Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Typessort descending Stressors Receptors
Optimising Array Form for Energy Extraction and Environmental Benefit (EBAO) Smith, H. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general Noise Ecosystem
ORJIP Ocean Energy: The Forward Look; an Ocean Energy Environmental Research Strategy for the UK ORJIP July 2015 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Socio-economics
Testing the Effectiveness of an Acoustic Deterrent for Grey Whales Along the Oregon Coast Lagerquist, B., Windsor, M., Mate, B. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
A Validation of the dBht as a Measure of the Behavioural and Auditory Effects of Underwater Noise Nedwell, J., et al. October 2007 Report Marine Energy general Noise N/A
Addressing the Effects of Human-Generated Sound on Marine Life: An Integrated Research Plan for US Federal Agencies Southall, B., et al. January 2009 Report Marine Energy general Noise Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Effects of Noise on Fish, Fisheries, and Invertebrates in the U.S. Atlantic and Arctic from Energy Industry Sound-Generating Activities Hawkins, A., Popper, A. February 2012 Report Marine Energy general Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Final Results for Representative MHK Turbine Acoustic Predictions under Operating Conditions Johnson, E., Barone, M. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general Noise N/A
Lethal and Physical Injury of Marine Mammals and Requirements for Passive Acoustic Monitoring Parvin, S., Nedwell, J., Harland, E. February 2007 Report Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Report to Congress on the Potential Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies US Department of Energy December 2009 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Scotland's Marine Atlas: Information for the National Marine Plan Baxter, J., et al. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of MHK Energy Copping, A., et al. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Technical Guidance for Assessment and Mitigation of the Hydroacoustic Effects of Pile Driving on Fish Oestman, R., et al. February 2009 Report Marine Energy general Noise Fish
Underwater Active Acoustic Monitoring Network For Marine And Hydrokinetic Energy Projects Stein, P., Edson, P. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general Noise Marine Mammals
Conceptual Models of Potential Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Impacts on Biological Resources Grippo, M., Hlohowskyj, I. October 2012 Report Marine Energy general EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
MERiFIC 3.3.1: Collaborative Field Study Programme Sotta, C., Witt, M., Le Niliot, P. February 2014 Report Marine Energy general Noise Ecosystem, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Underwater Noise Study Supporting Scottish Executive Strategic Environmental Assessment for Marine Renewables Richards, S., Harland, E., Jones, S. January 2007 Report Marine Energy general Noise Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
D4.7 Best Practice Report on Environmental Monitoring and New Study Techniques Norris, J., et al. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device N/A
Underwater Noise Assessment in the Messina Strait - Italy Nauta-rcs, CIBRA October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current Noise N/A
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Final Environmental Impact Statement National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration July 1981 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Assessing Potential Physical, Chemical and Biological Impacts and Risks Coastal Response Research Center June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Fall of Warness Tidal Test Site: Additional Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise N/A
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1: Environmental Statement MeyGen January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Fairhead Tidal Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Document McGrath, C. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon Adaptive Environmental Management Plan N/A November 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Fishing, Recreation
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2016 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine April 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Effects Monitoring Program Annual Report 2017 FORCE January 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Effects Monitoring Report 2011-2013 FORCE January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
RITE Monitoring of Environmental Effects (RMEE) Reports (DRAFT ver. Mar 2016) RITE Project (FERC No. P-12611) Smith, R. March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Noise Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Marine Mammal Behavioral Response to Tidal Turbine Sound Polagye, B., et al. June 2018 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Admiralty Inlet Final License Application Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2012 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Detection of Tidal Turbine Noise: A Pre-Installation Case Study for Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound Polagye, B., et al. February 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
Effects Of Tidal Turbine Noise On Fish Hearing And Tissues Halvorsen, M., Carlson, T., Copping, A. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish
Environmental Scoping Report Westray South Tidal Array SSE Renewables October 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Final Report on the Acoustic, Marine Mammal and Bird Monitoring Studies During Phase 1 Pile Driving Activities ORPC Maine June 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Birds, Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Measurement and Assessment of Background Underwater Noise and its Comparison with Noise from Pin Pile Drilling Operations During Installation of the SeaGen Tidal Turbine Device, Strangford Lough Nedwell, J., Brooker, A. September 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Pilot Installation of Tidal Current Turbine in Kvalsundet, Tromsø County, Norway - Status and Possible Consequences for the Environment Systad, G., et al. December 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Potential Impacts of, and Mitigation Strategies for, Small-Scale Tidal Generation Projects on Coastal Marine Ecosystems in the Bay of Fundy Fisheries and Oceans Canada December 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Proposed Torr Head Tidal Scheme Environmental Scoping Report THETIS Energy September 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
SeaGen Environmental Monitoring Programme: Final Report Keenan, G., et al. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Sound of Islay Environmental Statement ScottishPower Renewables July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Study of the Acoustic Effects of Hydrokinetic Tidal Turbine in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound Collar, C., et al. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Summary Report on Environmental Monitoring Related to the Pearson College - ENCANA - Clean Current Tidal Power Demonstration Project at Race Rocks Ecological Reserve Thuringer, P., Reidy, R. December 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2013 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
The Use of Acoustic Devices to Warn Marine Mammals of Tidal-Stream Energy Devices Wilson, B., Carter, C. September 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Marine Mammals
The Kyle Rhea Tidal Stream Array Volume II: Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning, Sea Generation (Kyle Rhea) Ltd. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Aesthetics, Fishing, Recreation, Stakeholder Engagement
Environmental Monitoring Report - 2011 Installation of Monopile at Voith Hydro Test Berth, Fall of Warness, Orkney Aquatera November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise N/A
Shapinsay Sound Tidal Test Site: Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Noise N/A
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Assessment of Tidal and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies in Canada Fisheries and Oceans Canada November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Birds and Wave & Tidal Stream Energy: An Ecological Review McCluskie, A., Langston, R., Wilkinson, N. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of Tidal and Wave Energy Technology in Canada Isaacman, L., Lee, K. November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development around the World: Annex IV Final Report Copping, A., et al. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
Guernsey Regional Environmental Assessment of Marine Energy Guernsey Renewable Energy Team July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Tidal Technologies: Key Issues Across Planning and Development for Environmental Regulators Bell, M., Side, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
Literature Review on the Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields and Subsea Noise from Marine Renewable Energy Developments on Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel Gill, A., Bartlett, M. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF, Noise Fish
Scottish Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Environmental Report Faber Maunsell, Metoc PLC March 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Scoping Study: Review of Current Knowledge of Underwater Noise Emissions from Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices Robinson, S., Lepper, P. August 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Noise N/A
D4.17 Report on environmental monitoring protocols Magagna, D., et al. May 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
Scapa Flow Wave Test Site: Acoustic Characterisation Harland, E. February 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Measuring Changes in Ambient Noise Levels from the Installation and Operation of a Surge Wave Energy Converter in the Coastal Ocean Henkel, S., Haxel, J. October 2017 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
40MW Oyster Wave Array North West Coast, Isle of Lewis Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Developing Wave Energy in Coastal California: Potential Socio-Economic and Environmental Effects Nelson, P., et al. October 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Offshore Wave Power in the US: Environmental Issues Hagerman, G., Bedard, R. December 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Oyster 2 Wave Energy Project Environmental Statement Aquamarine Power June 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Protocol to Develop an Environmental Impact Study of Wave Energy Converters Bald, J., et al. May 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Wave Hub Environmental Statement South West of England Regional Development Agency June 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise Birds, Seabirds, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
West Orkney South Wave Energy Site Environmental Scoping Report RSK Environment March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Acoustic Environmental Monitoring - Wello Penguin Cooling System Noise Study Beharie, R., Side, J. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Acoustic Noise Measurement Methodology for the Billia Croo Wave Energy Test Site Lepper, P., et al. November 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Annex A: Summary of Operational Underwater Noise from a Wave Energy Converter System at the EMEC Wave Energy Test Site May 2011: Comparison of Pelamis System Operational and Baseline Noise Measurements Lepper, P., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
Assessment of Underwater Noise Generated by Wave Energy Devices Austin, M., et al. December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Noise N/A
OSPAR request to advise on the current state and knowledge of studies into the deployment and environmental impacts of wet renewable technologies and marine energy storage systems N/A April 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal, Noise Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics, Aesthetics
Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy Wilhelmsson, D., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Marine Renewable Energy: A Global Review of the Extent of Marine Renewable Energy Developments, the Developing Technologies and Possible Conservation Implications for Cetaceans James, V. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
The Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals Boyd, I., et al. June 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Ocean Noise: Turn it down - A report on ocean noise pollution McKenna, C., International Fund for Animal Welfare June 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
MERiFIC 3.2.1: Documentary Summary of the Environmental Impact of Renewable Marine Energy Sotta, C. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Quieting Technologies for Reducing Noise During Seismic Surveying and Pile Driving Workshop CSA Ocean Sciences March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Noise N/A
MR8.1 Tests of Acoustic Signals for Aversive Sound Mitigation with Harbour Seals Gordon, J., et al. July 2015 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Underwater Hearing Sensitivity of the Leatherback Sea Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea): Assessing the Potential Effect of Anthropogenic Noise Piniak, W., et al. September 2012 Report N/A Noise Sea Turtles
Technical Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammal Hearing: Underwater Acoustic Thresholds for Onset of Permanent and Temporary Threshold Shifts National Marine Fisheries Service July 2016 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals
2018 Revisions to: Technical Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammal Hearing (Version 2.0): Underwater Thresholds for Onset of Permanent and Temporary Threshold Shifts National Marine Fisheries Service April 2018 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Fish and Marine Mammal Audiograms: A summary of available information Nedwell, J., et al. September 2004 Report N/A Noise Fish, Marine Mammals
Environmental Effects Monitoring Program 2018 Annual Report FORCE December 2018 Report N/A Noise Seabirds, Farfield Environment, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Assessment of Basic Audiometric Functions in Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) at Loro Parque, Tenerife, Spain Lucke, K., Finneran, J., Houser, D. March 2013 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Compliance Monitoring Of Underwater Blasting For Rock Removal At Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Carlson, T., et al. May 2011 Report N/A Noise Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Effects of Seismic Shooting on Catch and Catch-Availability of Cod and Haddock Engas, A., et al. August 1993 Report N/A Noise Fish
Making the Case for the Sound Management of Marine Protected Areas Bell, E., et al. January 2011 Report N/A Noise N/A
Marine Mammal Monitoring Plan: San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge East Span Seismic Safety Project Caltrans February 2004 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Marine Mammals and Noise: A Sound Approach to Research and Management Marine Mammal Commission March 2007 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Naval Base Kitsap at Bangor Trident Support Facilities Explosive Handling Wharf (EHW-2) Project: Acoustic Monitoring Report Navy Strategic Systems Programs May 2013 Report N/A Noise N/A
Seismic Survey Mitigation Measures and Marine Mammal Observer Reports Barkaszi, M., et al. June 2012 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Case Study: The Royal Norwegian Navy Underwater Acoustic Noise Measurement of Vessels Brüel & Kjær January 2009 Report N/A Noise Socio-economics, Navigation
Underwater Sound Levels Associated with Pile Driving at the Cape Disappointment Boat Launch Facility, Wave Barrier Project Laughlin, J. March 2006 Report N/A Noise N/A
Draft Guidance for Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Sound on Marine Mammals: Acoustic Threshold Levels for Onset of Permanent and Temporary Threshold Shifts National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration December 2013 Report N/A Noise Marine Mammals
Monitoring Guidance for Underwater Noise in European Seas Dekeling, R., et al. May 2013 Report N/A Noise N/A

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