Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Typessort descending Stressors Receptors
Evaluating a Novel Approach to Optimize Operational Minimization to Reduce Bat Fatalities at the Pinnacle Wind Farm, Mineral County, West Virginia, 2015 Schirmacher, M., et al. April 2018 Report Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Bats
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy (General), Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Physical Environment, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy (General), Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Changes in Flow, Chemicals, Collision, Displacement, EMF, Habitat Change, Lighting, Noise Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Physical Environment, Reptiles, Human Dimensions
Large Whale Ship Strike Database Jensen, A., Silber, G. January 2004 Report N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Radar Monitoring of Bird and Bat Movement Patterns on Block Island and its Coastal Waters Mizrahi, D., et al. September 2010 Report N/A Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Using Ship Speed and Mass to Describe Potential Collision Severity with Whales: An Application of the Ship Traffic, Energy and Environment Model (STEEM) Wang, C., et al. January 2007 Report N/A Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Relating Pre-Construction Bat Activity and Post-Construction Bat Fatality to Predict Risk at Wind Energy Facilities: A Synthesis Hein, C., Gruver, J., Arnett, E. March 2013 Report N/A Dynamic Device Bats
Collision Course: The Hazards of Lighted Structures and Windows to Migrating Birds Ogden, L. September 1996 Report N/A Attraction, Collision, Lighting Birds
First year post-construction monitoring of bats and birds at Wind Turbine Test Centre Østerild Therkildsen, O., Elmeros, M. January 2015 Report Offshore Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Impacts on Biodiversity of Exploitation of Renewable Energy Sources: The Example of Birds and Bats Hötker, H., Thomsen, K., Jeromin, H. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Impacts of Wind Farms on Birds: A Review Powlesland, R. January 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Windfarms and Birds: An Analysis of the Effects of Windfarms on Birds, and Guidance on Environmental Assessment Criteria and Site Selection Issues Langston, R., Pullan, J. September 2003 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Windfarms and Birds: Calculating a Theoretical Collision Risk Assuming No Avoiding Action Band, W. January 2000 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
A Study of the Risk of Collision with Power Lines by Waterbirds in Winter at Shotton Steel Works, North Wales Balmer, D., Henderson, I., Clark, N. April 1995 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision Birds, Waterfowl
A Summary of Bat Fatality Data in a Nationwide Database Allison, T., Butryn, R. July 2018 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats
A bibliography of bat fatality, activity, and interactions with wind turbines Johnson, G., Arnett, E., Hein, C. February 2014 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision Bats
The Effect of Wind Power on Birds and Bats - A Synthesis Rydell, J., et al. August 2012 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Technical Manual for Evaluating Wildlife Impacts of Wind Turbines Requiring Coastal Permits NJ Department of Environmental Protection September 2010 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change N/A
Pre- and Post-Construction Studies of Conflicts Between Birds and Wind Turbines in Coastal Norway (Bird Wind): Progress Report 2009 Bevanger, K., et al. December 2009 Report Wind Energy (General) Collision, Habitat Change Birds
AWWI Technical Report: Evaluating a Commercial-Ready Technology for Raptor Detection and Deterrence at a Wind Energy Facility in California Terrill, S., et al. September 2018 Report Wind Energy (General) Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
Wind Turbines and Bats - A Pilot Study Ahlén, I. December 2003 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Bats, Birds, Passerines
Texturizing Wind Turbine Towers to Reduce Bat Mortality Bennett, V., Hale, A. July 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Bats
Bird and Bird Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Testing the Effectiveness of an Experimental Acoustic Bat Deterrent at the Maple Ridge Wind Farm Horn, J., et al. June 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Impacts on Wildlife and Government Responsibilities for Regulating Development and Protecting Wildlife Office, United States Government Accountability September 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds and Bats: A Summary of Research Results and Remaining Questions National Wind Coordinating Committee November 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Ponnequin Wind Energy Project: Reference Site Avian Study Kerlinger, P., Curry, R., Ryder, R. April 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Synopsis des internationalen Kenntnisstandes zum Einfluss der Windenergie auf Fledermäuse und Vögel und Spezifizierung für die Schweiz Muller, J., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Repowering Smøla Wind-Power Plant: An Assessment of Avian Conflicts Dahl, E., et al. June 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
2012 Post-Construction Monitoring Study Criterion Wind Project Garrett County, Maryland Young, D., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Bats, Birds
A Conservation Plan for Bats in Wyoming Hester, S., Grenier, M. September 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats
A Habitat-Based Wind-Wildlife Collision Model with Application to the Upper Great Plains Region Forcey, G. August 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Bats, Birds
A Pilot Golden Eagle Population Study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area California Predatory Bird Research Group May 1995 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Second-Year Progress Report Predatory Bird Research Group July 1997 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
A Review of the Impacts of Wind Farms on Hen Harriers Circus cyaneus and an Estimation of Collision Avoidance Rates Whitfield, D., Madders, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors
An Assessment of the Impacts of Green Mountain Power Corporation's Wind Power Facility on Breeding and Migrating Birds in Searsburg, Vermont: July 1996-July 1998 Kerlinger, P. March 2002 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Improving Methods for Estimating Fatality of Birds and Bats at Wind Energy Facilities Warren-Hicks, W., et al. February 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
An Analytical Impact Assessment Framework for Wildlife to Inform the Siting and Permitting of Wind Energy Facilities Schwartz, J. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Guidelines for Reducing Impacts to Wildlife from Wind Energy Development in Arizona Arizona Game and Fish Department October 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Synthesis of Wind Energy Development and Potential Impacts on Wildlife in the Pacific Northwest, Oregon and Washington Mockrin, M., Gravenmier, R. July 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change N/A
2011 Post-Construction Monitoring Study Criterion Wind Project Garrett County, Maryland Young, D., et al. April 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities 2010 Arnett, E., et al. May 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats
Best Management Practices for Bats in New Mexico Balistreri, M. January 2010 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision, Habitat Change Bats
Avian and Bat Protection Plan for the Ocotillo Wind Energy Facility Ocotillo Express February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: AWA Goodhue Wind Project Westwood Professional Services December 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Avian and Bat Protection Plan: Iberdrola Renewables Iberdrola Renewables October 2008 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States of America Erickson, W., et al. August 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Collision Birds, Passerines, Raptors
Avian Monitoring and Mortality Report at the National Wind Technology Center: January 2010 - February 2011 Tetra Tech Inc. January 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the Tehachapi Pass Wind Resource Area: Period of Performance: October 2, 1996 - May 27, 1998 Anderson, R., et al. September 2004 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Seabirds
Avian, Bat and Habitat Cumulative Impacts Associated with Wind Energy Development in the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion Of Eastern Washington and Oregon Johnson, G., Erickson, W. May 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Bats, Birds, Raptors
Baseline Avian Use and Behavior at the CARES Wind Plant Site, Klickitat County, Washington: Final Report Erickson, W., et al. December 1999 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Baseline investigations of bats and birds at wind turbine test Centre Asterild Therkildsen, O., et al. September 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Bats, Birds
Bird and Bat Collision Risks & Wind Energy Facilities Willmott, J., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Collision Bats, Birds
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 1: Review Strategic Ornithological Support Services Project Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. September 2011 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm Bird Monitoring Program 2010-2012 Skov, H., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Horns Rev II Offshore Wind Farm Monitoring of Bird Migration Skov, H., et al. May 2009 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Passerines, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Preliminary Investigations of Bird-Turbine Collisions at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and Final Quality Control of Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS) Desholm, M. January 2005 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Vulnerability of Scottish Seabirds to Offshore Wind Turbines Furness, B., Wade, H. February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Pilot field study: observations from a fixed platform on occurrence and behaviour of common guillemots and other seabirds in offshore wind farm Luchterduinen Leopold, M., Verdaat, H. September 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Collision Birds, Seabirds
The consequences of seabird habitat loss from offshore wind turbines, version 2 van Kooten, T., et al. July 2019 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
ORJIP Bird Collision and Avoidance Study Skov, H., et al. April 2018 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Seabirds
Final Results of Bird Studies at the Offshore Wind Farms at Nysted and Horns Rev, Denmark Petersen, I., et al. January 2006 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Nearfield Habitat
Assessment of the Effects of Offshore Wind in Birds Percival, S. January 2001 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds, Waterfowl
Effects on Birds of an Offshore Wind Park at Horns Rev: Environmental Impact Assessment Noer, H., et al. January 2000 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
Collision and Displacement Vulnerability Among Marine Birds of the California Current System Associated with Offshore Wind Energy Infrastructure Adams, J., et al. October 2016 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Developing an Avian Collision Risk Model to Incorporate Variability and Uncertainty Masden, E. September 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision Birds
Collision, Displacement and Barrier Effect Concept Note Humphreys, E., Cook, S., Burton, N. January 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Human Dimensions, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Review of Methods to Monitor Collisions or Micro-Avoidance of Birds with Offshore Wind Turbines - Part 2: Feasibility Study of Systems to Monitor Collisions Collier, M., Dirksen, S., Krijgsveld, K. February 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Measuring the Interaction Between Marine Features of Special Protection Areas with Offshore Wind Farm Development Sites Through Telemetry: Final Report Thaxter, C., et al. March 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Seabirds
The Relative Vulnerability of Migratory Bird Species to Offshore Wind Energy Projects on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf: An Assessment Method and Database Willmott, J., Forcey, G., Kent, A. August 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
Bird Monitoring at Offshore Wind Farms in the Belgian Part of the North Sea - Assessing Seabird Displacement Effects Vanermen, N., et al. January 2013 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Strategic Joint Industry Project No.1: Bird avoidance behavior and collision impact monitoring at Offshore Windfarms Marine Scotland, et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Seabirds & Offshore Wind Farms Monitoring Results 2011 Vanermen, N., et al. June 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
A Review of Flight Heights and Avoidance Rates of Birds in Relation to Offshore Wind Farms Cook, A., et al. May 2012 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Avoidance Behaviour of Birds around Offshore Wind Farms: Overview of Knowledge Including Effects of Configuration Krijgsveld, K. July 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
The Avoidance Rates of Collision Between Birds and Offshore Turbines Cook, A., et al. December 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Offshore Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds
Development of a Cost-Effective System to Monitor Wind Turbines for Bird and Bat Collisions. Phase 1: Sensor System Feasibility Study Pandey, A., Hermence, J., Harness, R. March 2007 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
The Relation Between Birds and Wind Turbines and Other Aerial Obstacles - A Literature Survey Nygård, T., Bevanger, K., Reitan, O. November 2008 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bird Movements and Behaviors in the Gulf Coast Region: Relation to Potential Wind-Energy Developments Morrison, M. June 2006 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Birds and Wind Farms in Ireland: A Review of Potential Issues and Impact Assessment Percival, S. December 2003 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds
Bats and Bat Habitats: Guidelines for Wind Power Projects Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources July 2011 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Minimization of Motion Smear: Reducing Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: Period of Performance: July 12, 1999 - August 31, 2002 Hodos, W. August 2003 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Collision Risk in White-Tailed Eagles: Modelling Collision Risk Using Vantage Point Observations in Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. December 2010 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Collision Risk in White-Tailed Eagles Modelling Kernel-Based Collision Risk Using Satellite Telemetry Data in Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. May 2011 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Evaluation of the DTBird Video-System at the Smøla Wind-Power Plant: Detection Capabilities for Capturing Near-Turbine Avian Behaviour May, R., et al. December 2012 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Impact assessment of wind farms on birds of prey in Thrace. Annual Report August 2009 - August 2010 Doutau, B., et al. March 2011 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Birds
Developing a science-based approach to defining key species of birds and bats of concern for wind farm developments in Victoria Lumsden, L., Moloney, P., Smales, I. September 2019 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
ID Stat: Innovative Technology for Assessing Wildlife Collisions with Wind Turbines Delprat, B., Alcuri, G. July 2011 Report Wind Energy general Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Review of Raptor Sections of the Bluestone Wind Avian Risk Assessment Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
A Synthesis of Operational Mitigation Studies to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Energy Facilities in North America Arnett, E., et al. March 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Whooping Cranes and Wind Development - An Issue Paper US Fish and Wildlife Service April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Shorebirds
Relationships between Bats and Wind Turbines in Pennsylvania and West Virginia: An Assessment of Fatality Search Protocols, Patterns of Fatality, and Behavioral Interactions with Wind Turbines Arnett, E., et al. June 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Patterns of Pre-Construction Bat Activity at a Proposed Wind Facility in South-Central Pennsylvania Arnett, E., Hayes, J., Huso, M. August 2006 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Effectiveness of Changing Wind Turbine Cut-in Speed to Reduce Bat Fatalities at Wind Facilities 2009 Arnett, E., et al. April 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats
Patterns of Bat Fatality at the Casselman Wind Project in South-Central Pennsylvania: 2008 Annual Report Arnett, E., et al. June 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats
Sage-Grouse and Wind Energy: Biology, Habits, and Potential Effects from Development Becker, J., et al. July 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Draft Black Oak & Getty Wind Avian and Bat Protection Plan Black Oak Wind, Getty Wind Company February 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds
Clocaenog Forest Wind Farm Collision Risk Report Model George, A. August 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Avian Use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana Harmata, A., Podruzny, K., Zelenak, J. July 1998 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Monitoring of Seasonal Bird Activity and Mortality on Unit 2 at the Buffalo Ridge Windplant, Minnesota Higgins, K., Dieter, C., Usgaard, R. January 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors

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