It Environmentally Benign? Wilson, J., et al. June 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy general EMF, Noise, Static Device Bats, Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Effect of the Horns Rev 1 Offshore Wind Farm on Fish Communities: Follow-up Seven Years after Construction Stenberg, C., et al. December 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Noise, Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Threats to Sandy Beach Ecosystems: A Review Defeo, O., et al. January 2009 Journal Article N/A Energy Removal Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wake Effects on Middelgrund Windfarm Jørgensen, H., Frandsen, S., Vølund, P. July 2003 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Modelling Potential Changes in Marine Biogeochemistry due to Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farms van der Molen, J., Rees, J., Limpenny, S. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Seabed Morphology Off Southern Long Island: Studies of Artificial Reefs and Implications for Wind Farms Flood, R. January 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Sand Banks, Sand Transport and Offshore Wind Farms: Technical Report Kenyon, N., Cooper, B. May 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Base Line Studies North Sea Wind Farms: Final Report Pelagic Fish Grift, R., et al. June 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Dynamics of Scour Pits and Scour Protection - Synthesis Report and Recommendations Whitehouse, R., Harris, J., Rees, J. January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Experimental Study of the Turbulence Intensity Effects on Marine Current Turbines Behaviour. Part II: Two Interacting Turbines Mycek, P., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Simulating Environmental Changes Due to Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Installations James, S., et al. September 2010 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Effects of Man-Made Structures on Sedimentary Oxygenation: Extent, Seasonality and Implications for Offshore Renewables Wilding, T. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Potential Effects of Offshore Wind Developments on Coastal Processes Beiboer, F., Cooper, B. January 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Energy Development and its Environmental Impact: A Review Leung, D., Yang, Y. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Numerical Calculation of the Impact of Offshore Wind Farm Power Stations on Hydrodynamic Conditions Zhang, W., Xia, H., Wang, B. January 2009 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
The Influence of Large Offshore Wind Farms on the North Sea and Baltic Sea - A Comprehensive Literature Review Clark, S., Schroeder, F., Baschek, B. December 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Sandeels in the Wind Farm Area at Horns Reef Jensen, H., Kristensen, P., Hoffmann, E. August 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Physical and Numerical Large-Scale Wave Basin Modeling of Fluid-Structure Interaction and Wave Impact Phenomena Yim, S., et al. June 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Offshore Wind Turbine Wakes Measured by Sodar Barthelmie, J., et al. April 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Report on Environmental Impact Assessment and Mitigation Strategies TROPOS July 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Lighting, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm II: EIA Report Fish Jensen, B., Klaustrup, M., Skov, H. July 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Life Cycle Assessment
Nature Conservation Guidance on Offshore Windfarm Development - A Guidance Note on the Implications of the EC Wild Birds and Habitats Directives for Developers Undertaking Offshore Windfarm Developments UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Potential Scour for Marine Current Turbines Based on Experience of Offshore Wind Turbine Chen, L., Lam, W., Shamsuddin, A. June 2013 Conference Paper Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Review of Cabling Techniques and Environmental Effects Applicable to the Offshore Wind Farm Industry UK Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform January 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Ormonde Project Scoping Study for Coastal and Seabed Processes Coates, T., Skipper, C., Cranmer, G. November 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Upper Ocean Response to Large Wind Farm Effect in the Presence of Surface Gravity Waves Paskyabi, M., Fer, I. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Static Device Nearfield Habitat
Man-Made Structures on Marine Sediments: Effects on Adjacent Benthic Communities Davis, N., VanBlaricom, G., Dayton, P. January 1982 Journal Article N/A Energy Removal, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Multiple Stressors and Multifunctionality: Limited Effects on an Illuminated Benthic System Alsterberg, C., Sundbäck, K., Gamfeldt, L. December 2014 Journal Article N/A N/A Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Hornsea Offshore Wind Farm Project One: Reports - Habitat Regulations Assessment Report: Information to Support the Appropriate Assessment for Project One RPS Group July 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Fish and Benthos at Alpha Ventus Reichert, K., et al. May 2012 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Northeast Ocean Plan Northeast Regional Planning Body October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Epibenthic Assessment of a Renewable Tidal Energy Site Sheehan, E., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Tidal N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
UK Marine Special Areas of Conservation Project European Commission October 2001 Website N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Are We Missing the Boat? Current Uses of Long-Term Biological Monitoring Data in the Evaluation and Management of Marine Protected Areas Addison, P., Flander, L., Cook, C. February 2015 Journal Article N/A N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Design and Implementation of a New Low-Cost Subsurface Mooring System for Efficient Data Recovery Tian, C., et al. September 2013 Conference Paper N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
Benthic Cover Data NOAA Coastal Services Center January 2010 Website N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Experimental Analysis of the Wake of a Horizontal-Axis Wind-Turbine Model Lignarolo, L., et al. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Experimental Study on Influence of Pitch Motion on the Wake of a Floating Wind Turbine Model Rockel, S., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
How the Belgian Wind Farm Business Made us Discover the Challenging Environment of Marine Sand Dunes Bolle, A., Mathys, M., Haerens, P. April 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Appropriate Assessment Information Review APS Group Scotland January 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Mussel and Seaweed Cultivation in Offshore Wind Farms: An Opinion Survey Michler-Cieluch, T., Kodeih, S. January 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
The Development and Use of Individuals-Based Models to Predict the Effects of Habitat Loss and Disturbance on Waders and Waterfowl West, A., Caldow, R. March 2006 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl, Nearfield Habitat
The benthic impacts of the Loch Linnhe Artificial Reef Wilding, T. January 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
Response of Offshore Cultivated Laminaria saccharina to Hydrodynamic Forcing in the North Sea Buck, B., Buchholz, C. December 2005 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Process-Driven Characterization and Mapping of Seabed Habitats Kostylev, V., Hannah, C. January 2007 Book Chapter N/A N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Can Large Wind Farms Affect Local Meteorology? Baidya Roy, S., Pacala, S., Walko, R. October 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Nearfield Habitat
A Comparison of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches to Benthic Habitat Mapping to Inform Offshore Wind Energy Development LaFrance, M., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Short- and Long-Term Effects of an Offshore Wind Farm on Three Species of Sandeel and their Sand Habitat van Deurs, M., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Sustainable Decommissioning of an Offshore Wind Farm Topham, E., McMillan, D. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Fate of Unproductive and Unattractive Habitats: Recent Changes in Iberian Steppes and their Effects on Endangered Avifauna Laiolo, P., Tella, J. October 2006 Journal Article N/A N/A Birds, Passerines, Nearfield Habitat
Recent Developments of Ocean Environmental Description with Focus on Uncertainties Bitner-Gregersen, E., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Developing New Ground Truthing Techniques for Seabed Mapping Foster-Smith, R., et al. February 2010 Report N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
Seismic Response of Large-Scale Prestressed Concrete Bucket Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines Zhang, P., Ding, H., Conghuan, L. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Monitoring of Hydrodynamic and Morphological Changes at the C-Power and Belwind Offshore Windfarm Sites - A Synthesis Van den Eynde, D., et al. January 2010 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Pre-Screening Review of the Medium Term Options APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Enrichment and Shifts in Macrobenthic Assemblages in an Offshore Wind Farm Area in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Coates, D., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Repeated Mapping of Reefs Constructed by Sabellaria spinulosa Leuckart 1849 at an Offshore Wind Farm Site Pearce, B., et al. July 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
Computationally Efficient Modelling of Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction of Offshore Wind Turbines on Gravity Footings Damgaard, M., Andersen, L., Ibsen, L. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Marine ALSF Science Review: Aggregate Research in UK Waters Newell, R., Reeds, K. June 2005 Presentation N/A N/A Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Examples of State and International Guidance for Duration and Intensity of Pre-Construction and Post-Construction Monitoring US Fish and Wildlife Service January 2011 Report Wind Energy general N/A Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds, Bats, and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions National Wind Coordinating Collaborative March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Aggregation at Windmill Artificial Reefs: CPUE of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) and Pouting (Trisopterus luscus) at Different Habitats in the Belgian Part of the North Sea Reubens, J., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Field Scale Experiments to Assess the Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Marine Organisms Gill, A., et al. July 2011 Presentation Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Reconnaissance Geology and Geologic Hazards of the Offshore Coos Bay Basin, Oregon Clarke, S., Field, M., Hirozawa, C. January 1985 Report N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
Additional Papers from the 10th International Congress on Marine Corrosion and Fouling Defence Science & Technology Imagination (DSTO) February 1999 Conference Paper N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
Vegetation Types and Valuable Habitats at the Islets Sandholmene in Rost Municipality, Nordland County - Impact Assessment in Relation to Planned Construction of Wind Power Station Bjerke, J. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Habitats Regulations Appraisal of Draft Plan for Offshore Wind Energy in Scottish Territorial Waters: Information for Appropriate Assessment APS Group Scotland March 2011 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Concerted Action for Offshore Wind Energy Deployment (COD): Overview of Environmental Impacts of Offshore Wind Energy Roth, E., Verhoef, L., Dingenouts, M. September 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Effects of the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm on Harbour Porpoises Tougaard, J., et al. July 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Evaluating artificial reef performance: approaches to pre- and post-deployment research Wilding, T., Sayer, M. February 2002 Journal Article N/A N/A Nearfield Habitat
The Effects of Landscape Modifications on the Long-Term Persistence of Animal Populations Nabe-Nielsen, J., et al. January 2010 Journal Article Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind N/A Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Impact of Wind Energy Saidur, R., et al. June 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy general N/A Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat

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