Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers.


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Title Author*sort ascending Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressors Receptors
Research Brief: Effects of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens in Kansas National Wind Coordinating Collaborative (NWCC) May 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds, Bats, and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions National Wind Coordinating Collaborative March 2010 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Nearfield Habitat
Wind & Wildlife Key Research Topics National Wind Coordinating Collaborative May 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Greater Sage-Grouse: Overview and Effects of Wind Energy Development National Wind Coordinating Collaborative September 2017 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Final Site-Wide Environmental Assessment Department of Energy's National Wind Technology Center Golden, Colorado at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Renewable Energy Laboratory May 2014 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Birds, Wind and the Making of Wind Power Landscapes in Aude, Southern France Nadaï, A., Labussiere, O. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
From Ground to Above Canopy - Bat Activity in Mature Forests is Driven by Vegetation Density and Height Muller, J., et al. October 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Synopsis des internationalen Kenntnisstandes zum Einfluss der Windenergie auf Fledermäuse und Vögel und Spezifizierung für die Schweiz Muller, J., et al. November 2015 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Bats, Birds
Modelled Cumulative Impacts on the Tasmanian Wedge-Tailed Eagle of Wind Farms Across the Species' Range Muir, S., Smales, I. September 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Development of a Practical Modeling Framework for Estimating the Impact of Wind Technology on Bird Populations Morrison, M., Pollack, K. November 1997 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Predicting the Response of Bird Populations to Wind Energy-Related Deaths Morrison, M., et al. January 1998 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Waterfowl, Ecosystem
Searcher Bias and Scavenging Rates in Bird/Wind Energy Studies Morrison, M. June 2002 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Avian Risk and Fatality Protocol Morrison, M. November 1998 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Differential Mortality of Birds Killed at Wind Farms in Northern Portugal Morinha, F., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards Mojica, E., Watts, B., Turrin, C. June 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Avian and Bat Survey Protocols For Large Wind Energy Conversion Systems in Minnesota Mixon, K., et al. June 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Bats, Birds
Acoustic Monitoring Techniques for Avian Detection and Classification Mirzaei, G., et al. November 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Noise Birds
Quantification of Bird Migration Using Doppler Weather Surveillance Radars (NEXRAD) Mirzaei, G., et al. April 2013 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Fuzzy Clustering in Avian Infrared Imagery Application Mirzaei, G., et al. June 2014 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Avian detection & tracking algorithm using infrared imaging Mirzaei, G., et al. May 2012 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Estimates and Correlates of Bird and Bat Mortality at Small Wind Turbine Sites Minderman, J., et al. March 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Understanding Landscape Patterns of Temporal Variability in Avian Populations to Improve Environmental Impact Assessments Milne, R., Bennett, L. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Assessing Risk to Birds from Industrial Wind Energy Development via Paired Resource Selection Models Miller, T., et al. January 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Review of Raptor Sections of the Bluestone Wind Avian Risk Assessment Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assess risk of individual turbines to Golden Eagles Miller, T. March 2019 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Patterns of Avian and Bat Mortality at a Utility-Scaled Wind Farm on the Southern High Plains Miller, A. August 2008 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Experimental Evidence for the Effect of Small Wind Turbine Proximity and Operation on Bird and Bat Activity Miderman, J., et al. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Effect of wind turbines on bird abundance: A national scale analysis based on fixed effects models Miao, R., et al. September 2019 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
New Zealand Falcon Monitoring and Risk Assessment, Hurunui Wind Farm Meridian Energy January 2012 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Raptors
Putting Aeolus to work without the death toll: federal wind farm siting guidelines can mitigate avian and Chiropteran mortality Mensing, B. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Bats, Birds, Raptors
The Effects of Aero-Generators on Moorland Bird Populations in the Orkney Islands, Scotland Meek, E., et al. January 1993 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds, Seabirds
An Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Ireland Mee, A. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
The possible impact of wind power generators on flying birds Mead, C. January 1982 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Effects of Wind Energy Development on Nesting Ecology of Greater Prairie-Chickens in Fragmented Grasslands McNew, L., et al. March 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds
Moving Towards Best Practice for Bird Mortality Mitigation in Wind Power Planning, Sweden McNally, R. May 2015 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Automated monitoring for birds in flight: Proof of concept with eagles at a wind power facility McClure, C., Marinson, L., Allison, T. August 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
State of the World's Raptors: Distributions, Threats, and Conservation Recommendations McClure, C., et al. November 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
A Preliminary Overview of Monitoring for Raptors in Croatia Mazal, V., Mikulic, K. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Do birds in flight respond to (ultra)violet lighting? May, R., et al. December 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind N/A Birds
Habitat Utilization in White-Tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Displacement Impact of the Smøla Wind-Power Plant May, R., et al. March 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement Birds
Turbine Induced Bird and Bat Fatalities at Wind Projects: Statistical Methods for Mortality Estimation Using Road and Pad Carcass Surveys Maurer, J. August 2017 Thesis Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
How do diurnal long-distance migrants select flight altitude in relation to wind? Mateos-Rodriguez, M., Liechti, F. March 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Passerines, Raptors, Shorebirds
Biodiversity & Wind Energy: A Bird's and Bat's Perspective Mascarenhas, M., et al. January 2015 Book Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Effects of wind farms and food scarcity on a large scavenging bird species following an epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy Martinez-Abrain, A., et al. November 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds, Raptors, Ecosystem Processes
Potential impact of wind farms on territories of large eagles in southeastern Spain Martinez, J., et al. December 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Bird Collisions with Power Lines: Failing to See the Way Ahead? Martin, G., Shaw, J. November 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Visual Fields, Foraging and Collision Vulnerability in Gyps Vultures Martin, G., Portugal, S., Murn, C. July 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
An Ecological Risk Assessment of Wind Energy Development in Montana Martin, B., Pearson, A., Bauer, B. January 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Impact of wind farms on soaring bird populations at a migratory bottleneck Martin, B., et al. June 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Wind Industry in Portugal and Its Impacts on Wildlife: Special Focus on Spatial and Temporal Distribution on Bird and Bat Fatalities Marqués, J., et al. September 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Final Environmental Impact Statement: Kenetech/Pacificorp Windpower Project, Carbon County, Wyoming Mariah Associates August 1995 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Impacts to Birds and Bats Due to Collisions and Electrocutions from Some Tall Structures in the United States: Wires, Towers, Turbines, and Solar Arrays - State of the Art in Addressing the Problems Manville, A. January 2016 Book Chapter Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Towers, Turbines, Power Lines, and Buildings-Steps Being Taken by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to Avoid or Minimize Take of Migratory Birds at these Structures Manville, A. October 2009 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Habitat Change Birds
Red Kite Mammen, K., Mammen, U., Resetaritz, A. April 2017 Book Chapter Land-Based Wind, Offshore Wind Attraction, Habitat Change Birds, Raptors
Reproductive success of Horned Lark and McCown's Longspur in relation to wind energy infrastructure Mahoney, A., Chalfoun, A. May 2016 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Passerines
Animal Behavioral Adaptation to Changing Landscapes: Spring-Staging Geese Habituate to Wind Farms Madsen, J., Boertmann, D. November 2008 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Waterfowl
Upland Raptors and the Assessment of Wind Farm Impacts Madders, M., Whitfield, D. March 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds, Raptors
Golden Eagles in a Multiple Land-Use Environment: A Case Study in Conflict Management Madders, M., Walker, D. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Raptors
Critical Literature Review Impact of Wind Energy and Related Human Activities on Grassland and Shrub-Steppe Birds Mabey, S., Paul, E. October 2007 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
A Radar Study of Nocturnal Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Hatchet Ridge Wind Project, California, Fall 2007 Mabee, T., Sanzenbacher, P. February 2008 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Passerines
A Radar and Visual Study of Nocturnal Bird and Bat Migration at the Proposed Flat Rock Wind Power Project, New York, Fall 2004 Mabee, T., Plissner, J., Cooper, B. March 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Passerines
Nocturnal Bird Migration Over an Appalachian Ridge at a Proposed Wind Power Project Mabee, T., et al. October 2006 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
A Radar Study of Nocturnal Bird Migration at the Proposed Mount Storm Wind Power Development, West Virginia, Fall 2003 Mabee, T., Cooper, B., Plissner, J. March 2004 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Passerines
Guidelines for Assessing the Potential Impacts to Birds and Bats from Wind Energy Development in Northern Arizona and the Southern Colorado Plateau Lynn, J., Auberle, W. February 2009 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Comprehensive Renewable Energy Feasibility Study for Sealaska Corporation: Report September 2002 through December 2005 Lynette, R. December 2005 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Breeding Bird Surveys Arkwright Summit Wind Project Chautauqua County, New York Lukins, W., Young, D., Bay, K. November 2013 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Research Program Concerning the Social and Environmental Aspects Related to the Windfarm Project of SEP Lubbers, F. January 1988 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Estimates of Bird Collision Mortality at Wind Facilities in the Contiguous United States of America Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. December 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Direct human-caused mortality of birds: improving quantification of magnitude and assessment of population impact Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. September 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Direct Mortality of Birds from Anthropogenic Causes Loss, S., Will, T., Marra, P. December 2015 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement, Habitat Change Birds
Insect Attraction to Wind Turbines: Does Colour Play a Role? Long, C., Flint, J., Lepper, P. April 2011 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction Bats, Birds, Invertebrates
Effect of wind energy development on breeding duck densities in the Prairie Pothole Region Loesch, C., et al. December 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Windfarm Design in the Light of Previous Experience Lloyd, A. January 1997 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds
Assessing the Influence of Wind Turbines and Land-use on Mortality Risk of Avian Species on the Llano Estacado with Emphasis on Birds of Prey Linner, K. December 2014 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision, Displacement Birds
Whirly Birds Linn, A. March 1995 Magazine Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds, Raptors
Guidelines for Wind Power and Wildlife in Washington State, USA Ling, S., Linehan, A. January 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting LGL April 1995 Conference Paper Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Birds
Proceedings of the National Avian - Wind Power Planning Meeting II LGL January 1996 Conference Paper Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
Greening the Wind: Environmental and Social Considerations for Wind Power Development Ledec, G., Rapp, K., Aiello, R. December 2011 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind N/A Bats, Birds, Ecosystem Processes, Human Dimensions, Social & Economic Data
Effects of Wind Turbines on Upland Nesting Birds in Conservation Reserve Program Grasslands Leddy, K., Higgins, K., Naugle, D. September 1999 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change, Noise Birds, Passerines
Analysis of the Overlap between Priority Greater Sage-Grouse Habitats and Existing and Potential Energy Development Across the West: Final Report LeBeau, C., Fruhwirth, J., Boehrs, J. October 2014 Report Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Effects of a Wind Energy Development on Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Selection and Population Demographics in Southeastern Wyoming LeBeau, C., et al. January 2016 Report Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Selection, Survival, and Wind Energy Infrastructure LeBeau, C., et al. April 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Greater sage‐grouse male lek counts relative to a wind energy development LeBeau, C., et al. March 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Static Device Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Short-Term Impacts of Wind Energy Development on Greater Sage-Grouse Fitness LeBeau, C., et al. April 2014 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Habitat Change Birds
Evaluation of Greater Sage-Grouse Reproductive Habitat and Response to Wind Energy Development in South-Central, Wyoming LeBeau, C. April 2012 Thesis Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Displacement Birds, Ground-Nesting Birds
Environmental Effects of Small Wind Energy Conversion Systems (SWECS) Lawrence, K., Strojan, C. January 1980 Book Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Attraction, Avoidance, Collision Birds
Effects of Wind Turbines and Other Physical Elements on Field Utilization by Pink-Footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus): A Landscape Perspective Larsen, J., Madsen, J. December 2000 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Habitat Change Birds, Waterfowl
Potential Wind Park Impacts on Whooper Swans in Winter: The Risk of Collision Larsen, J., Clausen, P. January 2002 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Waterfowl
Impacts of onshore wind energy production on birds and bats: recommendations for future life cycle impact assessment developments Laranjeiro, T., May, R., Verones, F. February 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds
Impacts of wind turbines on redheads in the Laguna Madre Lange, C., Ballard, B., Collins, D. January 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance Birds, Waterfowl, Nearfield Habitat
A Bridge Between Oceans: Overland Migration of Marine Birds in a Wind Energy Corridor Lamb, J., et al. February 2017 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Seabirds
Impact of wind turbines on birds: a case study from Gujarat, India Kumar, S., Ali, A., Arun, P. August 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds
The return of the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) to northern Germany: Modelling the past to predict the future Kruger, O., Grunkorn, T., Struwe-Juhl, B. March 2010 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Satellite Tracking of White-Tailed Sea Eagles in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Brandenburg Krone, O., Treu, G., Grunkorn, T. April 2017 Book Chapter Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Collision Birds, Raptors
Movement patterns of white‐tailed sea eagles near wind turbines Krone, O., Treu, G. September 2018 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Two White-Tailed Sea Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) Collide with Wind Generators in Northern Germany Krone, O., Scharnweber, C. March 2003 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Collision Risk of Birds with Modern Large Wind Turbines Krijgsveld, K., et al. October 2009 Journal Article Wind Energy (General), Land-Based Wind Avoidance, Collision Birds
Raptors in Bosnia and Herzegovina - their status and perspectives for monitoring development Kotrosan, D., Hatibovic, E. January 2012 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind N/A Birds, Raptors
Estimating Bat and Bird Mortality Occurring at Wind Energy Turbines from Covariates and Carcass Searches Using Mixture Models Korner-Nievergelt, F., et al. July 2013 Journal Article Wind Energy general, Land-Based Wind Dynamic Device Bats, Birds

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