Knowledge Base

The Knowledge Base provides access to information about the environmental effects of marine and wind energy, supporting OES-Environmental and WREN initiatives. Relevant documents and OES-Environmental metadata forms are compiled into a user-friendly table with advanced filtering. Filters may be selected on the right, or keywords entered in the Search Text box. Content may also be sorted alphabetically by clicking on column headers. More entries will load as you scroll down.


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Title Author* Date** Type of Content Technology Types Stressorssort descending Receptors
Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Grandelli, P., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals Nearfield Habitat
Screening for Biofouling and Corrosion of Tidal Energy Device Materials: In-Situ Results for Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington Polagye, B., Thomson, J. April 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Chemicals Nearfield Habitat
Pathways of Effects for Offshore Renewable Energy in Canada Isaacman, L., Daborn, G. December 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Lighting, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Admiralty Inlet Final License Application Snohomish County Public Utility District No. 1 March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Current State of Knowledge on the Environmental Impacts of Tidal and Wave Energy Technology in Canada Isaacman, L., Lee, K. November 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat
Scottish Marine Renewables Strategic Environmental Assessment Environmental Report Faber Maunsell, Metoc PLC March 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System - Environmental Effects of MHK Energy Copping, A., et al. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
MERiFIC 3.2.1: Documentary Summary of the Environmental Impact of Renewable Marine Energy Sotta, C. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Fish, Nearfield Habitat
Birds and Wave & Tidal Stream Energy: An Ecological Review McCluskie, A., Langston, R., Wilkinson, N. January 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Raptors, Seabirds, Shorebirds
Tidal Technologies: Key Issues Across Planning and Development for Environmental Regulators Bell, M., Side, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Socio-economics
D4.17 Report on environmental monitoring protocols Magagna, D., et al. May 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Environmental Impacts NOAA Office of Ocean & Coastal Resource Management January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF Ecosystem, Nearfield Habitat
Scotland's Marine Atlas: Information for the National Marine Plan Baxter, J., et al. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general Chemicals, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Marine Renewable Energy: A Global Review of the Extent of Marine Renewable Energy Developments, the Developing Technologies and Possible Conservation Implications for Cetaceans James, V. November 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Assessing Potential Physical, Chemical and Biological Impacts and Risks Coastal Response Research Center June 2010 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, EMF, Noise, Static Device Ecosystem, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals, Reptiles
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Environmental Effects Assessment Program Plan, 1981-85 NOAA Office of Ocean Minerals and Energy June 1982 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Energy Removal, Static Device N/A
Guide to the OCS Alternative Energy Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) US Deparment of the Interior, Minerals Management Service October 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Final Environmental Impact Statement National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration July 1981 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Noise, Static Device Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Assessment and Control of OTEC Ecological Impacts Wilde, P., Sandusky, J., Jassby, A. December 1978 Report Marine Energy general, OTEC Chemicals, Static Device Socio-economics, Legal and Policy
Assessment of Risk to Marine Mammals from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Marine Mammals and Risks from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters Wilson, B., Gordon, J. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Collision, Habitat Change Marine Mammals
Evaluating Effects of Stressors - Fiscal Year 2010 Progress Report: Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Anderson, R., Copping, A., Van Cleve, F. November 2010 Report Marine Energy general Collision, Habitat Change Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Marine Mammals
An Estimation Of Survival And Injury Of Fish Passed Through The Hydro Green Energy Hydrokinetic System, And A Characterization Of Fish Entrainment Potential At The Mississippi Lock And Dam No. 2 Hydroelectric Projects Normandeau Associates December 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Assessment of Strike of Adult Killer Whales by an OpenHydro Tidal Turbine Blade Carlson, T., et al. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Avian Radar Baseline Study: Final Survey Report for the Proposed Reedsport Ocean Power Technologies Wave Park Geo-Marine April 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds
Collision Risk of Fish with Wave and Tidal Devices ABP Marine Environmental Research July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Fish
Collision Risks Between Marine Renewable Energy Devices and Mammals, Fish and Diving Birds Wilson, B., et al. March 2007 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Environmental Assessment for Mississippi River Lock and Dam No. 2 Hydroelectric Project City of Hastings September 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics
Environmental Effects of Hydrokinetic Turbines on Fish: Desktop and Laboratory Flume Studies Jacobson, P., et al. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Fish
Estimation of the Risks of Collision or Strike to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms Resulting from Operation of Instream Hydrokinetic Turbines Schweizer, P., Cada, G., Bevelhimer, M. May 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Evaluation of Blade-Strike Models for Estimating the Biological Performance of Large Kaplan Turbines Deng, Z., et al. November 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Evaluation of Fish-Injury Mechanisms During Exposure to a High-Velocity Jet Guensch, G., Mueller, R., Dauble, D. November 2002 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Fish
Evaluation of Fish Injury and Mortality Associated with Hydrokinetic Turbines Amaral, S., et al. November 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Fish Passage Through Turbines: Application of Conventional Hydropower Data to Hydrokinetic Technologies Electric Power Research Institute October 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Laboratory Studies on the Effects of Shear on Fish Nietzel, D., et al. September 2000 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Simulating Collisions for Hydrokinetic Turbines Richmond, M., Romero-Gomez, P., Rakowski, C. October 2013 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Fish
Comparison of Blade-Strike Modeling Results with Empirical Data Ploskey, G., Carlson, T. March 2004 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
A Diving Bird Collision Risk Assessment Framework for Tidal Turbines Grant, M., Trinder, M., Harding, N. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds
Annex I: Movements and Diving Behaviour of Juvenile Grey Seals in Areas of High Tidal Energy Thompson, D. July 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
MR7.2.1 Collision Risk: A Brief Review of Available Information on Behaviour of Mammals and Birds in High Tidal Energy Areas Onoufriou, J., Thompson, D. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Birds, Marine Mammals
MR7.2.2 Collision Risk and Impact Study: Examination of Models for Estimating the Risk of Collisions Between Seals and Tidal Turbines Lonergan, M., Thompson, D. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
MR7.2.3 Collision Risk and Impact Study: Field Tests of Turbine Blade-Seal Carcass Collisions Thompson, D., et al. July 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Estimates of Collision Risk of Harbour Porpoises and Marine Renewable Energy Devices at Sites of High Tidal-Stream Energy Wilson, B., et al. November 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans
Data Based Estimates of Collision Risk: An Example Based on Harbour Seal Tracking Data around a Proposed Tidal Turbine Array in the Pentland Firth Thompson, D., et al. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Assessment of Collision Risk for Seals and Tidal Stream Turbines Davies, I., Thompson, F. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Assessing collision risk between underwater turbines and marine wildlife Scottish Natural Heritage May 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device N/A
Laboratory Experiments on the Effects of Blade Strike from Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies on Larval and Juvenile Freshwater Fishes Schweizer, P., Cada, G., Bevelhimer, M. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Dynamic Device Fish
Informing a Tidal Turbine Strike Probability Model through Characterization of Fish Behavioral Response using Multibeam Sonar Output Bevelhimer, M., et al. July 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Refining Estimates of Collision Risk for Harbour Seals and Tidal Turbines Band, B., et al. January 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals, Pinnipeds
Brims Tidal Array Collision Risk Modelling - Atlantic Salmon Xodus Group March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Evaluation of Survival and Behavior of Fish Exposed to an Axial-Flow Hydrokinetic Turbine Amaral, S., Giza, D., McMahon, B. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device Fish
Marine Animal Alert System Task 2.1.5.3 - Development of Monitoring Technologies Final Report Carlson, T., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
Tidal Energy Fish Impact: Method Development to Determine the Impact of Open Water Tidal Energy Converters on Fish Smit, M., et al. December 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Fish
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 1 - Desktop Review of Birds in Welsh Waters and Preliminary Risk Assessment Loughrey, J., et al. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Assessment of Risk to Diving Birds from Underwater Marine Renewable Devices in Welsh Waters: Phase 2 - Field Methodologies and Site Assessments Robinson, C., Cook, G. February 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device Birds, Seabirds, Shorebirds, Waterfowl
Tidal Turbine Collision Detection: A review of the state-of-the-art sensors and imaging systems for detecting mammal collisions Jha, S. May 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device Marine Mammals
West Coast Environmental Protocols Framework: Baseline and Monitoring Studies Klure, J., et al. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
D4.7 Best Practice Report on Environmental Monitoring and New Study Techniques Norris, J., et al. January 2014 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device N/A
Annex IV 2016 State of the Science Report: Environmental Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Development Around the World Copping, A., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Marine Spatial Planning
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2012 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Environmental Effects of Marine Energy Development around the World: Annex IV Final Report Copping, A., et al. January 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Ecosystem, Fish, Marine Mammals
SeaGen Environmental Monitoring Programme: Final Report Keenan, G., et al. January 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
40MW Oyster Wave Array North West Coast, Isle of Lewis Environmental Statement Royal Haskoning March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Ecosystem, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guernsey Regional Environmental Assessment of Marine Energy Guernsey Renewable Energy Team July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Pilot Installation of Tidal Current Turbine in Kvalsundet, Tromsø County, Norway - Status and Possible Consequences for the Environment Systad, G., et al. December 2005 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Cobscook Bay Tidal Energy Project: 2013 Environmental Monitoring Report ORPC Maine March 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
RITE Monitoring of Environmental Effects (RMEE) Reports (DRAFT ver. Mar 2016) RITE Project (FERC No. P-12611) Smith, R. March 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Noise Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat, Sea Turtles
ORJIP Ocean Energy: The Forward Look; an Ocean Energy Environmental Research Strategy for the UK ORJIP July 2015 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Noise, Static Device Socio-economics
Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy (RITE) Environmental Assessment Project Adonizio, M., Smith, R. March 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish
Intersectoral Assessment of Impacts on Seabirds - Baseline Report for an Integrated Management Plan for the North Sea and Skagerrak Gasbjerg, G., et al. August 2011 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Birds, Seabirds
Tracking Marine Mammals Around Marine Renewable Energy Devices Using Active Sonar Hastie, G. July 2013 Report Marine Energy general Dynamic Device, Static Device Marine Mammals, Cetaceans, Pinnipeds
Worldwide Synthesis and Analysis of Existing Information Regarding Environmental Effects of Alternative Energy Uses on the Outer Continental Shelf Michel, J., et al. July 2007 Report Marine Energy general, Ocean Current, OTEC, Wave, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Dynamic Device, Static Device Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Farfield Environment, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics
Interactions of Aquatic Animals with the ORPC OCGen in Cobscook Bay, Maine: Monitoring Behavior Change and Assessing the Probability of Encounter with a Deployed MHK Device Zydlewski, G., et al. October 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Dynamic Device, Static Device Fish
Working Group on Marine Benthal Renewable Developments Vanaverbeke, J., et al. January 2019 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Dynamic Device, Static Device N/A
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates - FY2012 Progress Report Woodruff, D., et al. May 2013 Report Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Marine Species: A Literature Review Slater, M. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish, Marine Mammals
Effects on Freshwater Organisms of Magnetic Fields Associated with Hydrokinetic Turbines Cada, G., et al. July 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Electromagnetic Field Study Slater, M., et al. September 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF N/A
COWRIE 2.0 Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Phase 2: EMF Sensitive Fish Response to EM Emissions from Sub-sea Electricity Cables of the Type used by the Offshore Renewable Energy Industry Gill, A., et al. March 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Fish
MaRVEN - Environmental Impacts of Noise, Vibrations and Electromagnetic Emissions from Marine Renewable Energy Thomsen, F., et al. September 2015 Report Marine Energy general EMF N/A
Renewable Energy in situ Power Cable Observation Love, M., et al. April 2016 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
MeyGen Tidal Energy Project Phase 1 Electromagnetic Fields Best Practice Report Rollings, E. March 2015 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF N/A
Current Ability to Assess Impacts of Electromagnetic Fields Associated with Marine and Hydrokinetic Technologies on Marine Fishes in Hawaii Claisse, J., et al. September 2015 Report Marine Energy general EMF Fish
Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates - FY2010 Progress Report Schultz, I., et al. October 2010 Report Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Assessment of Potential Impact of Electromagnetic Fields from Undersea Cable on Migratory Fish Behavior Kavet, R., et al. September 2016 Report Marine Energy general EMF Fish
Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Impacts on Elasmobranch (shark, rays, and skates) and American Lobster Movement and Migration from Direct Current Cables Hutchison, Z., et al. March 2018 Report Marine Energy general EMF Benthic Invertebrates, Fish
Evaluation of Potential EMF Effects on Fish Species of Commercial or Recreational Fishing Importance in Southern New England Snyder, D., et al. August 2019 Report Marine Energy general EMF Fish, Demersal Fish, Pelagic Fish, Invertebrates, Fisheries
Developing Wave Energy in Coastal California: Potential Socio-Economic and Environmental Effects Nelson, P., et al. October 2008 Report Marine Energy general, Wave EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Socio-economics
Conceptual Models of Potential Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Impacts on Biological Resources Grippo, M., Hlohowskyj, I. October 2012 Report Marine Energy general EMF, Energy Removal, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles
Greening Blue Energy: Identifying and Managing the Biodiversity Risks and Opportunities of Offshore Renewable Energy Wilhelmsson, D., et al. July 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind EMF, Energy Removal, Noise, Static Device Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Literature Review on the Potential Effects of Electromagnetic Fields and Subsea Noise from Marine Renewable Energy Developments on Atlantic Salmon, Sea Trout and European Eel Gill, A., Bartlett, M. January 2010 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal, Wave EMF, Noise Fish
Summary Report on Environmental Monitoring Related to the Pearson College - ENCANA - Clean Current Tidal Power Demonstration Project at Race Rocks Ecological Reserve Thuringer, P., Reidy, R. December 2006 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Seabirds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Nearfield Habitat
Fairhead Tidal Environmental Impact Assessment Scoping Document McGrath, C. December 2013 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles, Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Effects Monitoring Report 2011-2013 FORCE January 2014 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal EMF, Noise Benthic Invertebrates, Birds, Fish, Marine Mammals
Assessment Of Tidal Energy Removal Impacts On Physical Systems: Development Of MHK Module And Analysis Of Effects On Hydrodynamics Yang, Z., Wang, T. September 2011 Report Marine Energy general, Tidal Energy Removal Farfield Environment
Evaluation of the Effects of Turbulence on the Behaviour of Migratory Fish Odeh, M., et al. March 2002 Report Marine Energy general, Riverine Energy Removal Fish
Further Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Wave Fields: A Subsequent Modeling Sensitivity Study in Monterey Bay, CA Magalen, J., et al. December 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Guidance on Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Renewable Energy Development on Surfing Resources and Recreation Surfers Against Sewage June 2009 Report Marine Energy general, Wind Energy general, Offshore Wind Energy Removal Socio-economics, Environmental Impact Assessment, Recreation
Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Near‐Shore Wave Fields: Model Generation, Validation and Evaluation ‐ Kaneohe Bay, HI Roberts, J., Chang, G., Jones, C. March 2012 Report Marine Energy general, Wave Energy Removal Nearfield Habitat
Preliminary Assessment of the Conservation Importance of Benthic Epifaunal Species and Habitats Moore, C. January 2009 Report Marine Energy general Energy Removal Benthic Invertebrates, Nearfield Habitat
SNL-EFDC Simulations of MHK-Related Changes to Tidal Range and Flushing Roberts, J., James, S. September 2012 Report Marine Energy general Energy Removal Farfield Environment, Nearfield Habitat

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