Conventional sources of energy, such as fossil fuels, produce carbon emissions and are depleting as global demand increases. Marine renewable energy (MRE) offers a cleaner way of generating electricity by using waves, tides, currents, and salinity or thermal gradient resources. Although tropical and subtropical regions have a great potential for some of these MRE resources, industry progress in these areas has been slow. One of the main barriers to the development of MRE is the uncertainty surrounding potential environmental and socioeconomic effects. This study focuses on Oaxaca, Mexico, and aims to describe the MRE resources available in the region and provide information on socioeconomic and biological aspects to consider for future MRE development. Off Oaxaca, there is high potential for wave, current, and ocean thermal energy. Local communities, artisanal fishers, and regulatory agencies are key stakeholders to engage with for discussing important habitats, species presence along the coast, potential socioeconomic impacts, and public acceptance. In the area offshore of Oaxaca, there are several marine mammal, fish, seabird, and sea turtle species, and critical habitats such as mangroves and coral reefs. Based on the information gathered, potential interactions between MRE devices and the environment in tropical regions are defined.