Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author*sort descending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Bird Migration Intensity and Number of Collision Victims at the Wind Power Plant Le Peuchapatte (Switzerland) Aschwanden, J., Liechti, F. November 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Developing Field and Analytical Methods to Assess Avian Collision Risk at Wind Farms Band, W., Madders, M., Whitfield, D. June 2007 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Behavioural and Environmental Correlates of Soaring-Bird Mortality at On-Shore Wind Turbines Barrios, L., Rodríguez, A. February 2004 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Draft Black Oak & Getty Wind Avian and Bat Protection Plan Black Oak Wind, Getty Wind Company February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Bird Mortality in Two Dutch Wind Farms: Effects of Location, Spatial Design and Interactions with Powerlines Brenninkmeijer, A., Klop, E. February 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
The impact of wind energy facilities on grouse: a systematic review Coppes, J., et al. August 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Reduced Breeding Success in White-Tailed Eagles at Smøla windfarm, Western Norway, is Caused by Mortality and Displacement Dahl, E., et al. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
A long‐term assessment of raptor displacement at a wind farm Dohm, R., et al. July 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds, Raptors
Changes in the Abundance and Distribution of Upland Breeding Birds at an Operational Wind Farm Douglas, D., Bellamy, P., Pearce-Higgins, J. February 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Shorebirds
Protocol for Investigating Displacement Effects of Wind Facilities on Grassland Songbirds Erickson, W., et al. February 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Bats, Birds, Passerines
Differential Recovery of Habitat Use by Birds after Wind Farm Installation: A Multi-Year Comparison Farfan, M., et al. May 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds
What is the Impact of Wind Farms on Birds? A Case Study in Southern Spain Farfan, M., et al. December 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
Reproductive output of Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus in relation to wind turbine proximity Fernandez-Bellon, D., et al. January 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Nest Survival of Red-Winged Blackbirds in Agricultural Areas Developed for Wind Energy Gillespie, M., Dinsmore, S. December 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Passerines
Telemetric Monitoring of Montagu’s Harrier in Schleswig-Holstein Grajetzky, B., Nehls, G. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Bird Mortality at a Wind-Energy Facility near a Wetland of International Importance Grodsky, S., Jennelle, C., Drake, D. November 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Effects of Individuals Lost Due to Wind Turbines on the Time of Occupying a Territory, the Survival of Breeding Territories and the Breeding Success of White-Tailed Sea Eagles (Case Studies) Grunkorn, T., Nehls, G. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Interpreting failure to reject the null hypothesis of displacement from wind turbines in three species of grassland birds: Response to Johnson (2016) Hale, A. July 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds, Passerines
No Evidence of Displacement due to Wind Turbines in Breeding Grassland Songbirds Hale, A., et al. August 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: Iberdrola Renewables Iberdrola Renewables October 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Combining radar and direct observation to estimate pelican collision risk at a proposed wind farm on the Cape west coast, South Africa Jenkins, A., et al. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Waterfowl
Impacts of Wind Turbines on the Population and Nest Site Selection of the Montagu’s Harrier in the Hellweg Börde, North Rhine-Westphalia Joest, R., Griesenbrock, B., Illner, H. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Avian, Bat and Habitat Cumulative Impacts Associated with Wind Energy Development in the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Of Eastern Washington and Oregon Johnson, G., Erickson, W. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Best Management Practices for siting, developing, operating, and monitoring renewable energy in the Intermountain West: A Conservationist's Guide Jones, A. March 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Raptors, Terrestrial Mammals
Evaluation of Greater Sage-Grouse Reproductive Habitat and Response to Wind Energy Development in South-Central, Wyoming LeBeau, C. April 2012 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Assessing the Influence of Wind Turbines and Land-use on Mortality Risk of Avian Species on the Llano Estacado with Emphasis on Birds of Prey Linner, K. December 2014 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Effect of wind energy development on breeding duck densities in the Prairie Pothole Region Loesch, C., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Direct human-caused mortality of birds: improving quantification of magnitude and assessment of population impact Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Direct Mortality of Birds from Anthropogenic Causes Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Effects of wind farms and food scarcity on a large scavenging bird species following an epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy Martinez-Abrain, A., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes
Habitat Utilization in White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Displacement Impact of the Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
The Effects of Aero-Generators on Moorland Bird Populations in the Orkney Islands, Scotland Meek, E., et al. January 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Assessing Risk to Birds from Industrial Wind Energy Development via Paired Resource Selection Models Miller, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Differential Mortality of Birds Killed at Wind Farms in Northern Portugal Morinha, F., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Ocotillo Wind Energy Facility Ocotillo Express February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Bird and Bird Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Avian Collision Threat Assessment at 'Bhambarwadi Wind Farm Plateau' in Northern Western Ghats, India Pande, S., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Dogs as a Tool to Improve Bird-Strike Mortality Estimates at Wind Farms Paula, J., et al. September 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
The energy landscape predicts flight height and wind turbine collision hazard in three species of large soaring raptor Peron, G., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Effectiveness of a mitigation measure for the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) in wind farms in Spain Pescador, M., Ramírez, J., Peris, S. February 2019 Journal Article Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Bird species of concern at wind farms in New Zealand Powlesland, R. September 2009 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
A Pilot Golden Eagle Population Study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area California Predatory Bird Research Group May 1995 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
A Special Purpose: The Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Wind Energy Rose, R. October 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Human Dimensions, Legal & Policy
Eagle Owl and Wind Power development at Karmøy, Western Norway Rov, N., Jacobsen, K. March 2007 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Developing Methods To Reduce Bird Mortality In The Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area Smallwood, K., Thelander, C. January 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
The avian and wildlife costs of fossil fuels and nuclear power Sovacool, B. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
An Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Bulgaria Spasov, S., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
An Analysis of Displacement from Wind Turbines in a Wintering Grassland Bird Community Stevens, T., et al. June 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Avian Monitoring and Mortality Report at the National Wind Technology Center: January 2010 - February 2011 Tetra Tech Inc. January 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Baseline investigations of bats and birds at wind turbine test Centre Asterild Therkildsen, O., et al. September 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Effects of Weather on Avian Migration at Proposed Ridgeline Wind Energy Sites Thomas, P., et al. May 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Post-construction Avian and Bat Fatality Monitoring and Grassland Bird Displacement Surveys at the Judith Gap Wind Energy Project, Wheatland County, Montana TRC Environmental Corporation January 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: AWA Goodhue Wind Project Westwood Professional Services December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
A Review of the Impacts of Wind Farms on Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus and an Estimation of Collision Avoidance Rates Whitfield, D., Madders, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Deriving an Avoidance Rate for Swans Suitable for Onshore Wind Farm Collision Risk Modelling Whitfield, D., Urquhart, B. February 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Bats are not birds and other problems with Sovacool's (2009) analysis of animal fatalities due to electricity generation Willis, C., et al. April 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Collision Risks & Wind Energy Facilities Willmott, J., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Criterion Wind Project Avian Protection Plan Young, D., Tidhar, D. March 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
No Evidence for Displacement of Wintering Red-breasted Geese Branta ruficollis (Pallas, 1769) (Anseriformes) at a Wind Farms Area in Northeast Bulgaria: Long-term Monitoring Results Zahtindjiev, P., et al. January 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds, Waterfowl
Canadian Estimate of Bird Mortality Due to Collisions and Direct Habitat Loss Associated with Wind Turbine Developments Zimmerling, J., et al. January 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Conflicts Between Birds and On-Shore Wind Farms Zwart, M., et al. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Do Terrestrial Animals Avoid Areas Close to Turbines in Functioning Wind Farms in Agricultural Landscapes? Łopucki, R., Klich, D., Gielarek, S. June 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Terrestrial Mammals
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